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Saint Louis Crisis Nursery Conference Positive Psychology Strengths-Based Strategies for Improving Well-Being Bob Bertolino, Ph.D. Associate Professor,

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Presentation on theme: "Saint Louis Crisis Nursery Conference Positive Psychology Strengths-Based Strategies for Improving Well-Being Bob Bertolino, Ph.D. Associate Professor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Saint Louis Crisis Nursery Conference Positive Psychology Strengths-Based Strategies for Improving Well-Being Bob Bertolino, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Maryville University-St. Louis Sr. Clinical Advisor, Youth In Need, Inc. Sr. Associate, International Center for Clinical Excellence

2 Tidbits For copyright reasons and confidentiality some of PowerPoint slides may be absent from your handouts.For copyright reasons and confidentiality some of PowerPoint slides may be absent from your handouts. To download a PDF of this presentation, please go to: download a PDF of this presentation, please go to: Please share the ideas from this presentation. You have permission to reproduce the handouts. I only ask that you maintain the integrity of the content.Please share the ideas from this presentation. You have permission to reproduce the handouts. I only ask that you maintain the integrity of the content. E: P: E: P: bobbertolino.com

3 From Pathology to Strengths “What we have learned over 50 years is that the disease model does not move us closer to the prevention of these serious problems. Indeed the major strides in prevention have largely come from a perspective focused on systematically building competency, not correcting weakness. Prevention researchers have discovered that there are human strengths that act as buffers against mental illness: courage, future- mindedness, optimism, interpersonal skill, faith, work ethic, hope, honesty, perseverance, the capacity for flow and insight, to name several. Much of the task of prevention in this new century will be to create a science of human strength whose mission will be to understand and learn how to foster these virtues in young people. Working exclusively on personal weakness and on the damaged brains, however, has rendered science poorly equipped to do effective prevention. We need now to call for massive research on human strength and virtue. We need to ask practitioners to recognize that much of the best work they already do in the consulting room is to amplify strengths rather than repair the weaknesses of their clients.” (p. 6-7) Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14. 5–14.

4 Strengths-Based Defined A strengths-based perspective emphasizes the abilities and resources people have within themselves and their support systems to more effectively cope with life challenges. When combined with new experiences, understandings and skills, those abilities and resources contribute to improved well-being, which is comprised of three areas of functioning: individual, interpersonal relationships, and social role. Strengths-based practitioners value relationships convey this through respectful, culturally-sensitive, collaborative, practices that support, encourage and empower. Routine and ongoing real-time feedback is used to maintain a responsive, consumer-driven climate to ensure the greatest benefit of services. Bertolino, B. (2014). Thriving on the front lines: Strengths-based youth care work. New York: Routledge.

5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

6 Posttraumatic Growth Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

7 The Therapy Bias Freud thought the best we could hope for was “ordinary misery” and questioned the quest for happiness.Freud thought the best we could hope for was “ordinary misery” and questioned the quest for happiness. As a field, we have focused on client pathology and problems.As a field, we have focused on client pathology and problems. Until recently, psychological publications and studies dealing with negative states outnumber those examining positive states by a ratio of 15 to 1.Until recently, psychological publications and studies dealing with negative states outnumber those examining positive states by a ratio of 15 to 1. The bias of both psychology and psychotherapy has been to get people back to zero.The bias of both psychology and psychotherapy has been to get people back to zero. A result has been the “empty person.”A result has been the “empty person.” Help adolescents and families to develop skills to flourish by reducing negative symptoms and building well-being.Help adolescents and families to develop skills to flourish by reducing negative symptoms and building well-being. By leveraging assets we create opportunities for present and future change.By leveraging assets we create opportunities for present and future change.

8 Positive Psychology Defined Positive Psychology focuses on: “What kinds of families result in children who flourish, what work settings support the greatest satisfaction among workers, what policies result in the strongest civic engagement, and how people’s lives can be most worth living.” (p. 5) Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.

9 Well-Being Contributors Lyubomirsky, S. (2007). The how of happiness: A scientific approach to getting the life you want. New York: Penguin.

10 Five Pillars of Well-Being (Intentional Activities) 1.Positive Emotion 2.Engagement 3.Meaning 4.Relationships 5.Accomplishments Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: The Free Press.

