# H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  H 2 SO 4 (l) ΔH = - 392.5 kJ H 2 SO 4 (l)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(g) ΔH = +102.5 kJ H 2 O(g)

## Presentation on theme: "H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  H 2 SO 4 (l) ΔH = - 392.5 kJ H 2 SO 4 (l)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(g) ΔH = +102.5 kJ H 2 O(g)"— Presentation transcript:

H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  H 2 SO 4 (l) ΔH = - 392.5 kJ H 2 SO 4 (l)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(g) ΔH = +102.5 kJ H 2 O(g)  H 2 O(l) ΔH = - 55.0 kJ

H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  H 2 SO 4 (l) ΔH = - 392.5 kJ H 2 SO 4 (l)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(g) ΔH = +102.5 kJ H 2 O(g)  H 2 O(l) ΔH = - 55.0 kJ - 392.5 kJ

H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  H 2 SO 4 (l) ΔH = - 392.5 kJ H 2 SO 4 (l)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(g) ΔH = +102.5 kJ H 2 O(g)  H 2 O(l) ΔH = - 55.0 kJ - 392.5 kJ + 102.5 kJ

H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 S(g) + 2 O 2 (g)  H 2 SO 4 (l) ΔH = - 392.5 kJ H 2 SO 4 (l)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(g) ΔH = +102.5 kJ H 2 O(g)  H 2 O(l) ΔH = - 55.0 kJ - 392.5 kJ + 102.5 kJ - 55.0 kJ

4 PCl 5 (g) → P 4 (s) + 10 Cl 2 (g) P 4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g) → 4 PCl 3 (g) ΔH = -2371.3 kJ PCl 3 (g) + Cl 2 (g) → PCl 5 (g) ΔH = -242.7 kJ

4 PCl 5 (g) → P 4 (s) + 10 Cl 2 (g) P 4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g) → 4 PCl 3 (g) ΔH = -2371.3 kJ PCl 3 (g) + Cl 2 (g) → PCl 5 (g) ΔH = -242.7 kJ 4 PCl 5 (g) → 4 PCl 3 (g) + 4 Cl 2 (g) ΔH = +970.8 kJ Flip, x 4

4 PCl 5 (g) → P 4 (s) + 10 Cl 2 (g) P 4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g) → 4 PCl 3 (g) ΔH = -2371.3 kJ PCl 3 (g) + Cl 2 (g) → PCl 5 (g) ΔH = -242.7 kJ 4 PCl 5 (g) → 4 PCl 3 (g) + 4 Cl 2 (g) ΔH = +970.8 kJ 4 PCl 3 (g) → P 4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g) ΔH = +2371.3 kJ Flip

4 PCl 5 (g) → P 4 (s) + 10 Cl 2 (g) P 4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g) → 4 PCl 3 (g) ΔH = -2371.3 kJ PCl 3 (g) + Cl 2 (g) → PCl 5 (g) ΔH = -242.7 kJ 4 PCl 5 (g) → 4 PCl 3 (g) + 4 Cl 2 (g) ΔH = +970.8 kJ 4 PCl 3 (g) → P 4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g) ΔH = +2371.3 kJ 4 PCl 5 (g) → P 4 (s) + 10 Cl 2 (g) ΔH = 3342.1 kJ

N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) → 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) ΔH = -57.0 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) → N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) ΔH = +33.0 kJ 2 H 2 O(l) → 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ΔH = -34.8 kJ

N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) → 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) ΔH = -57 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) → N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) ΔH = +33 kJ 2 H 2 O(l) → 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ΔH = -34.8 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) ΔH = +57 kJ Flip

N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) → 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) ΔH = -57 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) → N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) ΔH = +33 kJ 2 H 2 O(l) → 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ΔH = -34.8 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) ΔH = +57 kJ N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) → 2 NO 2 (g) ΔH = -33 kJ Flip

