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Elements of the Policy Agenda for Higher Education Alabama Association for Institutional Research April 4, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of the Policy Agenda for Higher Education Alabama Association for Institutional Research April 4, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements of the Policy Agenda for Higher Education Alabama Association for Institutional Research April 4, 2008

2 Access: All students should have access to public post-secondary education Equity: Barriers to participation should be removed Affordability: Federal, state, and institutional financial aid policies should promote affordable access to post-secondary education Quality: Students should have the highest quality educational system affordable to them Public Service: Institutions should provide services to local communities to support broad societal needs Research and Economic Development: Institutions serve as the driver of the current economy and vehicle for expansion of the knowledge economy. Public Purposes of Higher Education West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

3 Nation at Risk Measuring Up College Board affordability reports US News Rankings Spellings Commissions NCSL report Rising Above the Gathering Storm What is the new role of higher education and what are the top challenges facing the academe? Changing Expectations for Higher Education West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

4 Price of Tuition Student Aid Policy Access and Success Accountability and Student Learning Consumer Information Responsibilities for Nonprofit Governance Tax Policy Scientific Research America's Competitiveness Aligning Educational Goals, PK-20 Public Policy Issues Facing Higher Education in (AGB) West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

5 Public versus private nature of higher education … what are the underlying policy principles Focus on affordability as evidenced through state performance in Measuring Up 2006 and other reports Tuition/fees, student debt, and the shifting sands of higher education finance Spellings Commission and federal calls for tuition protection The emergence of a “perfect storm” and the growing need to link policy mechanisms Issues Facing Higher Education: The Price of Tuition West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

6 Median Tuition & Fees Source: SREB Data Exchange and College Board 2007 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

7 Total Tuition and Fees West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

8 Tuition and Fees - Peer Comparisons Source: The Chronicle of Higher Education West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

9 Shifting Sands: The Increasing Dependency on Tuition Revenues Source: SREB Factbook 2005 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

10 Total Support per FTE (Public Four-Year) Source: SREB Factbook 2007 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

11 Federal aid policy and inherent complications Pell grants and federal focus on workforce needs through the Academic Competitiveness Grants and SMART grants Institutional aid, discounting, and the rising costs of competition Lack of focus on the needs of adult and part-time students Student loan crisis, changing role of guarantee agencies, and direct lending Advent and proliferation of broad-based aid programs Issues Facing Higher Education: Student Aid Policy West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

12 Funding for Student Aid Source: NASSGAP West Virginia ranks 6 th nationally with respect to grant aid per FTE as a result of significant investments in the PROMISE program. West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

13 Cost of Attendance West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Source: SREB Factbook 2007; Measuring up 2006

14 Student Financial Aid and Loan Trends Source: The College Board West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

15 The Increasing Dependency on Student Loans Source: CollegeBoard 2006 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

16 Issues Facing Higher Education: Access and Success West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Access pressures from minority, low-income, and emerging populations Adult students and the non-traditional challenge First generation college students in Appalachia Pressure from private and proprietary institutions The millennial, on-line learners, and changing access expectations Never ending transfer challenges

17 The Policy Focus on Access SREB Factbook 2007 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

18 Age Distribution of College Students Source: SREB Factbook 2007 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

19 A Focus on Non-Traditional Students More than 173,000 West Virginians have some college but no degree More than 127,000 West Virginians have some high school but no degree A post- secondary institution can be found in 9 of the top 20 counties West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

20 The Spelling’s Commission found that ….  Unit level data should be collected and available at the federal level  Third party organizations should be encouraged to publish objective studies  Student learning should be measured using tools such as the Collegiate Learning Assessment and the Measure of Academic Proficiency and Progress  Interstate comparisons should be encouraged on measures such as adult literacy and general skills tests outcomes  Accreditation agencies should examining learning outcomes more closely and share findings among states Issues Facing Higher Education: Accountability and Student Learning West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

21 US News and World Report, Peterson’s and others dominate the landscape Voluntary system of accountability Targeted accent on graduation rates Challenges to accrediting agencies Calls for cost controls and new measures of performance Turn back the clock – Performance Funding re-emerges on the national landscape Need for reform of the general education core National exit exams on the horizon? Implications of the National Focus on Accountability and Student Learning West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

22 Three-Year Graduation Rates at Community Colleges (2005) Source: NCES, IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

23 Six-Year Graduation Rates at Four-Year Colleges (2005) Source: NCES, IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

24 Issues of structure remain constant Institutional flexibility and the Virginia experiment Legislative – gubernatorial tensions Coordination v. Governance Accountability v. Autonomy Challenges of lay board governance and the need for professional development Responsibilities for more effective nonprofit governance Issues Facing Higher Education: Governance West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

25 Federal protections such as the Hope and lifetime learning tax credits The Maine Compact and other state efforts to diversify payments Realization that most credits are back-end … tax credits upon degree completion may not open doors for traditionally disadvantaged groups State tax capacity and the balancing wheel Issues Facing Higher Education: Tax Policy West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

26 State Tax Capacity and Effort Source: State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE GA HI IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MS MT NE NV NJ NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD UT VT VA WA US FL ID MI MN MO NH NM TN TX WV WI WY State Tax Capacity (Total Taxable Resources Per Capita) State Tax Effort (Effective Tax Rate) West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

27 State and Local Surplus as a % of Revenues (Boyd 2005)  All states will face continuing difficulty financing current services with existing revenue structures, and will not have resources for real increases in spending.  A total of 50 states face gaps under these assumptions, with 12 states facing gaps of 7 percent or more of revenue.  While these gaps are smaller than the current crisis-induced gaps in many state budgets that have resulted from swift sharp shifts in the economy and financial markets, they suggest that even after this crisis states and local governments will face continuing stress. West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

