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JUSTIN CHAN PRINCESS MARGARET HOSPITAL JULY 27, 2013 Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury.

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Presentation on theme: "JUSTIN CHAN PRINCESS MARGARET HOSPITAL JULY 27, 2013 Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury."— Presentation transcript:

1 JUSTIN CHAN PRINCESS MARGARET HOSPITAL JULY 27, 2013 Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury

2 Case Illustration 74/F Good past health RTA victim  Back passenger of minibus  Hit over left side by another car

3 Case Illustration Trauma series CT  Acute traumatic aortic injury at aortic isthmus  4.2cm intimal flap along descending thoracic aorta  No mediastinal hematoma  Multiple rib fractures  Pelvic fracture with left pelvic hematoma and active contrast extravasation  Blunt liver trauma with intraparenchymal hematoma

4 CT images

5 Case Illustration Pelvic fracture with hematoma  Angiogram: bleeding from branches of left internal iliac artery  Embolisation performed  Pelvic fracture: minimal displacement  conservative Fractured ribs + liver hematoma  Conservative TEVAR  Stenting of aortic dissection and left subclavian artery

6 Post-op CT Images

7 Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injuries Incidence Pathology/Pathogenesis Management options Issues unsolved Conclusion

8 Incidence Traumatic aortic injuries  2 nd commonest cause of death due to blunt trauma Autopsy series of blunt trauma patients  Aortic rupture rates: 12%-23% Autopsy study by Parmley et al.  ~80% of patients die before arrival to hospital 1.Fabian TC, Richardson JD, Croce MA, Smith JS Jr, Rodman G Jr, Kearney PA et al (1997) Prospective study of blunt aortic injury: multicenter trial of the American Association for the surgery of trauma. J Trauma 42(3): 374-380; discussion 380-383 2.Schumacher H, Bockler D, von Tengg-Kobligk H, Allenberg JR (2006) Acute traumatic aortic tear: open versus stent- graft repair. Semin Vasc Surg 19(1):48-59 3.Parmley LF, Mattingly TW, Manion WC, Jahnke EJ Jr (1958) Nonpenetrating traumatic injury of the aorta. Circulation 17(6): 1086-1101

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10 Incidence Remained the same ~ past 12 years Strongly correlated with  Sudden change in velocity  Impact on patient’s side of car  ~85% of thoracic aortic injury was due to side impact in one study  Intrusion of vehicular wall into passenger compartment 1. Schulman CI, Carvajal D, Lopez PP, Soffer D, Habib F, Augenstein J (2007) Incidence and crash mechanisms of aortic injury during the past decade. J Trauma 62(3):664–667 2. Horton TG, Cohn SM, Heid MP, Augenstein JS, Bowen JC, McKenney MG et al (2000) Identification of trauma patients at risk of thoracic aortic tear by mechanism of injury. J Trauma 48(6):1008–1013; discussion 1013–1014

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12 Classification Parmley (1958)  Pathological features from autopsies GradePathology 1Intimal haemorrhage 2Intimal hemorrhage plus intimal laceration 3Laceration into the aortic media 4Complete aortic laceration (transection) 5Pseudoaneurysm 6Complete aortic laceration with active hemorrhage Parmley LF, Mattingly TW, Manion WC, Jahnke EJ Jr (1958) Nonpenetrating traumatic injury of the aorta. Circulation 17(6): 1086-1101

13 Classification Arizzadeh  CT imaging 1.Lee WA, Matsumura JS, Mitchell RS, Farber MA, Greenberg RK, Azizzadeh A, et al. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injury: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2010 2.Arizzadeh A, Keyhani K, Miller CC III, Coogan SM, Safi HJ, Esttrera AL. Blunt traumatic aortic injury: initial experience with endovascular repair. J Vasc Surg 2009;49:1403-8.

14 Pathology Confined to specific locations Classical site  Isthmus of aorta Clouse WD Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury: current thoughts and technical considerations. Sem Int Rad. 2010

15 Sites of Injury - Isthmus - (IIC – 70-90%) - Ascending aorta/proximal arch - (I to IIB – 10-15%) - Mid-descending aorta - (IIIA to IIIB – 5-10%) Clouse WD Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury: current thoughts and technical considerations. Sem Int Rad. 2010

16 Postulated Mechanisms Shear and stretching forces  Relative mobility of portion of vessel adjacent to a fixed portion Osseous pinch  Compression of vessel between bony structures ‘Water-hammer’ effect  Profound intraluminal hypertension during severe trauma Clouse WD Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury: current thoughts and technical considerations. Sem Int Rad. 2010

17 Blunt Aortic Injury. N Engl J Med 2008. 359: 1708-16

18 Pathogenesis Most likely: mixed mechanism Cronenwett JL, Johnston WK, Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery, 7 th edition, 2010

