Presentation on theme: "“Mentoring Across Cultures” State of the State Conference Thursday, March 23, 2006 Lisa C. Chavers, Ed.D. Bowling Green State University."— Presentation transcript:
“Mentoring Across Cultures” State of the State Conference Thursday, March 23, 2006 Lisa C. Chavers, Ed.D. Bowling Green State University
Purpose of this session To help practitioners increase their awareness, knowledge, and skill when mentoring those who are culturally different To encourage practitioners to differently influence and impact the culture of your group, organization, or occupation by the way they accept and value other males/females from all races, ethnicities, and religious persuasions, with a minimum of mis- understandings To more effectively interact with all individuals in a variety of settings
“Mentoring Across Cultures” “Know how you are in the world and recognize that other people may have very different (and equally valid) ways of being in the world” -Phillippe Rosinski (founder of Coaching Across Cultures) By 2050, nearly half of all those in the U.S. will be from a non–White, non-anglo culture. -Elizabeth Mitchell (author of article, “Working in a Diverse Society)
Core Aspects of Culture Race Ethnicity National origin Geographic Region History Religion Gender Age (Rust & Fry, 2004)
Terms & Definitions Mentor: a more advanced or experienced person who serves as a teacher, adviser, sponsor, coach, counselor, and role model to a mentee. The mentor inspires, develops, challenges, and corrects the mentee (Kram, 1985) Culture: a groups design of living; the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other distinctive products of human work and thought (www.dictionary.com) Cultural Competence: a set of similar behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enable them to interact respectfully and effectively in cross-cultural situations (http://cecp.air.org/cultural/) Cultural Diversity: a variety in terms of nationality, creed, race, gender, sexual orientation, age, language, economics, social class, religion, education, income, geographic location, and family structure. Cultural Sensitivity: awareness of another’s culture
Terms & Definitions Con’t. Ethnocentrism: belief that one’s own cultural ways are better than anyone’s; belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group (dictionary.com) Encapsulation protection: A culture–centered perspective that keeps individuals from inappropriately imposing our own culturally encapsulated self-reference criteria in the evaluation of others. (Connerley, 2005) Insularity: having a narrow, provincial attitude about anything unfamiliar or different (implies wearing blinders) (Peterson, 2004)
Definition of Cultural Intelligence Knowledge about cultures (facts and cultural traits) + Awareness (of yourself and others) + Specific Skills (behaviors) ______________________________________ = Cultural Intelligence (Peterson, 2004)
Phases of the Traditional Mentoring Relationship Initiation-6 months to two years Cultivation-2 years to 5 years Separation-6 months to 2 years Redefinition-Indefinite (Kram, 1985)
A structured mentoring match Mentors and mentees complete detailed profiles of their personal and professional interests, areas of expertise, and demographics Mentees then choose a mentor based on the similar interests or backgrounds listed in the profile, increasing the probability of a right match
LEARN Model of Cultural Communication Listen with sympathy and understanding to the person’s perception of the problem Explain your perceptions of the problem Acknowledge and discuss the differences and similarities Recommend solutions Negotiate agreement Reference: Berlin EA. & Fowkes WC, Jr.: A teaching framework for cross-cultural health care—Application in family practice, In Cross-cultural Medicine. West J. Med. 1983, 12: 139, 93-98.
CRASSH-Course Values & Principles in Cultural Competence Training Culture Respect Affirmation Sensitivity Self-Awareness Humility (Rust & Fry, 2004)
CRASSH-Course Values & Principles in Cultural Competence Training Culture: The importance of shared values, perceptions, and connections in the experience of health, health care, and the interaction between professionals and those they serve Respect: Understanding the demonstrations of respect are more important than gestures of affection or shallow intimacy, and finding ways to learn how to demonstrate respect in various cultural contexts. Affirmation: Recognizing each individual as the world’s expert on his or her own experience, being ready to listen and to affirm that experience. Re-framing cultural differences, by identifying the positive values behind behavior we perceive as “different.” Sensitivity: Developing an awareness of specific issues within each culture that might cause offence, or lead to a breakdown in trust and communication between professionals and those they serve. Self-Awareness: Becoming aware of our own cultural norms, values, and “hot- button” issues that lead us to mis-judge or mis-communicate with others. Humility: Recognizing that none of us ever fully attains “cultural competence” but instead making a commitment to a lifetime of learning, of peeling back layers of the onion of our own perceptions and biases, being quick to apologize and accept responsibility for cultural mis-steps, and embracing the adventure of learning from others’ first-hand accounts of their own experience. (Rust & Fry, 2004)
Characteristics of Ineffective mentors Culturally insensitive- Does not attend to issues of race or gender Aloof/distant-not engaging; will not know and affirm mentee or help with developmental needs Inexperienced Critical and Demeaning Controlling-manipulative Exploiting (emotionally, sexually, and in the area of scholarship) Pathologic-general dysfunctionality Poor match-dissimilar attitudes, values, and beliefs Possesses unrealistic expectations (Johnson, 2002)
Cultural obstacles Lack of same-gender or same-race mentors for upwardly mobile females and multi-ethnic individuals Certain multi-ethnic female mentors are actively pursued and are burned out due to a burdensome mentoring load and set of responsibilities
The Impact of Race, Gender, and Culture on Mentoring The pros and cons of same race or gender matching vs. cross race matching is debatable Paula Friedman (2004) noted that both the mentor and mentee need to understand and be sensitive to differences in background, communication and learning styles. Linzer and Beckman (1997) suggest that differences in gender, race, and age should be considered when choosing a mentor, and, be openly discussed between the mentor and mentee.
