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Atlas Project Jennifer Peterson Minnesota Geography June 29, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Atlas Project Jennifer Peterson Minnesota Geography June 29, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atlas Project Jennifer Peterson Minnesota Geography June 29, 2011

2 Atlas Page 81 Major City – Worthington Minor Cities – Fulda, Slayton, Westbrook, Wilmont, Heron Lake Counties – Jackson, Nobles, Cottonwood, Murray Important Features of the Area – Okaben Lake, End-O-Line Railroad Park, Ocheda Lake, Heron Lake, Oxbow Wildlife Management Area, Takot Wildlife Management Area

3 Landscape of the Area Being in the southwestern corner of the state… – The surface features of the region was carved out by the Des Moines Glacial lobe (Hart, 27) – It is located in the tall grass prairie biome (Hart, 44) – Agriculturally it is located in the Corn Belt (Hart, 150)

4 History of Worthington The city’s site was first settled in the 1870’s as a railroad station near Lake Okabena – Stream engines would take water from the nearby lake

5 Worthington 2010 Census Has a population of 12,764 – That number is up 13% since 2000 – The racial makeup is… 76% White 20% Hispanic The median household income is $36,250 – 9% of families and 13% of the population live below the poverty line

6 Why so many Hispanics in the Area? The Swift and Company Meat Packing Plant is been known to recruit illegal immigrants from across the border in Mexico – So when they do get across the border, they know to head to Worthington where there is jobs for illegal immigrants In December 2006, the Immigration and Customs Enforcement staged a pre-dawn raid of the plant – They interviewed and hauled off hundreds in busses I also have a close friend in the area who told me about the recruiting in Mexico And my mother and father were driving through Worthington and saw the I.C.E. busses leaving the city

7 George Dayton Was a banker and real estate developer in Worthington – moved to Minneapolis to start Dayton's Department Store (now Macys) The 1890 Dayton House is a community and historic landmark – It is now a bed and breakfast

8 Worthington Has many community events throughout the year including… – Lake Okabena Windsurfing Regatta – Pioneer Village Old Fashioned 4 th of July – International Festival – Nobles County Fair – King Turkey Day – Winterfest

9 Fulda Founded in 1881, as a stop along the Milwaukee Road Was named after the city Fulda in Hesse, Germany Predominantly an agricultural city Promotes itself as the “Home of the Wood Duck” – Due to the large number of wood ducks that migrate through the region to man-made nest throughout the town – They have a Wood Duck Festival every June

10 Slayton Was named after Charles Wesley Slayton, a land agent for the railroad, purchased the land The city was founded in 1881 and incorporated in 1887 – They still have the “Days of the ’87 Celebration” every weekend after the 4 th of July Located between two major highways, Slayton is known as the "Hub City" of southwest Minnesota

11 Westbrook Is a small town of 755 people – 98% of the population is white – The average household income is $24,063 Was named after the west branch of Highwater Creek, which flows across the southeast part of this township Westbrook was organized in 1870, platted in 1900 and incorporated as a village in 1901

12 Wilmont Willmont Township (note the 2 L’s) was established in 1878 – The citizens were torn between Willumet and Lamont. They came to a compromise The railroad through town was completed at the end of 1899 It became a town within the year and was named (sort of) after the township it was located in

13 Heron Lake The village was founded in fall 1871 just after the railroad was constructed through the town The lake itself was named after the vast colonies of nesting black-crowned night herons The lake itself is not a healthy body of water – Most waterfowls, that was at one point quite vast and diverse, are no longer seen near the lake aerial-a html

14 Ocheda Lake Located 3 miles south of Worthington Is only about 5 ½ feet deep – In 1882, it was over 20 feet deep The lake has public access and is well stocked with fish – Northern Pike (up to 30”) – Black and yellow Bullheads – Black and white crappies – Yellow perch – Orangspotted sunfish

15 End-O-Line Railroad Park Located in Currie Minnesota Has a 6 mile bike trail through the scenic landscape In 1872 Archibald and Neil Currie walked into what was to become the village of Currie. They were Scotsmen whose Scottish ancestors had immigrated to Canada and then south to Minnesota ew=frontpage&Itemid=1

16 Takot Wildlife Management Area Is located in Cottonwood county near the town of Dundee Encompasses 5,131 acres including Talcot Lakes and its surrounding marshes This area is historically important for migrating waterfowl There is a campground on the south end of Talcot Lake There are also controlled hunt zones, wildlife sanctuary, and waterfowl refuge within the W.M.A.

