Presentation on theme: "Secondary School Bullying: Psychodrama empowering bystanders to decrease bullying. Supervisors: Dr. Paul O’Halloran & Dr. Kathleen Gregory La Trobe University."— Presentation transcript:
Secondary School Bullying: Psychodrama empowering bystanders to decrease bullying. Supervisors: Dr. Paul O’Halloran & Dr. Kathleen Gregory La Trobe University
Defining bullying Early definitions conceptualized bullying as; a subset of aggressive behaviours that intentionally caused harm to the recipient the desire to hurt or put someone under pressure (Boultan & Underwod, 1992) Repeated oppression, physical or psychological, of a less powerful person by a more powerful person or group A systematic abuse of power (Smith & Sharp, 1994)
International Intervention Programs The First Bergen Project Against Bullying 1991 was a comprehensive school program that became the blue print for most intervention programs. Provided training for teachers, parents and pupils. Directed at reducing forms of indirect and direct bullying 50% reduction in self-reported bullying (Olweus, 1991)
The Flanders Study, Belgium, was interested in whether sustained support to schools would help reduce bullying rates. Directive intervention Clear rules established No significant changes found in secondary schools Small changes in role of bystander in primary school (Stevens et al., 2000)
The Sheffield Study, England proposed that effectiveness increased when the whole school community was involved. Clear guidelines on how to deal with bullying were established 17% increase in students who had not been bullied 14% decrease in frequency of those being bullied (Smith et al., 1999)
Prevalence Rates Usually large scale studies involving a combination of primary and secondary schools Ranges from 11.3% in Finland (Kumpulainen et al., 1998) to 49.8% in Ireland (O’Moore & kirkham, 2001) In secondary schools bullying incidents ranges from - 4.2% in British schools (Salmon, James & Smith, 1999) - 10% in American schools (Nansel et al., 2001) Australian Schools; approximately 10% of students from Years 4-9 report being bullied most days with 25% of students reporting being bullied every few weeks or more. (Cross et al., 2009). New Zealand Schools; 6% of student report being bullied weekly or more often, 5% of students report bullying other students at least weekly (Denny et al.,2014)
Australian Definitions of Bullying Intentional harm that is repeated over time, and where there is an imbalance of power between the bully and victim (Rigby & Smith, 2011) For the purpose of my study bullying will be defined as; “Bullying is when a person is ignored, left out on purpose, or not allowed to join in; hit kicked or pushed around; has lies or nasty stories told about them to make other kids not like them; is made afraid of getting hurt and/or made fun of and teased in a mean and hurtful way.” ( D.Cross, et al 2011)
Australian Intervention Programs Although most schools are involved in programs addressing the issue of bullying there are limited numbers of empirically evaluated programs. The Friendly Schools Project for primary school children using a whole school approach (Cross, et al., 2011) The Beyond Bullying Secondary Program; An innovative program empowering teachers to counteract bullying in schools ( Parada, R. H. & Craven, R. G., 2008) A New South Wales Study involving a single secondary school (Peterson & Rigby, 1999)
Impact of Bullying There are a range of psychological and physical symptoms associated with bullying Both bully and victim are at greater risk of developing severe adjustment problems that may persist into adulthood.
Impact of Bully-Victim Role Adolescents in the role of bully-victim are the most severely rejected by their peers, and display serious adjustment problems with more; - externalizing behaviors - internalizing behaviors - psychosomatic behaviors than either those in the role of bully or victim. (Kumpulinen et al., 1998)
Impact of Bully Role Adolescents that bully tend to have a range of externalizing problems; e.g., alcohol and cigarette abuse, vandalism and stealing Bullies are more likely to have attention deficit disorder and suffer depression into adulthood (Kumpulinen et al., 1998, Riittakerttu et al., 1999)
Impact of the Victim Role Victims of bullying are more likely to be unhappy and absent from school than non-victims. Suffer from low self-esteem, insecurity, depression, suicidal ideation. Suffer from a range of psychosomatic symptoms including sleep difficulties, bed wetting, headaches and stomach aches. ( Forero et al., 1999; Kumpulinen et al., 1998)
Cyberbullying Cyberbullying or bullying using the Internet or mobile is a form of bullying that includes both direct and indirect aggressive components. ( Dooley, Pyzalski & Cross, 2009) Cyberbullying victimisation is significantly related to school problems, shoplifting, carrying a weapon and running away from home. (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007, 2008) Australian study including 7,200 secondary students found 7% were cyberbullied frequently, 4% cyberbullied others frequently and 2% reported frequent cybervictimisation perpetration. (Cross et al., 2009) Cybervictimisation more prevalent for females and cyberperpetration more prevalent for males (Cross et al., 2009)
Current Interventions Have limited success CBT doesn’t necessary suit all students Whole school approach varying degrees of success Different approaches required Psychodrama is able to work more directly with different roles involved in bullying
Peer Roles Bullying frequently occurs in front of peers and often develops into a group process. Peers are present 88% of the time Intervening occurs only 19% of the time (Hawkins, Pepler & Craig, 2001) Six distinct participant roles have been identified; the bully, victim, assistant, reinforcer, defender and outsider. (Salmivalli, 1996) Bystander roles are now recognized as key roles for changing bullying behaviour (Salmivalli,1996)
Psychodrama Psychodrama is a group action method that was developed by Jacob Moreno in early 1900s. Embedded in this therapeutic technique is the concept of role development. Roles develop at different stages in a person’s life in response to situations, environment and people that surround them.