The Impact of Race, Gender, and Culture on Mentoring Con’t. The same–race matching may expedite the development of trust, but does not guarantee a successful mentoring match The qualities of a mentor, rather than race, matter the most. In another study by Morrow and Styles (1995), it was found that mentors and mentees in same-race and cross race matches were almost equally likely to form strong and effective relationships
The Impact of Race, Gender, and Culture on Mentoring Con’t. Researchers propose the use of multiple mentors as a strategy for resolving this dilemma Collectively, the mentoring team may be able to provide a holistic perspective on professional growth and development. (Friedman, 2004)
Goals of Competent Mentoring Cultural awareness-appreciate and accept differences Cultural knowledge-knowledge promotes understanding between cultures. Deliberately seek out various world views Cultural skill-learn how to assess more than written facts. Explain an issue from another’s perspective; reduce resistance and defensiveness. Acknowledge interactive mistakes that may hinder the desire to communicate Cultural encounters-let go if the security of stereotypes and remain open to individuality (Campinha-Bacote, 1996); (Kavanagh, 1992); (Tervalon, 1998)
Behaviors of culturally competent mentors include: Engaging in self-assessment and expression of individual heritage, identity, values, beliefs, and biases Studying concepts relevant to diversity, such as power, privilege, and prejudice Forming relationships based on trust and caring even in the face of individual differences Acquiring knowledge about and being willing to listen to other perspectives Recognizing different and similar learning, communication, motivational, and decision-making strategies Developing effective responses to challenges posed by new behaviors Using inclusive language and appropriate questioning Becoming involved with diverse individuals outside of work and classroom environments Taking responsibility for one’s own personal, professional, and educational development Developing the ability and willingness to challenge prejudices and oppression - The Cultural Competence Project team (CCPT) University of San Diego (2001)
Concluding thought “It is hardly possible to overstate the value of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves, and with modes of thought and action unlike those with which they are familiar… such commitment has always been and is peculiarly in the present age, one of the primary sources of progress.” -John Stuart Mill
“Mentoring Across Cultures” Thank you for your attention and participation! Lisa C. Chavers, Ed.D. Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies and Director of Project Search Bowling Green State University firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Lisa C. Chavers Bowling Green State University Reference List “Mentoring Across Cultures” Session Beer, J. E. (2003). Culture creating your own metaphors. Retrieved March 2006, from http://www.culture-at-work.com/concept4.html Berlin, E.A., & Fowkes, W.C. (1983). A teaching framework for cross-cultural health care: Application in family practice. Western Journal of Medicine, 139, 934-938. Connerly, M. & Pederson, P. (2005). Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: Developing awareness, knowledge and skills. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publication. Cultural competence. (n.d.). Retrieved March 2006, from http://cecp.air.org/cultural/ Cultural competency in medicine. (2006). Retrieved March 2006, from http://www.amsa.org/programs/gpit/cultural.cfm Eby, L.T., McManus, S.E., Simon, S.A., & Russell, J.E.A. (2000). The portege’s perspective regarding negative mentoring experiences: The development of a taxonomy. Journal of Vocational Behavior 57, 1-21. Friedman, P.K., Arena, C., Atchison, K., Beemsterboer, P.L., Farsai, P., Giusti, J.B., Haden, N.K., Martin, M.E., Sanders, C.F., Sudzina, M.R., Tedesco, L.A., Williams, J.N., Zinser, N., Valachovic, R.W., Mintz, J.S., & Sandmeyer, M.S. (2004). Report of the ADEA president’s commission on mentoring. Journal of Dental Education, 68, 390-396. Heathfield, S.M. (2006). Diversity in the workplace: Search for similarities. Retrieved March 2006, from http://humanresources.about.com/od/diversity/a/diversity.htm Johnson, W.B. (2002). The intentional mentor: Strategies and guidelines for the practice of mentoring. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 33, 88-96.
Mentoring Across Cultures Kram, K.E., Isabella, L.A. (1985). Mentoring alternatives. The role of peer relationships in career development. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 110-132. Mitchell E. (n.d.). Working in a diverse society. Retrieved March 2006, from http://humanresources.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=hu manresources&zu=http%3A%2F%2Fpages.prodigy.net%2Flizmitchell%2Fvolksware%2Faa041801a.htm Morrow, K.V. & Styles, M.B. (1995). Building relationships with youth in programs settings: a study of Big Brothers/ Big Sisters. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures. Peterson, B. (2004). Cultural intelligence: A guide to working with people from other cultures. Maine: Intercultural Press. Rust, G. & Fry, Y. (2004). Crash course in cultural competency skills. Retrieved March 2006, from http://www.msm.edu/ncpc/crash/cultural_competency_pp.pdf Sustein, C. R. (2001). Republic.com. Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, 14, 753-766. Turner, M.M. (2006). Mentoring for change. Retrieved March 2006, from http://www.mentoringforchange.co.uk/snippets/coach_x_cultures.php For more information about top mentor publications and recommended books, periodicals and videos on mentor refer to http://www.mentors.ca/topmenbks.html