11 Considerationsfor Leveraging Assets

12 Considerations for Leveraging Assets Focus on fundamental skills such as listening, attending, and eliciting client feedback and respond to that feedback immediately as a means of strengthening the therapeutic relationship. Researchers have identified several aspects of the alliance (i.e., empathy, positive regard, congruence) that are known contribute to contribute to better overall alliances.Focus on fundamental skills such as listening, attending, and eliciting client feedback and respond to that feedback immediately as a means of strengthening the therapeutic relationship. Researchers have identified several aspects of the alliance (i.e., empathy, positive regard, congruence) that are known contribute to contribute to better overall alliances.

13 Collaborate with clients on determining which exercises provide the best fit. Numerous studies in psychotherapy have demonstrated the client’s rating of the therapeutic alliance (i.e., the combination of client-therapist bond, collaboration with the client on goals, and collaboration with the client on tasks to accomplish those goals) as a reliable and consistent predictor of eventual treatment outcome.Collaborate with clients on determining which exercises provide the best fit. Numerous studies in psychotherapy have demonstrated the client’s rating of the therapeutic alliance (i.e., the combination of client-therapist bond, collaboration with the client on goals, and collaboration with the client on tasks to accomplish those goals) as a reliable and consistent predictor of eventual treatment outcome.

14 Consider cultural and contextual factors with positive interventions. Any fixed moral vision that sees happiness as a yardstick of a good life should be avoided. For example, a youth raised in a European-American culture may think of happiness as a process of autonomy and self-determination, whereas a client from another culture may see happiness as relating to others and fulfilling obligations.Consider cultural and contextual factors with positive interventions. Any fixed moral vision that sees happiness as a yardstick of a good life should be avoided. For example, a youth raised in a European-American culture may think of happiness as a process of autonomy and self-determination, whereas a client from another culture may see happiness as relating to others and fulfilling obligations. Rashid, T. (2009). Positive interventions in clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 65(5),

15 Encourage clients to use agreed-upon exercises in a routine and ongoing manner, continue those exercises that have proven beneficial, and experiment with new ones as needed. In studies researchers have found that people with the highest levels of happiness are the ones who maintain adherence to the exercises they were asked to try.Encourage clients to use agreed-upon exercises in a routine and ongoing manner, continue those exercises that have proven beneficial, and experiment with new ones as needed. In studies researchers have found that people with the highest levels of happiness are the ones who maintain adherence to the exercises they were asked to try. “Circumstances happen to people, and activities are ways that people act on their circumstance.” (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005, p. 118) Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, Review of General Psychology, 9,

16 Package exercises to increase the likelihood of benefit. It may not be practical for clients to do several exercises in given day; however, it is suggested that therapists encourage clients to try more than one exercise and do so on multiple occasions over an agreed-upon time frame. In doing so it can be helpful to work with clients on a combination of exercises that can both contribute to an immediate boost of happiness and those that can be incorporated into everyday routines and provide longer-term satisfaction.Package exercises to increase the likelihood of benefit. It may not be practical for clients to do several exercises in given day; however, it is suggested that therapists encourage clients to try more than one exercise and do so on multiple occasions over an agreed-upon time frame. In doing so it can be helpful to work with clients on a combination of exercises that can both contribute to an immediate boost of happiness and those that can be incorporated into everyday routines and provide longer-term satisfaction.

17 Positive Emotion

18 “Our preoccupation has been the relief of suffering, the alleviation of negative emotions… It is clearly not the whole story.” – Aaron Beck – Aaron Beck

19 Positive Emotion Happiness (and lastingly happier); Joy; Life SatisfactionHappiness (and lastingly happier); Joy; Life Satisfaction Past, Present, and FuturePast, Present, and Future Positivity: 3:1 Ratio (Fredrickson)Positivity: 3:1 Ratio (Fredrickson) Signature StrengthsSignature Strengths The Language of ChangeThe Language of Change GratitudeGratitude SavoringSavoring MindfulnessMindfulness Focus on What Went Well (or 3 Things)Focus on What Went Well (or 3 Things)

