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A Summary Overview of the Blackhawk Wind Turbine

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1 A Summary Overview of the Blackhawk Wind Turbine
3/4/10 B. Boatner,EE Lead Engineer/Partner The Blackhawk Project, LLC Boise, ID

2 The Blackhawk Wind Turbine

3 What is the VAWT/AR*? (*Vertical Axis Wind Turbine w/ Articulating Rotor)
A new sub-class of VAWT Uses rotor tilt to control AOA (Angle of Attack) The first major technological breakthrough since the Darrieus patent (1931), complying with the Betz Equations. Combination of helicopter rotor head and wind turbine design Result of 7 years of research No directly related prior art in USPTO U.S. Patent #7,677,862

4 The Betz Theorem – 1929 The “Bible” of wind turbine design
Maximum theoretical efficiency = 59.6% Slow incoming air mass by no more than 1/3 Minimize solidity quotient Maximize Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) Bottom Line: Least number of blades traveling at a maximum possible speed

5 From Patent Application: 2-Bladed and 3-Bladed variations shown

6 How does the VAWT/AR work?
Wind causes Rotor Tilt Rotor Tilt sets Airfoil Angle of Attack (AOA) Airfoil AOA creates Aerodynamic Lift Aerodynamic Lift creates Rotation/Torque Self-corrects for gyroscopic precession.

7 Action of wind (403,404) against the side of the airfoils (405, 406) causes tilting force (409) on the rotor arm (401).

8 When the rotor (18) tilts, the stationary pushrods (41, 42) cause the airfoils (11, 12) to change angles due to different radii.


10 Power is produced cyclically in 2 main quadrants


12 Main Rotor Tilt controls Pitch of Airfoils

13 Elastomeric dampeners limit rotor tilt

14 Operating characteristics
Very high torque due to long moment arms Large working areas for more power Dynamic response to wind and load conditions Self-limiting to prevent run-aways No external wind alignment mechanics Self-starting at low wind speeds Very quiet compared to most turbines

15 Blackhawk AFPMG* (*Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator)
12, 24 or 48 Volts Full charging voltage at very low speed Operating range 40 – 120 RPM 1.5 KW potential output Non-cogging design allows easy start-up Self cooling No brushes or slip rings In-house design

16 Generator Design: Expertise and Experience Gained
Unable to identify OEM source for low-speed transmission-less design: “it can’t be done”. Design analysis of multiple generators and mathematical performance modeling produced initial successful design – 40 RPM cut-in. With field-verified results, we are now able to easily produce any size/configuration/speed variation needed. That makes us a leader in the field.

17 AFPMG Design/Test Station

18 AFPMG Components (L) Magnet Wheel (1 of 2), and (R) Stator

19 Electronics 20+ years Silicon Valley Electrical Engineering microcontroller hardware/software design experience “The Limiter” allows user to set RPM limit and time-out period for very high wind conditions (currently in field use). “The Governor”: upgrade of “The Limiter” that will use PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to intelligently control loads (designed - not yet implemented) MPPT: proprietary Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm will dynamically match loads to varying wind conditions for optimal efficiency (designed – not yet implemented)

20 Blackhawk Electronics
Limiter PCB Power Control Cabinet Limiter Control Unit Precision Test Loads

21 Blackhawk System Wiring

22 Clockwise from top left: Grand View, ID; Wells Fargo Bldg, Boise; Clarkston, WA; CAES Idaho Falls; Emmett

23 Proof-of-Concept: Critical Design Targets Achieved
System is reliably self-starting System is stable under varying wind conditions System is quiet & aesthetically pleasing System has survived 100+ MPH winds System is easy to manufacture & assemble System is easy to transport and erect System is reliably producing power

24 Design Variations: The Rapid Deployment Concept
Configuration possible with VAWT/AR design Folds up like an umbrella Less than 5 minute deployment/furling Can be combined with extensive emergency battery backup power on a trailer Military and emergency potential usage

25 Blackhawk RD-10 Rapid Deployment Device

26 Blackhawk RD-10 and Trailer

27 Blackhawk RD-10 Rapid Deployment Sequence

28 Endless aesthetic possibilities…
Quiet operation… Endless aesthetic possibilities…

29 Status of Intellectual Property
U.S. Utility Patent application 12/7/06 Patent pending Australia/New Zealand No prior art found representing tilt vs. AOA control methods I.P. owned by The Blackhawk Project, LLC: 50% Bruce Boatner, 50% Pat Large U.S. Patent #7,677,862 issuance notification 3/2/10

30 Our current staff Bruce Boatner, EE: Inventor, Partner, Lead Engineer
Dawn Cardwell: Project Manager Pat Large: Business Partner Randy Peterson: Technician

31 Project Requirements For Production
Product engineering Design engineering support Manufacturing engineering Materials analysis Manufacturing logistics & capital Testing & Certification Marketing strategy Accounting & other overhead

32 Inter-Disciplinary Research Efforts at INL/CAES*
(* Idaho Nat’l Laboratory, Center for Advanced Energy Studies)

33 (925) 695-5469

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