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Cooperator: Jeff Whitmus, Research Assistant pH 2.5 to 3.5 units urea prill urease NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 +

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Presentation on theme: "Cooperator: Jeff Whitmus, Research Assistant pH 2.5 to 3.5 units urea prill urease NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 +"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cooperator: Jeff Whitmus, Research Assistant

3 pH 2.5 to 3.5 units urea prill urease NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - NH 4 + OH - CO H 2 O HCO OH -

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5 lot of work published lot of work published factors influencing losses are well-known: e.g. soil moisture, CEC, temperature, pH factors influencing losses are well-known: e.g. soil moisture, CEC, temperature, pH Big question ….. How much are we losing ?

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8 urea urea +NBPT OH -

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10 mast and shuttles

11 + urea background 200 m urea + Agrotain 20 m

12 NH 3(g) wind direction urea granules diffusion & turbulence convection NH 3(g) height of gas profile development 5 shuttles - gradient spacing masts placed in the center of circular plot

13 stainless steel spiral coated with oxalic acid front back

14 NH 3(g) rotate on pivot & face into wind

15 recharged shuttles

16 measured in five planes net area ÷ fetch distance Height x x x x x Horizontal flux x x x x x

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19 Fertilized applied – March 26 “light snow on soil surface & air-temp. 21 F” air-temp. 21 F” soil surface with fertilizer prills beginning to dissolve

20 Precipitation no rain 0-2 wks 1.54” 2-8 wks Soil temp (1 cm) = 34.3 F Air temp. = 33.1 F Soil temp (1 cm) = 38.5 F Air temp. = 38.7 F

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22 Fertilized applied – March 25 “light snow & air-temp. 18 F” soil surface frozen 30 F

23 Precipitation. 0.01” = 0-2 wks 0.89” = 2-8 wks Soil temp (1 cm) = 38.0 F Air temp. = 41.5 F Soil temp (1 cm) = 30.7 F Air temp. = 33.4 F

24 Soil urea analysis hydrolysis occurs more slowly in cold soils 3 wks before urea is gone

25 November 14 - fertilization date surface damp from melting snow

26 Soil-temp. (1 cm) 0-1 wk = 33.8 F 1-3 wk = 28.9 F

27 Dec 4 th - 3 wks post-fertilization

28 December 18 th … winter arrived!

29 Campaign Cooperator site Fertilization date UreaAgrotain % Kaercher2008April Kaercher2008Oct Peterson2008Nov Peterson2009March Kaercher2009March † percentage of applied N lost as NH 3(g)

30 October 9, 2008 application, air-temp. 45 F October 9, 2008 application, air-temp. 45 F dry soil & no rain for 24 day dry soil & no rain for 24 day Nov. 2-5 = 0.98” ppt. Nov. 2-5 = 0.98” ppt. 1 wk post-fertilization

31 $ 55 $ 380 x 100 = 14.5% N losses or differential between urea and Agrotain would need to be ~14.5%

32 Campaign Cooperator site Fertilization date UreaAgrotain % Kaercher2008April Kaercher2008Oct Peterson2008Nov Peterson2009March Kaercher2009March † percentage of applied N lost as NH 3(g)

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34 springfall winter NaNO 3 urea control

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