28 Global challenges and the China Syndrome Rising Above the Gathering Storm Renewed focus on research at the federal and state levels Kentucky’s bucks for brains efforts STEM fields K-20 issues Teacher education Issues Facing Higher Education: Global Competitiveness and Research West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

29 Differences in College Attainment (Associate and Higher) Between Young and Older Adults—U.S. and OECD Countries, 2004 Source: Education at a Glance 2006, OECD West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

30 Percent of Adults with an Associate Degree or Higher by Age Group - US and Leading OECD Countries (2004) Source: Education at a Glance 2005, OECD West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

31 Educational Pipeline Student Preparation Curricula alignment Remediation Challenges Teacher education Professional development Cultural aspects, outreach, Gear Up PROMISE scholarships Issues Facing Higher Education: Aligning Education K-20 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

32 ACT-SAT Performance West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

33 Percent of Students meeting ACT College Readiness Benchmark Scores (2007) West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission Source: ACT, Inc., 2007

34 Cracks in the Pipeline Source: National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (2004) West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

35 Enrollment of Recent High School Graduates In , there are 18,553 seniors enrolled in public high schools across the state. If participation rates were to increase to the average of the best performing SREB states, WV would expect to see an increase of 2,412 first time freshmen entering higher education. Contextually, this is larger than the entering in-state freshmen class at West Virginia University (2,319 in Fall 2007). SREB Factbook 2007 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

36 High School Graduate Projections: According to SREB, the number of graduates produced by public and private high schools in WV will decrease by 2,836 students from 2000 to Assuming factors remain constant, this will 1,500 fewer freshman, which is comparable to the combined in-state freshman classes at Marshall University and Shepherd University. Source: SREB Factbook West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

37 WV ranked 16th in the SREB in 2005 and 50 th nationally. In order to reach the SREB average, WV must create or import 101,000 college graduates. Educational Attainment - SREB States West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

38 AK AR DE GA HI IL IN IA KS LA ME MD MA MT NE NVNJ NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD VT VA WA US AL CA CO CT FL ID KY MI MN MS MO NH NM TN TX UT wv WI WY $15,000 $22,000 $29,000 $36,000 $43,000 $50, AZ Personal Income Per Capita Percent of Adults Age with Bachelor’s Degrees 1980 Correlation = 0.64 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census’ and American Community Survey Educational Attainment and Income West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

39 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census’ and American Community Survey Educational Attainment and Income AK AR DE GA HI IL IN IA KS LA ME MD MA MT NE NV NJ NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD VT VA WA US AL CA CO CT FL ID KY MI MN MS MO NH NM TN TX UT WV WIWY $15,000 $22,000 $29,000 $36,000 $43,000 $50, AZ 1990 Personal Income Per Capita Percent of Adults Age with Bachelor’s Degrees Correlation = 0.76 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

40 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census’ and American Community Survey Educational Attainment and Income AK AR DE GA HI IL IN IA KS LA ME MD MA MT NE NV NJ NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD VT VA WA US AL CA CO CT FL ID KY MI MN MS MO NH NM TN TX UT WV WIWY $15,000 $22,000 $29,000 $36,000 $43,000 $50, AZ 2000 Personal Income Per Capita Percent of Adults Age with Bachelor’s Degrees Correlation = 0.80 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

41 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census’ and American Community Survey Educational Attainment and Income AK AZ AR DE GA HI IL IN IA KS LA ME MD MA MT NE NV NJ NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD VT VA WA US AL CA CO CT FL ID KY MI MN MS MO NH NM TN TX UT WV WI WY $15,000 $22,000 $29,000 $36,000 $43,000 $50, Personal Income Per Capita Percent of Adults Age with Bachelor’s Degrees Correlation = 0.83 West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

42 Positive job growth (BLS, 2004)  Education and Health Services  Professional & Business Services  Information Technology  Leisure & Hospitality  Transportation & Warehousing  Construction (this is the only “Goods-Producing” industry sector to project growth) Negative job growth (BLS, 2004)  Manufacturing – Textile Mills; Apparel Manufacturing; Computer & Electronic Product Manufacturing Shifting Industrial Growth Trends ( ) Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Projections on Future Job Growth by Industry and Occupation, , Released February West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

43 Projected Increases in Job Openings by Education or Training Required, US, Source: US Census Bureau West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

44 Projected Percent Change in Occupations Requiring Some Postsecondary Training, Source: ACINet, Career InfoNet West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

45 Issues for Consideration Changing expectations of college preparation Tensions across systems related to preparation Changing demands, 21 st century skills, and the challenge of general education Projected access demands Increased focus on STEM Need to restructure state financial programs Ever increasing college costs and increased student debt burdens Appreciation of the complexity of the modern university Critical significance of a college degree in the global economy West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

46 Public Policy Propositions More early assessment is needed in high school to make sure students are on track The ability to transfer credits among institutions needs to be made easier Financial Aid needs to be targeted to enhance access for those who otherwise would not go and the FAFSA should be simplified Attend to the financial needs of transfer and part-time students Consolidate grant programs in order to increase the purchasing power of the Pell Grant to 70 percent of public four-year tuition Unit level data needs to be collected and available at the federal level Student learning should be measured using tools such as the CLA Interstate comparisons should be encouraged on measures such as adult literacy and general skills tests outcomes Accreditation agencies should examining learning outcomes more closely and share findings among states West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

47 Contact Information Dr. Brian Noland, Chancellor West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission 1018 Kanawha Boulevard East, Suite 700 Charleston, WV Phone: Fax: West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission


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