N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) → 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) ΔH = -57 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) → N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) ΔH = +33 kJ 2 H 2 O(l) → 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ΔH = -34.8 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) ΔH = +57 kJ N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) → 2 NO 2 (g) ΔH = -33 kJ 4 H 2 O(l) → 4 H 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) ΔH = -69.6 kJ x 2

N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) → 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) ΔH = -57 kJ 2 NO 2 (g) → N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) ΔH = +33 kJ 2 H 2 O(l) → 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ΔH = -34.8 kJ 3 2 NO 2 (g) + 7 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g) + 4 H 2 O(l) ΔH = +57 kJ N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) → 2 NO 2 (g) ΔH = -33 kJ 4 H 2 O(l) → 4 H 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) ΔH = -69.6 kJ N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) → 2 NH 3 (g)ΔH = -45.6 kJ

3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO 2 (g) → Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) ΔH = +12.9 kJ 3 FeO(s) + CO 2 (g) → Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO(g) ΔH = +10.1 kJ FeO(s) + CO(g) → Fe(s) + CO 2 (g) ΔH = +0.6 kJ

3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO 2 (g) → Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) ΔH = +12.9 kJ 3 FeO(s) + CO 2 (g) → Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO(g) ΔH = +10.1 kJ FeO(s) + CO(g) → Fe(s) + CO 2 (g) ΔH = +0.6 kJ 3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 9 CO(g) → 6 Fe(s) + 9 CO 2 (g) ΔH = -38.7 kJ Flip, x 3

3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO 2 (g) → Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) ΔH = +12.9 kJ 3 FeO(s) + CO 2 (g) → Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO(g) ΔH = +10.1 kJ FeO(s) + CO(g) → Fe(s) + CO 2 (g) ΔH = +0.6 kJ 3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 9 CO(g) → 6 Fe(s) + 9 CO 2 (g) ΔH = -38.7 kJ 6 FeO(s) + 2 CO 2 (g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + 2 CO(g) ΔH = +20.2 kJ x 2

3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO 2 (g) → Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) ΔH = +12.9 kJ 3 FeO(s) + CO 2 (g) → Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO(g) ΔH = +10.1 kJ FeO(s) + CO(g) → Fe(s) + CO 2 (g) ΔH = +0.6 kJ 3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 9 CO(g) → 6 Fe(s) + 9 CO 2 (g) ΔH = -38.7 kJ 6 FeO(s) + 2 CO 2 (g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + 2 CO(g) ΔH = +20.2 kJ 6 Fe(s) + 6 CO 2 (g) → 6 FeO(s) + 6 CO(g) ΔH = -3.6 kJ Flip, x 6

3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO 2 (g) → Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) ΔH = +12.9 kJ 3 FeO(s) + CO 2 (g) → Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO(g) ΔH = +10.1 kJ FeO(s) + CO(g) → Fe(s) + CO 2 (g) ΔH = +0.6 kJ 3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 9 CO(g) → 6 Fe(s) + 9 CO 2 (g) ΔH = -38.7 kJ 6 FeO(s) + 2 CO 2 (g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + 2 CO(g) ΔH = +20.2 kJ 6 Fe(s) + 6 CO 2 (g) → 6 FeO(s) + 6 CO(g) ΔH = -3.6 kJ 3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g)ΔH = -22.1 kJ

C 2 H 4 (g) + 6 F 2 (g)  2 CF 4 (g) + 4 HF(g) H 2 (g) + F 2 (g)  2HF(g)  H = – 537 kJ C(s) + 2 F 2 (g)  CF 4 (g)  H = – 680 kJ 2 C(s) + 2 H 2 (g)  C 2 H 4 (g)  H = + 52.3 kJ