17 Atlas Page 86 Major City – Rochester Minor Cities – Harmony, Preston, Lanesboro, Spring Valley, Chatfield, Stewartville, Saint Charles Counties – Olmsted, Winona, Fillmore, Mower Important Features of the Area – Richard J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood Forest, Root River Bike Trails, Mystery Cave, Niagara Cave, Rochester Art Center

18 Landscape of the Area Being in the southeastern corner of the state… – The surface features of the region were relatively untouched by the glaciers (Hart, 27) – It has been called the Bluff Country because the bedrock is close enough to the surface to influence the land (Hart, 26) – It is located in the Deciduous Forest biome (Hart, 44) – Agriculturally it is located in the Dairy Belt (Hart, 150)

19 Rochester Located on both banks of the Zumbro River Is the third largest city in Minnesota outside of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area Best known for being the home of the Mayo Clinic Is also the home for a major IBM facility

20 Rochester 2010 Census It has a population of 106,769 – The population has risen 24% since 2000 The median household income was $57,957 – 5.9% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line The racial make up of Rochester is… – 82% white – 7% Asian – 6% African American – 5% Hispanic Of the 82% white population… – 40% German American – 16% Norwegian American – 12% Irish American – 8% English American – 5% Swedish American

21 Why is Rochester where it is? There is no natural topographical reason why Rochester started where it did One day in 1883, a tornado came through what is now Rochester In its aftermath, the local Sisters of St. Francis raised $60,000 in order to start a hospital The recruited Dr. William Mayo From La Suer The hospital opened 2 years later and had 12 beds Today, the Mayo Clinic covers several blocks and employs a staff of 50,000 and sees 2 million patients every year Toren 99, 57

22 Harmony “Biggest Little Town in Southern Minnesota” Has a population of 1,020 Has the largest Amish population in the state Amish came to Minnesota in the 1970s from Wayne County, Ohio, where they were becoming over- populated Harmony is the starting point of Amish Tours of Harmony for a tour of Amish country The Harmony-Preston State Trail connects the town to the renowned Root River Trail system The JEM Theatre, a recently renovated movie theater originally built in 1940, is the only one operating in Fillmore County

23 Preston Is a town of 1,325 people It called itself the “America’s Trout Capital” – They have a 20 ft high trout on MN State Highway 16 A community named after Luther Preston, a millwright It was built around 1890 for holding grain for shipment by railroad to the Eastern cities of the United States The Preston Overlook was created in 1937 – site was chosen on of the highest point on the bluffs above the Root River, 90 feet below

24 Lanesboro Has a population of 754 The governor named Lanesboro the “Rhubarb Capital of Minnesota” – They have a Rhubarb Festival the first weekend in June Popular tourist destination – Many small bed and breakfasts (my family goes here several times a year) – The Root River Trail runs through downtown – They have a small art gallery in historic downtown – Is the home of the Commonweal Theater Company since 1989 – They have a Farmers Market every Wednesday and Saturday during the growing season

25 Spring Valley Has a population of 2,479 Richard Sears, founder of Sears Roebuck, grew up in Spring Valley Almanzo Wilder, husband of Laura Ingalls Wilder, lived on a farm near Spring Valley In 1904, the Spring Valley City Hall was built originally was a Carnegie Library