Sociodrama Is a variation of psychodrama that deals with the collective roles A group member is chosen to represent a collective role, e.g., the role of the bully The scene is structured and enacted The drama can be frozen and roles can be examined. All group members can experience all roles involved.
Psychodrama and Adolescents Psychodrama has successfully been used with adolescents in various setting; - group settings working with depression, anxiety, trauma (Cossa, 2006) - individually dealing with a range of problems (Colwell, 2004) - in school settings dealing with bullying (Browne, 1999; McKimmie, 1999)
Research Proposal Victorian high schools are currently struggling with the issue of bullying Bullying is often a group process Psychodrama is often a group process Psychodrama allows the development of new perspectives, insights and new roles Psychodrama may be an effective intervention with bullying?
Proposed Intervention Initially a pilot project with a group of Year 7 students followed by a program run across an entire year level A series of 4 sessions targeting bystander behavior Data collected pre and post intervention, with the possibility of a focus group
Program Sessions Session One Introduction to roles -Spectrogram -5 things you know about bullying -Video -Discussion with focus on bystander Session Two The value of the bystander –Discussion re bully/victim focus –Video with new focus –Bystander pitfalls –Role play around school yard bullying –Cyberbully role play
Session Three Activating the bystander –Concretize internal conflict –Cyberbullying what makes a difference? how are bystander roles played out? Consequences? Session Four Consolidation of learning –Revisit bystander roles –Ethical Protector, values and beliefs associated with role –Development of catch phrase –Postcard to self
Proposed Research Questions Is psychodrama a useful intervention for reducing bullying in a Victorian secondary school? Is psychodrama an effective intervention for reducing rates of cyberbullying in Year 7 students? Does the intervention have an effect on student self-efficacy? Does the intervention have an effect on student mental health? Does the intervention have an effect on bystander behavior?
Outcome Measures Not finalised as yet Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire (BPBQ). 50 items focused on participant roles (Demaray, etal., 2014) Short version, 14 items, of DASS-21 focused on depression and anxiety (Szabo, 2010) Cyberbullying measure Self- efficacy measure Searching for a suitable psychodrama measure
Items from the BPBQ Bully I have tried to make people dislike another student I have said bad things about another student I have thrown things at another student I have stolen from another student Assistant I have made fun of someone when they were pushed, punched or slapped When someone else tripped another student on purpose, I laughed When someone else was verbally threatening another student, I joined in When someone else threw something at another student I joined in ( Demaray, etal., 2014:15)
Victim I have been made fun of I have been ignored I have been pushed or shoved I have been threatened by others Defender I helped someone who was purposely tripped I defended someone who had things purposely taken from them I defended someone who was being pushed, punched, or slapped I tried to become friends with someone after they were picked on Outsider I pretended not to notice when someone else tripped another student on purpose I ignored it when someone threw something at another student I pretended not to notice when someone was destroying another student’s property I pretended not to notice when things were taken or stolen from another student (Demaray, etal., 2014:16)
DASS-21 Questions Depression I felt I wasn’t worth much as a person I felt that life was meaningless I felt that there was nothing to look forward to I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything I felt down hearted and blue Anxiety I felt close to panic I felt scared without any god reason I experienced trembling in (e.g., in the hands) I felt like I was going to panic and make a fool of myself (Szabo, 2010:5)
Perceived Challenges Use of appropriate measures Ensuring measures aren’t lengthy Focus groups Embedding intervention within school curriculum Recruitment of numbers Restructuring of groups
References Boultan, M.J. & Underwood, K. (1992). Bully/victim problems among middle school children. British Journal of Educational psychology, 62, 73-87. Browne, R. (1999). A systems approach to Bullying Australian and New Zealand Psychodrama Journal, 8, 27-37 Colwell, J. (2004) The flowering of a rose. Australian and New Zealand Psychodrama Journal, 13, 5-11. Cossa, M. (2006). Rebels with a cause working with adolescents using action techniques. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Cross, D., Hall, M., Hamilton, G., Pintabona, Y. & Erceg, E. (2004a). Australia: The Friendly Schools project. In Smith, P.K., Pepler, D. & Rigby, K. (Eds) Bullying in schools How successful can interventions be? United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. (187-210). Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hearn, L., Epstein, H., Monks, L., Lester & Thomas, L (2009) Australian Covett Bullying Prevalnce Study. Child Health Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University, Perth.
