Presentation on theme: "Defenses to Criminal Liability:"— Presentation transcript:
1Defenses to Criminal Liability: Criminal LawChapter 5Defenses to Criminal Liability:JustificationsJoel Samaha, 9th Ed.
2Justification and Excuse Defenses A justification and excuse defenseare types of an ‘affirmative defense’in which the burden of proof is on the defendant –“the burden of production.”
3Justification versus Excuse Defenses Justification defense: defendants admit they were responsible for their acts but claim what they did was right (justified) under the circumstances, e.g., self-defense.Excuse defense: defendants admit what the did was wrong but claim that, under the circumstances, they were not responsible for what they did, e.g., insanity.
4Justification Defenses Self-defenseThe defense of othersThe defense of home and propertyThe choice-of-evils defenseConsent
5Questions Explain the concept of necessity as it relates to self-defense.What are the three circumstancesthat must come togetherto validate necessityas it relates to self-defense?
6Elements of Self-Defense Unprovoked attackImminent dangerNecessityReasonable force
7Questions What is the difference between imminent danger and present danger?the stand-your-ground ruleand the retreat rule?
8Explain the facts and opinion of the following cases: DiscussionExplain the facts and opinion of the following cases:People v. Goetz497 N.E.2d 41 (N.Y. 1986)State v. Stewart763 P.2d 572 (Kans. 1988)U.S. v. Peterson483 F.2d 1222 (2nd Cir. 1973)
9Defense of Others Some states require a special relationship; however, many states have expanded this requirementto include the defense of anyone who needsimmediate protection from attack.“The ‘defense of others’ specifically limits the use of forceor violence in protection of others to situationswhere the person attacked would have beenjustified in using such force or violence to protect himself.”State v. Agullard (1990, 674)
10In Defense of Home and Property The right to use force to defend your home is deeply rooted in the common-law idea that “a man’s home is his castle.”(This does not include the curtilage).The use of deadly force depends on the state, i.e., Colorado’s “make my day” law.People v. Guenther, 740 P.2d 971 (Colo. 1987)Falco v. State, 407 So.2d 203 (Fla. 1981)
11Necessity (Choice of Evils) Also known as the general principle of necessity.Proving the defendant made the right choice, the only choice-namely, the necessity of choosing now to do a lesser evil to avoid a greater evil.
12Model Penal Code Elements of Choice-of-Evils Identify the evilsRank the evilsChoose the lesser evil to avoid the greater evil that is on the verge of happening.U.S. v. Aguilar et al., 883 F.2d 662 (CA9 1989)** The MPC charges legislatures, judges and juries the task of ranking evils – not the individual.
13Consent A defense that has nothing to do with necessity. Generally, consent is not a justification for committing crimes – although there are four exceptions:1) No serious injury results from the consensual crime.2) The injury happens during a sporting event.3) The conduct benefits the consenting person, such as when a doctor performs surgery.4) The consent is to sexual conduct.State v. Shelley, 929 P.2d 489 (Wash.App. 1997)