20 Positivity Ratios Give the person a notebook, journal, calendar, or piece of paper. Divide the paper into sections with each section representing a day of the week. There should be enough room for up to 20 entries per day.Give the person a notebook, journal, calendar, or piece of paper. Divide the paper into sections with each section representing a day of the week. There should be enough room for up to 20 entries per day. Have the person write down events that affect how they feel during the course of the day. The person should write the event down in as close proximity as possible to the actual time of the event.Have the person write down events that affect how they feel during the course of the day. The person should write the event down in as close proximity as possible to the actual time of the event. Next to each event, have the person select one of the following words to describe how they felt about that event:Next to each event, have the person select one of the following words to describe how they felt about that event: Type 1: Amused, grateful, inspired, interested, joyful, love, proud, sereneType 1: Amused, grateful, inspired, interested, joyful, love, proud, serene Type 2: Angry, ashamed, disgust, guilt, hate, sad, scared, stressedType 2: Angry, ashamed, disgust, guilt, hate, sad, scared, stressed Add up number of Type 1 responses, then Type 2 responses. Divide the Type 1 total by the Type 2 total to create a Positivity Ratio.Add up number of Type 1 responses, then Type 2 responses. Divide the Type 1 total by the Type 2 total to create a Positivity Ratio. Examples: 5 events listed, 2 Type 1 and 3 Type 2 their ratio would be 0.67:1Examples: 5 events listed, 2 Type 1 and 3 Type 2 their ratio would be 0.67:1 Example 2: 11 events listed, 8 Type 1 and 3 Type 2 their ratio would be 2.67:1Example 2: 11 events listed, 8 Type 1 and 3 Type 2 their ratio would be 2.67:1

21 VIA Signature Strengths Values in Action (VIA)Values in Action (VIA) VIA Survey of Character StrengthsVIA Survey of Character Strengths Six Categories:Six Categories: 1.Strengths of Wisdom and Knowledge 2.Strengths of Courage 3.Strengths of Humanity 4.Strengths of Justice 5.Strengths of Temperance 6.Strengths of Transcendence

22 VIA Signature Strengths (cont.) 1.Wisdom and Knowledge: Cognitive strengths that entail the acquisition and use of knowledge 2.Courage: Emotional strengths that involve the exercise of will to accomplish goals in the face of opposition, external or internal 3.Humanity: Interpersonal strengths that involve “tending and befriending” others 4.Justice: Civic strengths that underlie healthy community life 5.Temperance: Strengths that protect against excess 6.Transcendence: Strengths that forge connections to the larger universe and thereby provide meaning

23

24 Character Strengths and Posttraumatic Growth Character Strengths found to predict Posttraumatic Growth:Character Strengths found to predict Posttraumatic Growth: BraveryBravery GratitudeGratitude HopeHope KindnessKindness ReligiousnessReligiousness Character Strengths found to be important mediators of success in situations characterized by significant cognitive, emotional, and physical challenges:Character Strengths found to be important mediators of success in situations characterized by significant cognitive, emotional, and physical challenges: CourageCourage HonestyHonesty LeadershipLeadership OptimismOptimism Self-regulationSelf-regulation TeamworkTeamwork Mathews, M. D. (2008). Positive psychology: Adaptation, leadership, and performance in exceptional circumstances. In P. A. Hancock & J. L. Szalma (Eds.), Performance under stress (pp ). Aldershot, England: Ashgate. (Eds.), Performance under stress (pp ). Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

25 Character Strengths and Common Concerns Presenting Problem Potential Character Strength Utilized Effective prevention of depression relapse Perspective, Curiosity, Judgment, Spirituality Residual depressive symptoms Curiosity, Perseverance Anxiety Self-Regulation, Bravery, Fairness, Curiosity Body-image issues Gratitude, Kindness Drug Use Self-Regulation, Bravery Trauma Perseverance, Bravery, Hope Improved attention and working memory Self-Regulation, Love of Learning Reduced anxiety; adaptive learning dealing with threat Self-Regulation, Curiosity, Perspective Improved romantic relationships Love, Kindness, Social Intelligence Decreased negative self-focused attention Zest, Humor Decreased negative affect Zest, Hope Rashid, T. (2009). Positive interventions in clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 65(5),