19 Management Timing of operation  Immediate  Urgent (<24hrs)  Delayed Type of repair  Open  Endovascular

20 Timing of Operation Hemodynamically unstable  Mortality >90%  Immediate surgery Hemodynamically stable Cronenwett JL, Johnston WK, Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery, 7 th edition, 2010

21 Immediate Surgery Standard surgical practice for many decades Parmley:  30% who reach the hospital die within first 6 hours Meta-analysis by Von Oppell et al:  Death rate: hemodynamically stable patients ~21.3% (0-54.2%)  Majority of deaths: associated injuries to other organs 1.Parmley LF, Marian WC: Non-penetrating traumatic injury of the aorta. Circulation 17:1086-1100, 1958 2.Von Oppell UO, Dunne TT, De Groot MK, et al: Traumatic aortic rupture: Twenty-year metaanalysis of mortality and risk of paraplegia. Ann Thorac Surg 58:585-595, 1994

22 Delayed Surgery Prospective study by Fabian et al  Delaying surgical repair plus maintaining blood pressure   In-hospital free rupture   Mortality 2 studies by Hemmila et al and Pacini et al  No difference in mortality between urgent and delayed repair Risk: Aortic rupture  ~ 2-5% of patients  Most within 1st week after trauma 1.Pate JW, Fabian TC, Walker W (1995) Traumatic rupture of the aortic isthmus: an emergency? World J Surg 19(1):119–125; discussion 125–126 2.Fabian TC, Davis KA, Gavant ML, Croce MA, Melton SM, Patton JH Jr et al (1998) Prospective study of blunt aortic injury: helical CT is diagnostic and antihypertensive therapy reduces rupture. Ann Surg 227(5):666–676; discussion 676–677 3.Holmes JH, Bloch RD, Hall RA, Carter YM, Karmy-Jones RC (2002) Natural history of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta managed nonoperatively: a longitudinal analysis. Ann Thorac Surg 73(4):1149–1154 4.Hemmila MR, Arbabi S, Rowe SA, Brandt MM, Wang SC, Taheri PA, et al. Delayed repair for blunt thoracic aortic injury: is it really equivalent to early repair? J Trauma 2004;56:13-23. 5.Pacini D, Angeli E, Fattori R, Lovato L, Rocchi G, Di Marco L, et al. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: ten years of delayed management. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;129:880-4.

23 Current Recommendations Urgent (<24 hours) repair  Except: other serious concomitant non-aortic injuries or After other injuries have been treated but prior to hospital discharge Lee WA, Matsumura JS, Mitchell RS, Farber MA, Greenberg RK, Azizzadeh A, et al. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injury: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2010

24 Current Recommendations Consider delayed repair in patients with  Respiratory insufficiency due to lung contusion  Head injury with abnormal CT showing haemorhage or edema  Coagulopathy  Severe abdominal solid organ injury and pelvic fractures  Cardiac risk factors/blunt cardiac injury  Multiple medical co-morbidities 1.Cronenwett JL, Johnston WK, Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery, 7 th edition, 2010 2.Clouse WD Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury: current thoughts and technical considerations. Sem Int Rad. 2010

25 Surgical Approach Open Endovascular

26 Open Surgery Conventional treatment of choice Surgical technique  Left-sided posterolateral thoracotomy  Proximal and distal control of proximal descending aorta  Direct aortic suture or  Tube-graft interposition with clamp-and-sew technique Cronenwett JL, Johnston WK, Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery, 7 th edition, 2010

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28 Open Surgery: Drawbacks M0rtality rate 28% Paraplegia rate 16% Need for thoracotomy and one-lung ventilation Aortic cross clamping   intracranial pressure  Hazardous in patients with head injuries 1.Cowley RA, Turney SZ, Hankins JR, Rodriguez A, Attar S, Shankar BS. Rupture of thoracic aorta caused by blunt trauma. A 15- year experience. J Thoracic Cardiovas Surg 1990; 100:652-60. 2.Ott MC, Stewart TC, Lawlor DK, Gray DK, Forbes TL. Management of blunt thoracic aortic injuries: endovascular stents versus open repair. J Trauma 2004; 56:565-70.

