Presentation on theme: "LESSON 3 PERSONALITY TRAITS & PROFILING. Career Success in the New Career Era Career success has been defined in terms of the positive psychological and."— Presentation transcript:
Career Success in the New Career Era Career success has been defined in terms of the positive psychological and work–related outcomes accumulated as a result of one’s work experiences (Judge, Cable, Boudreau, & Bretz, 1995). Subjective or intrinsic career success is broadly defined as “an individual’s reactions to his or her unfolding career experiences” (Heslin, 2005, p. 114). It has been argued that—in a context of boundaryless careers—the subjective interpretation of one’s career status, rather than objective position, can be considered the major indicator of career success (Heslin, 2005).
Marketable to future employers Individuals’ perceptions of being marketable to current or future employers constitute an important aspect of their current career evaluations. A second career outcome that reflects what employees today find important connects to changes in workforce attitudes toward work.
Employability and Work–Family Conflict in the New Career Era First, global trade competition, the fast pace of technological innovation, and government deregulation of industry have led to widespread corporate layoffs, workplace restructuring, and the increasing use of a contingent workforce (Hirsch & De Soucey, 2006; Individuals can no longer expect lifetime employment within one organisation or steady hierarchical career paths. Instead, individuals are increasingly confronted with the possibility of involuntary job loss, lateral job movement within or across organisational boundaries, and career interruptions (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996).
Personality Theory Personality theory provides a valuable framework for understanding and hypothesising associations between traits and experiences in various life domains, including vocational life (Hogan, 1991). It specifically proposes that a dynamic organisation of mental structures and coordinated mental processes determines individuals’ emotional and behavioral adjustments to their environments (i.e. characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings; Allport, 1937, 1961; James & Mazerolle, 2000).
Five-Factor Model of Personality Over recent decades, the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM; McCrae & Costa, 1987) has evolved to a frequently examined typology of personality in the field of organisational behavior (e.g. Barrick & Mount, 1991; Costa, 1996; Judge, Heller, & Klinger, 2008; Templer, 2011). The FFM includes the traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and each of these traits has previously been related to
Neuroticism and Extraversion First, traits such as Neuroticism and Extraversion can be related to subjective work outcomes because of their direct effects on evaluative processes. Individuals high on Neuroticism are characterised by an enduring tendency to experience negative emotional states and to interpret situations in a pessimistic way (Costa & McCrae, 1992).
Extraverts and Career Success Extraverts generally hold more positive evaluations of life in general and their careers in particular (Furnham & Zacherl, 1986; McCrae & Costa, 1991), and research has indeed shown positive associations between Extraversion and indicators of intrinsic career success such as job and career satisfaction (Judge et al., 1999; Judge et al., 1998). A positive association between Extraversion and perceived employability.
Conscientiousness High on Conscientiousness have a constant striving for success and express a tendency to set challenging goals and to do what it takes to succeed (Barrick, Mount, & Strauss, 1993). These qualities make high conscientious individuals more likely to invest in training and learning efforts and to perceive the need for and value of expanding one’s capabilities (Maurer, Lippstreu, & Judge, 2008). From the perspective that training history is an important component of employability (Forrier & Sels, 2003), therefore expect Conscientiousness to be positively related to perceived employability
Openness to Experience Barrick and Mount (1991) note that Openness to experience includes characteristics such as being curious, broad-minded, and intelligent, and they demonstrated that this trait is linked to work-related behavior, including success in training /learning settings and favorable attitudes toward learning. In a situation of less stable employment and a need to constantly be on the lookout for ways to build new skill sets, Openness can therefore also be expected to be positively related to perceived employability
Role of Personality Traits Three main types of difficulties that are typically encountered in the career decision-making process: (a) lack of readiness, (b) lack of information, and (c) inconsistent information. These primary difficulties are divided into two groups, indicating a temporal distinction between difficulties that are typically encountered before beginning the decision-making process and difficulties that are typically encountered after the process begins. Lack of readiness is the first type of difficulty that is often encountered prior to beginning the decision-making process, and this may result from a lack of motivation, indecisiveness, and/or dysfunctional beliefs.
Can Perfectionism Affect Career Development? An individual’s progression through the career development process is affected by many factors, including the presence of perfectionistic traits, negative thinking, and self-efficacy. The role of negative beliefs in emotional and behavioral difficulties is well established. Individuals whose thinking is characterized by negative beliefs are more likely to experience problems such as depression, anxiety, alcoholism, bulimia, Type A personality, and low self-esteem (Belloch, Morillo, & Garcia-Soriano, 2007).
Negative Thinking & Career Decisions Negative thinking also appears to be associated with one’s ability to make career decisions (Sampson, Peterson, Lenz, Reardon, & Saunders, 1996). Specifically, negative career thinking, a means of viewing oneself in a manner that “inhibits career problem solving and decision making” (Sampson et al., 1996, p. 2), was shown to decrease levels of self-esteem and perceived career decision-making self- efficacy (e.g., Bullock-Yowell, Andrews, & Buzzetta, 2011; Kleiman et al., 2004) as well as increase depression (Westra & Kuiper, 1996) and career indecision (Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000).
Personality & Job “Fit” ‘Fit’ (or ‘congruence’) is a cornerstone principle of vocational-choice frameworks. Holland (1996) argued that vocational satisfaction, stability and achievement depend on the congruence between one’s personality and the environment in which one works. Fit or congruence may be realized when the behavioural expectations of a work role synchronize with the behavioural inclinations of a particular personality type.