26 Signature Strengths Exercise Take one signature strength and for the following week use that strength in a new way, every day.Take one signature strength and for the following week use that strength in a new way, every day. Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), American Psychologist, 60(5),

27 The Costs of Negativity A recent study shows that extensive discussions of problems and encouragement of ‘‘problem talk,’’ rehashing the details of problems, speculating about problems, and dwelling on negative affect in particular, leads to a significant increase in the stress hormone cortisol, which predicts increased depression and anxiety over time.A recent study shows that extensive discussions of problems and encouragement of ‘‘problem talk,’’ rehashing the details of problems, speculating about problems, and dwelling on negative affect in particular, leads to a significant increase in the stress hormone cortisol, which predicts increased depression and anxiety over time. People who are in a more positive mood are better liked by others and more open to new ideas and experiences.People who are in a more positive mood are better liked by others and more open to new ideas and experiences. Byrd-Craven, J., Geary, D. C., Rose, A. J., & Ponzi, D. (2008). Co-ruminating increase stress hormone levels in women. Hormones and Behavior, 53, 489–492. Hormones and Behavior, 53, 489–492. Fredrickson, B. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2,

28 Gratitude A prized propensity in the Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and Jewish traditions.A prized propensity in the Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and Jewish traditions. Being thankful for and appreciating the actions of another.Being thankful for and appreciating the actions of another. Emerges upon recognizing that one has received a positive outcome from another person who behaved in a manner that was costly to him or her, valuable to the recipient, and intentionally rendered.Emerges upon recognizing that one has received a positive outcome from another person who behaved in a manner that was costly to him or her, valuable to the recipient, and intentionally rendered. Can also result from a nonhuman action or event.Can also result from a nonhuman action or event.

29 Gratitude Visit 1.Think of someone who has done something important and wonderful for you, yet who has not been properly thanked. 2.Reflect on the benefits you received from this person, and write a letter expressing your gratitude for all he or she did for you. 3.The letter should be approximately 300 words. Rehearse the letter over and over until you know it by heart. 4.Arrange to deliver the letter personally, and spend some time with this person talking about what you wrote.

30 Gratitude Journals; Diaries; Post-itsJournals; Diaries; Post-its Poster BoardsPoster Boards Bulletin BoardsBulletin Boards Private and Public “Expressions”Private and Public “Expressions”

31 Strategies for Savoring Share with Others: Seek out other to share an experience.Share with Others: Seek out other to share an experience. Memory Building: Take a mental photograph or a physical souvenir of an event and reminisce about it later with others.Memory Building: Take a mental photograph or a physical souvenir of an event and reminisce about it later with others. Sharpening Perceptions: Focus on specific aspects of an experience.Sharpening Perceptions: Focus on specific aspects of an experience. Absorption: Become totally immersed in the pleasure and try not to think about other matters.Absorption: Become totally immersed in the pleasure and try not to think about other matters. By Comparison: Once a day, take the time to enjoy something that is usually hurried; note the difference.By Comparison: Once a day, take the time to enjoy something that is usually hurried; note the difference.

32 Mindfulness Mindfulness is an overarching human strength closely linked with human well-being and the ability to adaptively self-regulate feelings and actions;Mindfulness is an overarching human strength closely linked with human well-being and the ability to adaptively self-regulate feelings and actions; In flexing the self-regulation muscle, a mindful disposition offers new insights by enhancing cognitive flexibility, which decreases the need to control or alter environment and experiences; the individual then moves toward acceptance and genuine appreciationIn flexing the self-regulation muscle, a mindful disposition offers new insights by enhancing cognitive flexibility, which decreases the need to control or alter environment and experiences; the individual then moves toward acceptance and genuine appreciation Rashid, T. (2009). Positive interventions in clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 65(5),

