Presentation on theme: "PSYA3 Aggression Institutional Aggression. BATs A01/2/3 Outline and evaluate two or more explanations/models of institutional aggression."— Presentation transcript:
PSYA3 Aggression Institutional Aggression
BATs A01/2/3 Outline and evaluate two or more explanations/models of institutional aggression.
Institutional aggression Mexico prison riot leaves 19 dead At least 19 inmates have been killed and more than 20 injured in a riot in a prison in the northern Mexican state of Durango, security officials say. Smoke was seen rising from the prison in the town of Gomez Palacio, and gunshots were heard. Officials said the violence resulted from rivalry between gangs in the jail. State official Jorge Torres said that while the situation was now calm the overall atmosphere was tense. He described the prison as a "time bomb".
Institutional aggression Institutions include: prisons, hospitals, army bases, centres for children: borstals, special institutions: Psychiatric, psychological BUT ALSO Locations where large numbers are brought together: naval ships, training centres etc
Institutional aggression Psychological issue How does the institution promote aggressive conditions? This may involve “initiation rituals” or Treatment of individuals within the institution or acts of a wider nature: protests against society and enforcement powers.
Institutional Aggression Aggression in prisons:
Institutional aggression Across England and Wales in 2006 there were 11,476 violent incidents between prisoners, a 541% increase over the 1791 incidents a decade earlier. Two major models have been proposed: Importation Deprivation
The Origins of Institutional Aggression Situational Forces- Factors present in social situations that can collectively encourage the showing of certain aggressive / antisocial behaviours that otherwise would not have been seen The ‘Deprivation Model’ – Paterline and Peterson, 1999
The Origins of Institutional Aggression Situational Forces- The ‘Deprivation Model’ – Paterline and Peterson, 1999 Crowding – increases fear and frustration Staff experience – trainee nurses, newer prison guards more likely to suffer assaults
Institutional Aggression The Deprivation model: Steffensmeier (1996) – here it is suggested that the problem is with the institution: the over crowding, the loss of personal rights, the strict regime. Sykes (1958) refers to the “pains” of imprisonment. Loss of freedom and heterosexual relationships, Isolation from the community. Boredom, petty rules, intrusion into privacy. All of these create the tensions that will ultimately result in violence and aggression.
Both aspects of the Importation model and Deprivation model along with deindividuation have been used to explain the excesses within Abu Ghraib a US military base prison used to interrogate insurgents during the Iraq war.
Institutional aggression The Lucifer Effect – Zimbardo (2007) Here Zimbardo elaborated on his findings from the Stanford prison experiment (Zimbardo et al 1973) where he suggested that individuals take on roles within an institution setting and the situation becomes one of “them” and “us”. Each “side” employ strategies to outwit and subvert the other in order to gain control of the institution. Hence the statement that “ the lunatics” are running the asylum.” This pre supposes a power struggle for control of the institution. In the “Lucifer Effect” Zimbardo demonstrates how good people can become evil.
Institutional aggression He cites the Milgram (1963) shock experiments to show how people under a state of influence (or control) by others will carry out their instructions despite evidence that they are causing harm to others. They are acting out a role and cannot find a way of escape from the situation they find themselves in. Few are willing to rebel and refuse the instructions. Obey ‘Legitimate Authority’
The Origins of Institutional Aggression Dispositional forces (individualistic) Characteristics of the individual (their personality) that contribute to the behaviours usually regarded as antisocial or aggressive. ‘Importation Model’ – Irwin and Cressey (1962)
The Origins of Institutional Aggression Dispositional forces ‘Importation Model’ – Irwin and Cressey (1962) – prisoners bring own social histories and traits with them (not ‘blank slates’) This affects how they adapt to prison environment Normative systems ( cults, the alliances, the drug habits and social problems ) developed outside prison ‘imported’ into prison Compounded within the fixed limits of the prison and the prison or institution becomes a “pressure cooker” for aggression.
Dispositional Forces Abu Ghraib- not the group forces but particular ‘bad apples’ that are not representative of the whole s/view/20516/http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/video s/view/20516/ Zimbardo Lucifer effect 3 mins in (7-10 mins)
Over to you - Hazing and Genocide Prepare a group presentation on either Hazing or Genocide – include … What is it? Why does it happen? What Situational and Dispositional factors are involved, if any? (How can Importation and/or Deprivation model help explain this type of institutional aggression?) Use commentary and synoptic points to evaluate the theories You have 30 minutes before presentation time… Read pages hazing
Homework Question 3 p65 ‘Discuss psychological explanations of two or more forms of institutional aggression.’ (9 +16 marks) Aggression in prisons Hazing Genocide (Staub (importance of bystanders), dehumanisation, obedience to authority)