29 TEVAR - Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Began in United States in 1994 Dake and colleagues 1997  10 patients with traumatic lesions of thoracic aorta 1.Dake MD, Miller DC, Semba CP, Mitchell RS, Walker PJ, Liddell RP. Transluminal placement of endovascular stentgrafts for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1729–1734 2.Kato N, Dake MD, Miller DC, et al. Traumatic thoracic aortic aneurysm: treatment with endovascular stent-grafts. Radiology 1997;205:657–662

30 TEVAR - Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Preprocedure Imaging  Multislice computed tomography Access  Open approach to access iliac vessels (≤8 mm in diameter)  Consider percutaneous approach  Where iliofemoral system is very adequate for endograft access 1.Peterson BG, Matsumura JS, Morasch MD, West MA, Eskandari MK. Percutaneous endovascular repair of blunt thoracic aortic transection. J Trauma 2005;59:1062–1065 2.Tehrani HY, Peterson BG, Katariya K, et al. Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic tears. Ann Thorac Surg 2006;82: 873– 877; discussion 877–87

31 TEVAR - Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Jahromi AS, Kazemi K, Safar HA, Doobay B, Cina CS (2001) Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: Cohort study and systematic review. J Vasc Surg 34(6):1029–1034

32 Published in January 2011 Systematic review: 7768 patients from 139 studies Lee WA, Matsumura JS, Mitchell RS, Farber MA, Greenberg RK, Azizzadeh A, et al. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injury: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2010

33 TEVAR vs Open TEVAR   Mortality  9% VS 19% (p<0.01)  Non-operative management 46%   Spinal cord ischemia  3% VS 9% (p=0.01) Open repair   Graft infection   Systemic infections  Pneumonia mostly Lee WA, Matsumura JS, Mitchell RS, Farber MA, Greenberg RK, Azizzadeh A, et al. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injury: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2010

34 TEVAR: Drawbacks Designed for use in degenerative disease Most traumatic injuries occur in younger patients  Existing graft diameters may not be appropriate for smaller aortas Lack of long-term results  Material failures such as stent fractures and fabric fatigue may become more significant during ensuing decades of follow up

35 Conclusions Overall morbidity and mortality  in recent years  Both open and endovascular repair for blunt aortic injury Timing of Surgery  Urgent repair (<24 hrs) Endovascular repair is superior to open repair  In terms of operative mortality and complication rate

36 Thank you

37 References 1. Fabian TC, Richardson JD, Croce MA, Smith JS Jr, Rodman G Jr, Kearney PA et al (1997) Prospective study of blunt aortic injury: multicenter trial of the American Association for the surgery of trauma. J Trauma 42(3): 374-380; discussion 380-383 2. Schumacher H, Bockler D, von Tengg-Kobligk H, Allenberg JR (2006) Acute traumatic aortic tear: open versus stent-graft repair. Semin Vasc Surg 19(1):48-59 3. Parmley LF, Mattingly TW, Manion WC, Jahnke EJ Jr (1958) Nonpenetrating traumatic injury of the aorta. Circulation 17(6): 1086-1101 4. Schulman CI, Carvajal D, Lopez PP, Soffer D, Habib F, Augenstein J (2007) Incidence and crash mechanisms of aortic injury during the past decade. J Trauma 62(3):664–667 5. Horton TG, Cohn SM, Heid MP, Augenstein JS, Bowen JC, McKenney MG et al (2000) Identification of trauma patients at risk of thoracic aortic tear by mechanism of injury. J Trauma 48(6):1008–1013; discussion 1013–1014 6. Lee WA, Matsumura JS, Mitchell RS, Farber MA, Greenberg RK, Azizzadeh A, et al. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injury: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2010 7. Arizzadeh A, Keyhani K, Miller CC III, Coogan SM, Safi HJ, Esttrera AL. Blunt traumatic aortic injury: initial experience with endovascular repair. J Vasc Surg 2009;49:1403-8. 8. Clouse WD Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury: current thoughts and technical considerations. Sem Int Rad. 2010 9. Cronenwett JL, Johnston WK, Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery, 7 th edition, 2010 10. Cowley RA, Turney SZ, Hankins JR, Rodriguez A, Attar S, Shankar BS. Rupture of thoracic aorta caused by blunt trauma. A 15-year experience. J Thoracic Cardiovas Surg 1990; 100:652-60. 11. Ott MC, Stewart TC, Lawlor DK, Gray DK, Forbes TL. Management of blunt thoracic aortic injuries: endovascular stents versus open repair. J Trauma 2004; 56:565-70. 12. Dake MD, Miller DC, Semba CP, Mitchell RS, Walker PJ, Liddell RP. Transluminal placement of endovascular stentgrafts for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1729–1734 13. Kato N, Dake MD, Miller DC, et al. Traumatic thoracic aortic aneurysm: treatment with endovascular stent-grafts. Radiology 1997;205:657–662. 14. Peterson BG, Matsumura JS, Morasch MD, West MA, Eskandari MK. Percutaneous endovascular repair of blunt thoracic aortic transection. J Trauma 2005;59:1062–1065 15. Tehrani HY, Peterson BG, Katariya K, et al. Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic tears. Ann Thorac Surg 2006;82: 873–877; discussion 877– 87 16.Jahromi AS, Kazemi K, Safar HA, Doobay B, Cina CS (2001) Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: Cohort study and systematic review. J Vasc Surg 34(6):1029–1034

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