33 Mindfulness Exercises Identify key words that are validate, support, inspire, and increase optimism. Then, say those key words, repeating them in different ways while noticing the feelings, thoughts, and images that arise. When you are done, write about your experience for 5-10 minutes.Identify key words that are validate, support, inspire, and increase optimism. Then, say those key words, repeating them in different ways while noticing the feelings, thoughts, and images that arise. When you are done, write about your experience for 5-10 minutes. Capture a positive state (i.e., feeling joy, spontaneous, inspired, or the like) and focus on the words for minutes, becoming fully immersed in the positive state.Capture a positive state (i.e., feeling joy, spontaneous, inspired, or the like) and focus on the words for minutes, becoming fully immersed in the positive state. Breathing space exercise is when a 3-minute exercise in which the person tunes into the present moment, focusing on the breath, and then expanding the awareness to sense the whole body.Breathing space exercise is when a 3-minute exercise in which the person tunes into the present moment, focusing on the breath, and then expanding the awareness to sense the whole body. Mindful walking and other forms of behavioral activation have been linked with increased energy and well-being.Mindful walking and other forms of behavioral activation have been linked with increased energy and well-being.

34 What Went Well? 1.For one week, identify and write down three good things that went well each day; 2.Write down what influenced or caused those things; 3.At the end of the week reflect on the collection of good things.

35 Creating Positive Emotion: Further Exercises “Your Way” – (1) Ask the person to give his or her definition of “happiness”; (2) Have the person rate his or her current level of happiness on a scale of 1- 10; (3) Work with the person to identify two ways to boost his or her level of happiness up to one point over the next week“Your Way” – (1) Ask the person to give his or her definition of “happiness”; (2) Have the person rate his or her current level of happiness on a scale of 1- 10; (3) Work with the person to identify two ways to boost his or her level of happiness up to one point over the next week “Broaden-and-build” – positive emotions expand what an individual feels like doing at any given time. (1) Have the person listen to a song, watch a movie, or read a passage from a book; (2) Have the person identify one of five emotions he or she feels (i.e., joy contentment, fear, anger, or neutral); (3) Have the person list everything he or she would like to do at that moment.“Broaden-and-build” – positive emotions expand what an individual feels like doing at any given time. (1) Have the person listen to a song, watch a movie, or read a passage from a book; (2) Have the person identify one of five emotions he or she feels (i.e., joy contentment, fear, anger, or neutral); (3) Have the person list everything he or she would like to do at that moment.

36 Creating Positive Emotion: Further Exercises (cont.) Help others to more easily adapt to changing circumstances by trying something new “on the fly,” then writing or talking with someone about how it felt to exercise creativityHelp others to more easily adapt to changing circumstances by trying something new “on the fly,” then writing or talking with someone about how it felt to exercise creativity Encourage “practicing happiness” (start small – example: smiling at others)Encourage “practicing happiness” (start small – example: smiling at others) Use music, stories, movies and other similar mediums to help others experience positive emotionUse music, stories, movies and other similar mediums to help others experience positive emotion

37 Engagement

38 Engagement “Being at one” with some absorbing activity (Flow)“Being at one” with some absorbing activity (Flow) Involves loss of self-consciousnessInvolves loss of self-consciousness Considered the opposite of Positive EmotionConsidered the opposite of Positive Emotion Goal-directedGoal-directed Art, sports, conversationArt, sports, conversation

39 Flow in Action Choose an activity that the person can focus on without interruption (e.g., a creative endeavor, conversation, etc.)Choose an activity that the person can focus on without interruption (e.g., a creative endeavor, conversation, etc.) Have the person engage in the activity for a minimum of 20 minutesHave the person engage in the activity for a minimum of 20 minutes Immediately following the activity, have the person write down what he or she remembers about the experienceImmediately following the activity, have the person write down what he or she remembers about the experience

40 Positive Relationships

41 Numerous studies document the link between society and psyche: people who have close friends and confidants, friendly neighbors, and supportive co-workers are less likely to experience sadness, loneliness, low self-esteem, and problems with eating and sleeping. The single most common finding from a half century's research on the correlates of life satisfaction, not only in the United States but around the world, is that happiness is best predicted by the breadth and depth of one's social connections. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

42 Positive Relationships Building positive relationships and social connectionsBuilding positive relationships and social connections People who are socially connected are more resilient to the challenges of lifePeople who are socially connected are more resilient to the challenges of life Two kinds of social connectionsTwo kinds of social connections 1.One to one: friendships; pets 2.Group/community connections: neighborhoods, interest groups, church communities, professional or work groups, groups of friends, sports teams, military units, support groups and so on.