C 2 H 4 (g) + 6 F 2 (g)  2 CF 4 (g) + 4 HF(g) H 2 (g) + F 2 (g)  2HF(g)  H = - 537 kJ C(s) + 2 F 2 (g)  CF 4 (g)  H = - 680 kJ 2 C(s) + 2 H 2 (g)  C 2 H 4 (g)  H = + 52.3 kJ 2 H 2 (g) + 2 F2(g)  4 HF(g)  H = - 1074 kJ 2 C(s) + 4 F 2 (g)  2 CF 4 (g)  H = - 1360 kJ C 2 H 4 (g)  2 C(s) + 2 H 2 (g)  H = - 52.3 kJ C 2 H 4 (g) + 6 F 2 (g)  2 CF 4 (g) + 4 HF(g)  H = - 2486 kJ

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g)

½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l) ΔH° f = -173.2 kJ

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l) ΔH° f = -173.2 kJ ½ N 2 + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g) ΔH° f = +90.4 kJ

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l) ΔH° f = -173.2 kJ ½ N 2 + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g) ΔH° f = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) → 3/2 N 2 (g) + 3O 2 (g) ΔH = -3(ΔH° f ) = -101.4 kJ Flip, x 3

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l) ΔH° f = -173.2 kJ ½ N 2 + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g) ΔH° f = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) → 3/2 N 2 (g) + 3O 2 (g) ΔH = -3(ΔH° f ) = -101.4 kJ H 2 0(l) → H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) ΔH = -(ΔH° f ) = +285.8 kJ Flip

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l)ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l)ΔH° f = -173.2 kJ ½ N 2 + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g)ΔH° f = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) → 3/2 N 2 (g) + 3O 2 (g) ΔH = -3(ΔH° f ) = -101.4 kJ H 2 0(l) → H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) ΔH = -(ΔH° f ) = +285.9 kJ H 2 (g) + N 2 (g) + 3 O 2 (g) → 2 HNO 3 (l)ΔH = 2(ΔH° f ) = -346.4 kJ x 2

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l) ΔH° f = -173.2 kJ ½ N 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g) ΔH° f = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) → 3/2 N 2 (g) + 3O 2 (g) ΔH = -3(ΔH° f ) = -101.4 kJ H 2 0(l) → H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) ΔH = -(ΔH° f ) = +285.9 kJ H 2 (g) + N 2 (g) + 3 O 2 (g) → 2 HNO 3 (l)ΔH = 2(ΔH° f ) = -346.4 kJ ½ N 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g)ΔH = (ΔH° f ) = +90.4 kJ

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l) ΔH° f = -174.1 kJ ½ N 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g) ΔH° f = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) → 3/2 N 2 (g) + 3O 2 (g) ΔH = -3(ΔH° f ) = -101.4 kJ H 2 0(l) → H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) ΔH = -(ΔH° f ) = +285.9 kJ H 2 (g) + N 2 (g) + 3 O 2 (g) → 2 HNO 3 (l)ΔH = 2(ΔH° f ) = -346.4 kJ ½ N 2 (g)+ ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g)ΔH = (ΔH° f ) = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g)ΔH = -71.5 kJ

3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g) ½ N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → NO 2 (g) ΔH° f = +33.8 kJ H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 0(l) ΔH° f = -285.9 kJ ½ H 2 (g) + ½ N 2 (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) → HNO 3 (l) ΔH° f = -173.2 kJ ½ N 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g) ΔH° f = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) → 3/2 N 2 (g) + 3O 2 (g) ΔH = -3(ΔH° f ) = -101.4 kJ H 2 0(l) → H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) ΔH = -(ΔH° f ) = +285.9 kJ H 2 (g) + N 2 (g) + 3 O 2 (g) → 2 HNO 3 (l)ΔH = 2(ΔH° f ) = -346.4 kJ ½ N 2 (g)+ ½ O 2 (g) → NO(g)ΔH = (ΔH° f ) = +90.4 kJ 3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → 2 HNO 3 (l) + NO(g)ΔH = -71.5 kJ ΔH = [2(ΔH° f ) + ΔH° f ] – [3(ΔH° f ) + ΔH° f ]

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