Cross, D., Monks, H., Hall, M., Shaw, T., Pintabona, Y., Erceg, E., Hamilton, CG., Roberts, C., Waters, S. & Lester, L. (2011) Three-year results of the Friendly Schools whole-of-school intervention on children’s bullying behaviour. British Educational Research Journal, 37:1, (105-129). Cross, D., Monks, H., Hall, M., Shaw, T., Pintabona, Y., Erceg, E., Hamilton, CG., Roberts, C., Waters, S. & Lester, L. (2011) Three-year results of the Friendly Schools whole-of-school intervention on children’s bullying behaviour. British Educational Research Journal 37:1, (105-129). Denny,S., Peterson, E. R., Stuart, J., Utter, J., Bullen, P., Fleming, T., Ameratunga, s., Clark, T. & Milfont, T. (2014) Bystander intervention, bullying, and victimization: A multilevel analysis of New Zealand High Schools. Journal of School Violence (1-28). Demaray, M.K., Summers, K.H., Jenkins,L.N. & Becker, L.D. (2014) Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire (BPBQ): Establishing a reliable and valid measure. Journal of school Violence, 1-31. Dooley, J., Pyzalski, J. & Cross, D. (2009) Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology 217, 182-188.
Forero, R., McLellan, L., Rissel, C. & Bauman, A. (1999) bullying behaviour and psychosocial health among students in New south Wales Australia: A cross sectional survey. British Medical Journal, 7:319 (7206); 344-348. Hawkins, D.L., Pepler, D.J. & Craig, W.M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10, 512-527. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. (2007) Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal of School Violence. 6:3, 89-112. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. (2008) Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimisation. Deviant Behaviour. 29:2, 129-156 Kumpulainen, K., Rasanen, E., Henttonen, I., Almqvist, F., Kresanov, K., Linna, S., Moilenen, I., Piha, J., Puura, K., & Tamminen, T. (1998). Bullying and psychiatric symptoms among elementary school-age children. Child Abuse & Neglect. 22:7, 705- 717. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R., S., Ruan, W., J., Simons-Morton, B.& Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviours among US youth. Journal of American Adolescents. 285, 2094- 2100.
McKimmie, P. (1999). Building a student support system using Sociometry. Australian New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal, 8, December, 39-42. Parada, R.H., & Craven, R. G., (2008). The Beyond Bullying Secondary Program An innovate program empowering teachers to counteract bullying in schools. Self- Processes, Learning and Enabling Human Potential. Information Age Publishin. 373- 426. Peterson, L. & Rigby, K. (1999). Countering bullying at an Australian secondary school with students as helpers. Journal of Adolescence. 22, 481-492. Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among school children: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. In Pepler, D. & Rubin, K. (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (411-448) New Jersey: Hillsdale. O’Moore, M. & Kirkham, C. (2001). Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behaviour. Aggressive Behaviour. 27, 269-283. Rigby, K. & Cox, I.K. (1996). The contributions of bullying and low self-esteem to acts of delinquency among Australian teenagers. Personal Individual Differences. 21, 411- 426. Riittakerttu, K., Rimpel, M., Marttunenen, M., Rimpel, A., Rantanen, P. (1999). Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finish adolescents: school survey. British Medical Journal. August 7; 319(7206), 348-351.
Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Bjorkqvist, K., Osterman, K. & Kaukianen, A. (1996) Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within a group. Aggressive Behaviour, 25, 81-89. Salmon, G., James, A. & Smith, D.M. (1998). Bullying in schools: self-reported anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in secondary school children. British Medical Journal. 317, 924-925. Smith, P.K, Morita, Y., Junger-Tas, J., Olweus, D., Catalano, R. & Slee P. (1999) The nature of school bullying A cross-national perspective. New York: Routledge. Stevens, V. deBourdeaudhuij, I. & Van Oost, P. (2000) Bullying in Flemish schools: an evaluation of anti-bullying interventions in primary and secondary schools. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 70, 195-210. Smith, P., & Sharp, S. (1994). School Bullying Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge.
Szabo, M. (2010) The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor structure in a young adolescent sample. Journal of Adolescence. 33, 1-8.