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Nugget Development of Uncoated Steel (a) 2 Cycles (b) 3 Cycles (c) 4 Cycles (d) 5 Cycles (e) 6 Cycles (f) 7 Cycles (g) 9 Cycles (h) 12 Cycles [Reference:

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Presentation on theme: "Nugget Development of Uncoated Steel (a) 2 Cycles (b) 3 Cycles (c) 4 Cycles (d) 5 Cycles (e) 6 Cycles (f) 7 Cycles (g) 9 Cycles (h) 12 Cycles [Reference:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Nugget Development of Uncoated Steel (a) 2 Cycles (b) 3 Cycles (c) 4 Cycles (d) 5 Cycles (e) 6 Cycles (f) 7 Cycles (g) 9 Cycles (h) 12 Cycles [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8814, p.19, Gould & