3 What is the VAWT/AR*? (*Vertical Axis Wind Turbine w/ Articulating Rotor) A new sub-class of VAWTUses rotor tilt to control AOA (Angle of Attack)The first major technological breakthrough since the Darrieus patent (1931), complying with the Betz Equations.Combination of helicopter rotor head and wind turbine designResult of 7 years of researchNo directly related prior art in USPTOU.S. Patent #7,677,862
4 The Betz Theorem – 1929 The “Bible” of wind turbine design Maximum theoretical efficiency = 59.6%Slow incoming air mass by no more than 1/3Minimize solidity quotientMaximize Tip Speed Ratio (TSR)Bottom Line: Least number of blades traveling at a maximum possible speed
5 From Patent Application: 2-Bladed and 3-Bladed variations shown
6 How does the VAWT/AR work? Wind causes Rotor TiltRotor Tilt sets Airfoil Angle of Attack (AOA)Airfoil AOA creates Aerodynamic LiftAerodynamic Lift creates Rotation/TorqueSelf-corrects for gyroscopic precession.
7 Action of wind (403,404) against the side of the airfoils (405, 406) causes tilting force (409) on the rotor arm (401).
8 When the rotor (18) tilts, the stationary pushrods (41, 42) cause the airfoils (11, 12) to change angles due to different radii.
14 Operating characteristics Very high torque due to long moment armsLarge working areas for more powerDynamic response to wind and load conditionsSelf-limiting to prevent run-awaysNo external wind alignment mechanicsSelf-starting at low wind speedsVery quiet compared to most turbines
15 Blackhawk AFPMG* (*Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator) 12, 24 or 48 VoltsFull charging voltage at very low speedOperating range 40 – 120 RPM1.5 KW potential outputNon-cogging design allows easy start-upSelf coolingNo brushes or slip ringsIn-house design
16 Generator Design: Expertise and Experience Gained Unable to identify OEM source for low-speed transmission-less design: “it can’t be done”.Design analysis of multiple generators and mathematical performance modeling produced initial successful design – 40 RPM cut-in.With field-verified results, we are now able to easily produce any size/configuration/speed variation needed.That makes us a leader in the field.
18 AFPMG Components (L) Magnet Wheel (1 of 2), and (R) Stator
19 Electronics20+ years Silicon Valley Electrical Engineering microcontroller hardware/software design experience“The Limiter” allows user to set RPM limit and time-out period for very high wind conditions (currently in field use).“The Governor”: upgrade of “The Limiter” that will use PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to intelligently control loads (designed - not yet implemented)MPPT: proprietary Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm will dynamically match loads to varying wind conditions for optimal efficiency (designed – not yet implemented)
20 Blackhawk Electronics Limiter PCBPower Control CabinetLimiter Control UnitPrecision Test Loads
22 Clockwise from top left: Grand View, ID; Wells Fargo Bldg, Boise; Clarkston, WA; CAES Idaho Falls; Emmett
23 Proof-of-Concept: Critical Design Targets Achieved System is reliably self-startingSystem is stable under varying wind conditionsSystem is quiet & aesthetically pleasingSystem has survived 100+ MPH windsSystem is easy to manufacture & assembleSystem is easy to transport and erectSystem is reliably producing power
24 Design Variations: The Rapid Deployment Concept Configuration possible with VAWT/AR designFolds up like an umbrellaLess than 5 minute deployment/furlingCan be combined with extensive emergency battery backup power on a trailerMilitary and emergency potential usage
29 Status of Intellectual Property U.S. Utility Patent application 12/7/06Patent pending Australia/New ZealandNo prior art found representing tilt vs. AOA control methodsI.P. owned by The Blackhawk Project, LLC: 50% Bruce Boatner, 50% Pat LargeU.S. Patent #7,677,862 issuance notification 3/2/10
30 Our current staff Bruce Boatner, EE: Inventor, Partner, Lead Engineer Dawn Cardwell: Project ManagerPat Large: Business PartnerRandy Peterson: Technician
31 Project Requirements For Production Product engineeringDesign engineering supportManufacturing engineeringMaterials analysisManufacturing logistics & capitalTesting & CertificationMarketing strategyAccounting & other overhead
32 Inter-Disciplinary Research Efforts at INL/CAES* (* Idaho Nat’l Laboratory, Center for Advanced Energy Studies)