Presentation on theme: "Writing Without Pencils? A review of Writing with Alternative Pencils Kelly O. Clayton, MSEd, Special Education Teacher Ynez Peterson, OTR/L, Assistive."— Presentation transcript:
Writing Without Pencils? A review of Writing with Alternative Pencils Kelly O. Clayton, MSEd, Special Education Teacher Ynez Peterson, OTR/L, Assistive Technology Specialist REACH Program/SECEP VOTA Annual Conference 2007
Partner Assisted Strategies Eye Pointing/Eye Gazing Partner Assisted Scanning Auditory Scanning Visual Scanning Are helpful for individuals who are unable to hold a pencil, point, or physically manipulate a keyboard.
Writing with Alternative Pencils! Activities fostering emergent literacy skills
Teaching emergent literacy skills teaches Communication skills
Writing with Alternative Pencils! Developed by Karen Erickson, Ph. D and Gretchen Hanser, OTR Designed for students with significant disabilities, including deaf-blindness Provides opportunities to actively engage students in emergent writing and literacy-based activities
Six Alternative Pencils 1.Braille Alphabet Flip Chart 2.Braille Alphabet IntelliKeys Overlay 3.Color Coded Eye Gaze Frame 4.Print Alphabet Flip Chart 5.Tactual Alphabet Intellikeys Overlay 6.Scanning Setups in IntelliTalk II
Alternative Pencil #4: Print Alphabet Flip Chart The Alphabet Flip Chart is intended for students who have some vision, as well as significant motor difficulties. This light tech pencil is often used by students who are switch users and are unable to hold a pencil or physically manipulate a keyboard. This pencil is used with the support of a partner/helper and is accessed by the student through “partner assisted scanning.” The partner also records the student’s writing. Hearing is not required to use the Flip Chart. There are upper case and lower case versions.
Alternative Pencil #3: Color Coded Eye Gaze Frame The color coded eye gaze frame is intended for students who have some degree of vision, as well as significant motor difficulties. It is often used by students who are switch users and are unable to hold a pencil or physically manipulate a keyboard. This pencil is used with a partner who interprets the student’s eye gazes and records their writing. Letters are organized in color coded groups.
Can be used while side lying, sitting, standing, prone, and kneeling. Uses a “Smart Partner” who can read subtle cues and adjust interaction as needed. Alternative Pencils
REACH Program Students’ Writing Samples Student SW 09/07/06 E H M L O U R A A (asked to find these specific letters) 09/08/06 O T D U Y Y T L E A W O 11/20/06 L L L S S R A O U L B M U L S 11/22/06 L O S T L A R O L A S L S R A 12/01/06 B R M E X/Y L A R O U Student AH 10/27/06 M O M A M M U O M 11/15/06 R A M L O H G K L O Student SA 09/13/06 B M S S S O I 10/20/06 O R B D A S U R O M 11/15/06 B L K D A S U R A O 12/01/06 R B S U R O A S S R B M A F G
Emergent Literacy Development Typically developing children explore and play with books, sing, listen to stories, and scribble as building blocks for language and literacy development. Students with significant disabilities have fewer and qualitatively different emergent literacy experiences than their typically developing peers.
Making circles Writing her name Typical Emergent Writing samples
Emergent Writing Samples SW: 09/07/06 E H M L O U R A A 09/08/06 O T D U Y Y T L E A W O 11/20/06 L L L S S R A O U L B M U L S 11/22/06 L O S T L A R O L A S L S R A 12/01/06 B R M E X/Y L A R O U 3 year old RD
Emergent Literacy Development Students with significant disabilities need to understand how print and symbols work and how they can be used as a means of communication. From using these devices, we have seen that if a student can demonstrate understanding to others, then improved communicative interactions will follow.
How can Occupational Therapists use these devices with students? Use as designed for emergent writing activities Use as a tool for assessing eye gaze and scanning abilities for functional activities; observing behaviors that can be used for communication (assessing meaning) Use as a back up for high tech devices if device breaks or student is tired
References: Linda J. Burkhart, (February 27, 2007). Partner-Assisted Communication Strategies for Children Who Face Multiple Challenges. www.lburkhart.com/hand_partner_assist.pdf “Early literacy." BrainWonders & Sharing Books with Babies. [cited 30 January 2007]. www.zerotothree.org/Brainwonders/EarlyLiteracy/earlyliteracy.pdf Erickson, K. A., & Hanser, G. (2004). Writing with alternative pencils [CD]. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Literacy & Disability Studies, University of North Carolina. (Available from www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds) Hanser, G. (2006, March). Fostering emergent writing for children with significant disabilities: Writing with alternative pencils. AOTA, Technology Special Interest Section Quarterly, 16, 1-4. Norfolk Public Schools AT Team (2001). “The IEP Team’s Handbook for Assistive Technology Considerations, (A Guide for Decision Making)” Thanks for attending this session. Contact info: firstname.lastname@example.org