Why… Contractor with DMV: –Lost USB Flash drive –Contained names of 109 individuals University of Nevada, Reno professor lost a flash drive that contained the names and Social Security numbers of 16,000 incoming freshmen from 2001 to 2007current and former students
Why… DMV Audit –Prior to audit--Truck drives through front of DMV building and steals computer. Contained personal information on 8,700 Nevada residents. –Prior to audit--Planned to encrypt files and not store on computers –Audit found information on desktops, laptops, zip drives, USB drives. –Audit found process of removing personal information from computers didn’t always work as planned. Over 300 files, each with a person’s name, address, and SS#.
Why… Arizona #1 in Identity Theft Newspaper publishes “public” information Audit responsibilities require sensitive data Agency requests for agreements –Encroachment on statutory authority Public relations nightmare
Nashville Davidson County Election Office Office was broken into on December 24, 2007 Break-in was not noticed until December 27, 2007 Two Laptops were some of the items that were missing
Why… It was standard practice for the office to tape to the machine user name and passwords. The laptops were using an access database that contained all register voters personal information including their SSN.
Why… The office was preparing for the primary election and was in the process of removing the SSN’s from the Access database. The street value of the stolen laptops was probably $600 total, but the incident is costing the city millions in Identity Theft Protection.
Where Did We Start? 1.Researched available options 2.Evaluated software 3.Determined best option
TRUECRYPT VS ENTRUST TRUECRYPT –Partial disk encryption –Passwords do not sync –No vendor support –USB encryption –Encryption time 30- 40 minutes –Cost FREE ENTRUST –Full disk encryption –Passwords sync with operating system –Vendor Support – 1- 800 number –Removable media encryption –Encryption time 4-8 hours –Cost $130 per licence
Truecrypt Concerns File Restoration Key Management Administrative Support Removable Media Support Partial Disk Encryption
Why Did We Choose Truecrypt Strategic Plan –Our purpose is to serve the people of Tennessee by Enhancing effective public policy decisions at all levels of government 47-18-2107 TCA Release of personal consumer information –…Unauthorized acquisition of unencrypted computerized data…
What? Statutes Drive Crypt Plus Pack (DCCP) Ironkey VPN and Tokens Winzip
Statutes Provide broad access to information –Authorized to review confidential records without limitation –Agencies required to provide records Working papers and audit files are not public information Audit exclusions for other Acts, such as HIPPA, FERPA
DCPP Whole disk encryption (partition based) Boot protection Pre-Boot authentication Sector level protection Administrator / user specific rights Transparent to users Minimal administration and user training
What Technology We Use Truecrypt EFS (windows built in encryption) Lexar USB drives with encryption software Whole disk encryption on Dell laptops using Wave Embassy Security Center software and hard drive-based encryption
EFS Advantages: –Free –Easy to implement –256-bit AES –Easy to backup to network drive (registry tweak needed to decrypt data as it is copied to network drive) –Set and forget...sort of
EFS Disadvantages: –No additional password –Folder based. Auditors can save in unencrypted folders –256-bit AES not used in Pre-XP SP1 –Certificate expired and some auditors could not get access to data for a day
Wave Embassy Whole Disk Encryption (hardware based on Dell Latitude, HP, Lenovo) Wave Embassy suite is the software front end to where the real work is done—hardware-based encryption Used in conjunction with TPM chip
Wave Embassy Advantages: 128-bit AES (not as strong as 256-bit key, but still strong) Multiple passwords (pre-boot authentication) Works with biometrics
Wave Embassy Disadvantages Complex to set up (including BIOS settings) Multiple passwords Need to have a Seagate Momentus FDE.2 HDD which runs at 5400 rpm
Statutes and Policies Statutes –NRS 218.870 (“All working papers from an audit are confidential…”) Policies –Reinforce and support statutes –Detailed Extreme care to ensure confidentialy of information “gained” during audits (more than what is in workpapers) Careful with discussions
How…Guidance to Staff Training One on one with each person –Lexar –Wave Embassy Periodic staff training –Reinforce statutes –What is confidential, what is not –Examples shown Management meetings allow supervisors to reinforce policies and importance
How…Our Policies Backup Volume Header –Allows users to restore encryption to original installation. Create an Admin Password –This is to be used in the event someone forgets their password.
How…Our Policies (Cont.) Created standard passwords for users –This is used to ensure password complexity Created standard login procedures –This is used to help the auditors to be consistent when they login
How…Our Policies (Cont.) Removable Media –This policy is to make it clear that personal thumbdrives are not be used to store confidential data Storage of Files –This policy is to make it clear where you needed to store confidential data
How…Our Policies (Cont.) Enforcement –Once a year have security awareness training –Periodic emails to staff reminding them of the encryption policies –Unannounced Random Sample
How…Problems Auditors were confused about which password to use to log-on to their workstation Thumbdrives Auditors do not like using passwords for thumbdrives
How… Policy Communicate to auditee/entity common information Statutory authority Security of confidential records Auditor General policies –Internet Use and Email acceptable use agreements –IT policy with address data security –Acknowledgement of state policy
How… Determine whether information is confidential or public (may be more restrictive than public records law) Confidential –Personal information Info which can identify a person –Sensitive information Info which may be harmful to the state and its citizens Public information
How… Then, ensure that appropriate security measures are applied based on classification of data Confidential –Encryption and/or restrictive physical and/or logical access rights Store on Office network or encrypted flash drives Return original data or store securely –Never copy confidential data to home computer
How… –If remote, use VPN and use remote sessions –Limit access rights on network drives –Use restricted views and coding techniques for data stored in databases –Determine whether or how much confidential information must be included in audit documentation
How… Use encryption when storing on external storage media (HDs, CDs) –Use secure passwords/phrases »Minimum of 8 characters »Upper/lower case »Special characters Store passwords/phrases securely Public Information No special security precautions Adhere to professional standards and Office policy Can be stored in shared directories
How? Document classification assessment and subsequent actions taken Archiving and Disposition –Keep only as long as necessary or required –Ensure confidential data is protected when archived –Let others involved know about the confidential nature of the data stored