26 Chatfield Has a population of 2,779 Is a city split between two counties – It is called "The Gateway to Bluff Country" and "The Chosen Valley” Because Chatfield is not connected to the Blufflands State Trail it does not have many tourist attractions – However they do host their annually “Western Days” celebration every 2 nd weekend in August

27 Saint Charles Has a population of 3,735 Annual city festival is Gladiolus Days which is always held the weekend before labor day in August – This is in honors the late Carl H. Fischer, a local resident who developed many varieties of gladiolus flowers – This is how the community gained the title of "Gladiolus Capitol of the World” Is known as the gateway to Whitewater State Park, which is located 7 miles north of the city

28 Richard J. Dorer Memorial National State Forest is a 1,016,204 acres reserve of forest in Minnesota's Driftless Area Among the best places in the state for birdwatching, camping, fishing, hiking, motorized trail riding, horseback riding, and mountain biking Features six recreational areas, seven campgrounds, and one day use area

29 Root River State Bike Trails 60 mile-long trail for bicycling, hiking, skating, and skiing The bike trail is a converted old railroad bed – This makes it very flat and easy for the whole family to bike on – It also runs along the river and has amazing views It starts in Fountain and continues through Houston The river is also a great place for canoeing

30 Forestville Mystery Cave State Park The park is in the Driftless Area, noted for its karst topography, which includes sinkholes and caves Longest cave in Minnesota - spanning over 13 miles underground It is a network of passages that was dissolved by moving water

31 Niagara Cave Is one of the largest caves in the Midwest Features ancient fossils 60-foot (18 m) waterfall in the largest room in the cave It also has a wedding chapel that has had over 400 weddings since it opened

32 Rochester Art Center The centers vision is to be a cultural center for innovation and creativity through contemporary art The building is an award- winning, 21st century, copper- zinc-glass wrapped building Offers over 100 adult and children educational programs – Classes – Workshops – Film presentations – Lectures – Gallery tours 23/detail/?page=7

33 Atlas Page 54 Major City – Brainerd Minor Cities – Crosby, Crosslake, Niswa, Pine River, Baxter, Jenkins, Pequot Lakes Counties – Cass, Crow Wing, Morrison Important Features of the Area – Whitefish Chain of Lakes, Gull Lake, Pelican Lake, Crow Wing State Forest, Breezy Point, Fort Ripley, Pillsbury State Forest, Beginning of the Mississippi River

34 Landscape of the Area Being in the center of the state… – The surface features of the region was carved out by the Des Moines, Superior, and Rainy Glacial lobe (Hart, 27) – It is located in the Northern Coniferous Forest biome (Hart, 44) – It is located in an area not known for vast amounts of agriculture (Hart, 150) – However it is located on to of the Cuyuna Iron Range (Hart, 220)

35 Brainerd Was originally an Ojibwe territory Was first seen by a white man on Christmas in 1809 by Zebulon Pike who was looking for headwaters of the Mississippi River Brainerd Township was started by the Northern Pacific Railroad President John Gregory Smith in 1870 – He named it after his wife, Anne Eliza Brainerd Smith, and father-in- law, Lawrence Brainerd Brainerd became a city on March 6, 1873 October 27, 1933, the First National Bank of Brainerd became briefly famous when it was held up by Baby Face Nelson and his gang The Northwest Paper Company built Brainerd's first paper mill in 1903 Brainerd claims lumberjack Paul Bunyan as its native

36 Brainerd 2010 Census Has a population of 13,590 – That is up 3% since 2000 The racial make-up if the city is… – 96% white – 2% Native American The median income is $26,901 – 11.8% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line a html

37 Brainerd Lakes Area Is the area just north of Brainerd consisting of 465 lakes – They have over 100 lodging choices including resorts, bed and breakfasts, and campgrounds – A golf course – Many hiking/biking trails – Tons of lakes for fishing – And countless amounts of outdoor events in the area throughout the summer including… Fireworks Art Festivals Outdoor concerts Tours Sporting Events