43 Exercises for Building Positive Relationships Do Cognitive MappingDo Cognitive Mapping Learn about and invest in others’ interests. Let others know they are valued by knowing the “little” things.Learn about and invest in others’ interests. Let others know they are valued by knowing the “little” things. Use activities, games, puzzles, or problems situations that foster cooperation and “working together,” which creates “we- ness”Use activities, games, puzzles, or problems situations that foster cooperation and “working together,” which creates “we- ness” Active Constructive Responding (ACR)Active Constructive Responding (ACR)

44 Active Constructive Responding Active-constructive responding (an enthusiastic response): “That’s great! I wonder what other positive changes might be on the horizon for you.”Active-constructive responding (an enthusiastic response): “That’s great! I wonder what other positive changes might be on the horizon for you.” Active-destructive responding (a response that points out the potential downside): “So is that going to be their expectation going forward?”Active-destructive responding (a response that points out the potential downside): “So is that going to be their expectation going forward?” Passive-constructive responding (a muted response): “That’s nice, Mike.”Passive-constructive responding (a muted response): “That’s nice, Mike.” Passive-destructive responding (a response that conveys disinterest): “I didn’t get outside all day.”Passive-destructive responding (a response that conveys disinterest): “I didn’t get outside all day.”

45 Meaning

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47 Meaning The “Meaningful Life”The “Meaningful Life” Subjective sense of meaning is strongly correlated with happinessSubjective sense of meaning is strongly correlated with happiness Using what is best inside you to belong to and serve something bigger than you are (the “larger” world and society)Using what is best inside you to belong to and serve something bigger than you are (the “larger” world and society) Positive Institutions (i.e., religion, politics, family, community, etc.)Positive Institutions (i.e., religion, politics, family, community, etc.) Practice Positive DeviancePractice Positive Deviance AltruismAltruism “Future-Mindedness” can help a person to become more creative, optimistic, and hopeful“Future-Mindedness” can help a person to become more creative, optimistic, and hopeful Finding Life Purpose (and/or developing the spiritual self)Finding Life Purpose (and/or developing the spiritual self) Pascale, R., Sternin, J., & Sternin, M. (2010). The power of positive deviance: How unlikely innovators solve the world’s toughest problems. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press. world’s toughest problems. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.

48 Altruism Actions or behaviors that are intended to benefit another person.Actions or behaviors that are intended to benefit another person. Can be motivated by personal egotism, or it can be prompted by “pure” empathic desire to benefit another person, irrespective of personal gain.Can be motivated by personal egotism, or it can be prompted by “pure” empathic desire to benefit another person, irrespective of personal gain. Exercise: Choose something that you can do for another person to make their life better. Complete the act without telling the other person. Write about what how you felt after completing the act of altruism.Exercise: Choose something that you can do for another person to make their life better. Complete the act without telling the other person. Write about what how you felt after completing the act of altruism.

49 Future Pull 1.Find a vision for the future 2.Identify and dissolve perceived barriers to the preferred future 3.Make an action plan to reach the perceived future

50 50 Finding Life Purpose or Direction Four signals or life energies: 1.Blissed 2.Blessed 3.Pissed 4.Dissed

51 Meaning and Purpose: Further Exercises Encourage youth to join the “movement” movement.Encourage youth to join the “movement” movement. Identify a new cause or effort to invest self in (sometimes it is necessary to challenge youth and others to use their dissatisfaction and/or sarcasm and take action)Identify a new cause or effort to invest self in (sometimes it is necessary to challenge youth and others to use their dissatisfaction and/or sarcasm and take action)

52 Accomplishment

53 Accomplishment Often pursued for its own sakeOften pursued for its own sake Self-discipline (Grit and Determination) is twice as important as IQSelf-discipline (Grit and Determination) is twice as important as IQ AchievementAchievement CompetenceCompetence MasteryMastery Development of New SkillsDevelopment of New Skills Accomplishments over life spanAccomplishments over life span “Donors” and “accumulators”“Donors” and “accumulators”

54 Accomplishment: Exercises “Spread the Word”“Spread the Word” Diaries, journals, scrapbooksDiaries, journals, scrapbooks Artwork, musicArtwork, music Public speakingPublic speaking


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