2 Institutional Aggression BATsA01/2/3 Outline and evaluate two or more explanations/models of institutional aggression.
3 Institutional aggression Mexico prison riot leaves 19 deadAt least 19 inmates have been killed and more than 20 injured in a riot in a prison in the northern Mexican state of Durango, security officials say.Smoke was seen rising from the prison in the town of Gomez Palacio, and gunshots were heard.Officials said the violence resulted from rivalry between gangs in the jail.State official Jorge Torres said that while the situation was now calm the overall atmosphere was tense. He described the prison as a "time bomb".
4 Institutional aggression Institutions include: prisons, hospitals, army bases, centres for children: borstals, special institutions: Psychiatric, psychologicalBUT ALSOLocations where large numbers are brought together: naval ships, training centres etc
5 Institutional aggression Psychological issueHow does the institution promote aggressive conditions?This may involve “initiation rituals” orTreatment of individuals within the institution or acts of a wider nature: protests against society and enforcement powers.
7 Institutional aggression Across England and Wales in 2006 there were 11,476 violent incidents between prisoners, a 541% increase over the 1791 incidents a decade earlier.Two major models have been proposed:ImportationDeprivation
8 The Origins of Institutional Aggression Situational Forces- Factors present in social situations that can collectively encourage the showing of certain aggressive / antisocial behaviours that otherwise would not have been seenThe ‘Deprivation Model’ – Paterline and Peterson, 1999
9 The Origins of Institutional Aggression Situational Forces-The ‘Deprivation Model’ – Paterline and Peterson, 1999Crowding – increases fear and frustrationStaff experience – trainee nurses, newer prison guards more likely to suffer assaults
10 Institutional Aggression The Deprivation model:Steffensmeier (1996) – here it is suggested that the problem is with the institution: the over crowding, the loss of personal rights, the strict regime.Sykes (1958) refers to the “pains” of imprisonment.Loss of freedom and heterosexual relationships,Isolation from the community. Boredom, petty rules, intrusion into privacy.All of these create the tensions that will ultimately result in violence and aggression.
12 Institutional aggression Both aspects of the Importation model andDeprivation model along with deindividuationhave been used to explain the excesseswithin Abu Ghraib a US military base prison used to interrogate insurgents during the Iraq war.
13 Institutional aggression The Lucifer Effect – Zimbardo (2007)Here Zimbardo elaborated on his findings from the Stanford prison experiment (Zimbardo et al 1973)where he suggested that individuals take on roles within an institution setting and the situation becomes one of “them” and “us”. Each “side” employ strategies to outwit and subvert the other in order to gain control of the institution.Hence the statement that “ the lunatics” are running the asylum.” This pre supposes a power struggle for control of the institution.In the “Lucifer Effect” Zimbardo demonstrates how good people can become evil.
14 Institutional aggression He cites the Milgram (1963) shock experiments to show how people under a state of influence (or control) by others will carry out their instructions despite evidence that they are causing harm to others.They are acting out a role and cannot find a way of escape from the situation they find themselves in. Few are willing to rebel and refuse the instructions.Obey ‘Legitimate Authority’
15 The Origins of Institutional Aggression Dispositional forces (individualistic)Characteristics of the individual (their personality) that contribute to the behaviours usually regarded as antisocial or aggressive.‘Importation Model’ – Irwin and Cressey (1962)
16 The Origins of Institutional Aggression Dispositional forces‘Importation Model’ – Irwin and Cressey (1962) – prisoners bring own social histories and traits with them (not ‘blank slates’)This affects how they adapt to prison environmentNormative systems (cults, the alliances, the drug habits and social problems ) developed outside prison ‘imported’ into prisonCompounded within the fixed limits of the prison and the prison or institution becomes a “pressure cooker” for aggression.
17 Dispositional ForcesAbu Ghraib- not the group forces but particular ‘bad apples’ that are not representative of the wholeZimbardo Lucifer effect 3 mins in (7-10 mins)
18 Over to you - Hazing and Genocide Prepare a group presentation on either Hazing or Genocide – include …What is it?Why does it happen?What Situational and Dispositional factors are involved, if any? (How can Importation and/or Deprivation model help explain this type of institutional aggression?)Use commentary and synoptic points to evaluate the theoriesYou have 30 minutes before presentation time…Read pages 64-65hazing
20 HomeworkQuestion 3 p65‘Discuss psychological explanations of two or more forms of institutional aggression.’ (9 +16 marks)Aggression in prisonsHazingGenocide (Staub (importance of bystanders), dehumanisation, obedience to authority)