38 Baxter The Brainerd area serves as a major tourist destination for Minnesota, and Baxter is a regional retail center Has a population of 7,610 (up 37% in the last 10 years) – This has resulted from the Creation if Highway 371 that bypasses Brainerd which opened in 2000 and was upgraded in 2005 to make it a four lane expressway

39 Crosby Has a population of 2,386 It is located next to its twin city Ironton which is one of the cities on the Cuyuna Iron Range The whole town was started because of iron – It was plotted and built specifically so it was not on any iron deposit – Milford Mine disaster happened at Crosby in people dies when a new tunnel was blasted too close to Foley Lake and the water flooded the area In 1934 the city elected the first

40 Crosslake Has a population of 2,141 The City covers thirty seven square miles – Over one-third of this area covered by water – Over 121 miles of shoreline Quaint Small town feel with many amenities – Very good Ice Cream Shop – A Zorba’s Pizza/Bar

41 Nisswa Has a population of 1,971 Located near Gull Lake Was founded as Smiley township in 1900 Was renamed in 1908 when it was incorporated by town citizen Leon Lum who named if after a Ojibwa word for “middle” Has many popular tourist destinations including… – The Chocolate Ox, A candy and ice cream shop – Stonehouse Coffee, a coffee shop that roasts it’s own beans in house – Zorba’s Pizza/Bar on Gull Lake – Rafferty’s Pizza on Nisswa

42 Pine River Has a population of 944 Was originally a fur and logging community George Barclay was the founder of the city Mr. Barclay operated Barclay's Trading Post alongside what is now Highway 371 Mr. Barclay was shot and killed in a now non- existent hotel – No one ever figured out who did it Main street, Barclay Avenue, is named after him

43 Pequot Lakes Has a population of 2,162 (that is up 128% since 2000!) No one quite knows where the name “Pequot” came from – The Pequot Indians were from Connecticut not Minnesota – The folklore of the town is that a Daughter of the Indian chief named O-Pequot let the settlers use her house for the school and church – No one knows for sure? /

44 Whitefish Chain of Lakes Is a chain of 13 lakes all connected Paleoindians were the first human inhabitants of the area between 12,500 and 9,000 years ago Used as waterways by Native Americans and fur traders in the 1600’s Logging in the region occurred between 1890 and 1920 A dam was built in Crosslake in 1885 – this changed the topography in the area and connected all the lakes – Its is still in use today in order to maintain the water levels for recreation

45 Paul Bunyan Trail Is the longest bike trail in Minnesota at 110-miles It connects the Heartland Trail, the Blue Ox Trail and the Cuyuna State Trail Connects Brainerd to Bemidji Was once part of Burlington Northern Railroad that was abandoned in 1983 The trail is… – Fully paved – Many rest stops – Campgrounds along the trail – Places to swim around the trail

46 Fort Ripley Is a 53,000-acre military and civilian training facility operated by the Minnesota National Guard Location of the camp was selected in 1929 by Ellard A. Walsh, Adjutant General of the State of Minnesota The camp is a state game refuge with resources managed cooperatively by the Department of Military Affairs and Department of Natural Resources It also houses the Minnesota Military Museum

47 Pillsbury State Forest Is a deciduous and coniferous forest You can see the Yellow Lady Slipper Lots of wildlife including… – Grouse (hunting in the fall) – Beaver – Dear – Black Bears – Wolves – Waterfowl of all kinds – Wild turkeys – Bald eagles Outdoors recreational activities include… – Swimming – Fishing – Canoeing – Kayaking – Hiking – Horseback Riding – Cross-country Skiing

48 Atlas Page 38/39 Major City – Grand Marais Minor Cities – Grand Portage, Hovland County – Cook Important Features of the Area – Grand Portage Indian Reservation, Grand Portage State Park, Pigeon River, Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Devils Kettle, Gunflint Trail

49 Landscape of the Area Being in the northeastern corner of the state… – The surface features of the region was carved out by the Superior Glacial lobe (Hart, 27) The rocks consist of Igneous lava formations The lakes of the BWCAW are located in depressions formed by differential erosion of the tilted layers of limestone – It is located in the Coniferous Forest biome (Hart, 44)

50 Grand Marais Is French for “Great Marsh” It has two bays – Ojibwe named it Gichi-biitoobiig which means "double body of water” Is known for it’s Art Colony, Playhouse, and Music Organization Also is known for Sven and Ole’s Pizza

51 Grand Marais 2010 Census Has a population of 1,351 – This number has held stable for the last 10 years The average Household income is $33,493 – And 7%of the families and 10% of the population fall below the poverty line The racial make-up of the city is… – 96% White – 3% Native American

52 Hovland Is an unincorporated community It was settled during the late 1880s by fishermen of primarily Scandinavian ancestry Naniboujou Club Lodge is located very nearby – Named after Nanabozho, a character from the Ojibwa traditional stories – Was originally built during the Great Depression but due to the economic condition the project was abandoned – The architecture is a mesh between Art Deco and Native American Décor – Now it is a family lodge that is owned by the Ramsey family (good friends of my mothers)

53 Grand Portage Has a population of 557 The town is located in the Grand Portage Indian Reservation Is the home of North West Company fur trading post and was a major fur trading hub in the 1800’s – The portage was used to bypass the rapids and waterfalls on the Pigeon River The British built Fort Charlotte nearby to protect this lucrative trade, as well as the Native American and European settlements in the area that supported it merica/United_States_of_America/Minnesota/ Grand_Portage /TravelGuide- Grand_Portage.html

54 Grand Portage Indian Reservation The community was considered part of the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa The census stated the area has a population of 557, however the Chippewa says they have 1,127 people enrolled in this band The community operates a casino, the Grand Portage Lodge and Casino The reservation was established as part of an 1854 treaty They also have a reconstructed trading post that is authentic for the 18th century

55 Grand Portage National Monument Is an 8.5-mile footpath which bypasses a set of waterfalls and rapids on the last 20 miles of the Pigeon River before it flows into Lake Superior The Great Hall at the reconstructed fort preserves a vital center of fur trade activity and Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage – exhibit galleries about Ojibwe culture and the fur trade, a bookstore, multi-media programs, park offices, and archives

56 Pigeon River Forms the border between Minnesota and Canada Grand Portage was formed to bypass the waterfall and rapids that are closer to Lake Superior High Falls, at 120 feet is the highest waterfall in Minnesota Located in Grand Portage State Park E2%80%93Ontario%29

57 Boundary Waters Canoe Area Is a 1.09 million acre wilderness area within the Superior National Forest Is estimated to contain some 400,000 acres of old growth forest There are hundreds of prehistoric pictographs and petroglyphs on rock ledges and cliffs Has over a thousand lakes and attracts visitors with its reputation for canoeing, canoe touring, fishing, backpacking, dog sledding, and remote wilderness character Many forest fires and windstorms have devastated the BWCA in the last 15 years – the forest is still recovering

58 Devil’s Kettle A waterfall on the Brule River in Judge C. R. Magney State Park The river splits in two around a large piece of rhyolite rock – The eastern flows goes over a two-step 50 foot waterfall that then continues downstream – The western Flow falls at least ten feet disappears into a hole No one knows where it comes out Many researchers have tried to find out where the outlet is, no one has been suscessful

59 Gunflint Trail is a 57-mile paved roadway that begins in Grand Marais, Minnesota and ends at Saganaga Lake – Also known as Cook County Road 12 Named after the rock found in the region called chert, that produces sparks It now serves as a route to lodges, outfitters, hiking trails and the lakes and rivers of the BWCA

60 Mount Josephine Is a peak of the Sawtooth Mountains – It’s summit is 1348 feet tall It overlooks the Grand Portage bay and Lake Superior It is named after Josephine Godfrey, the daughter of the trade post owner at Grand Marais – She led a party of young friends on a daylong excursion to the summit in 1853


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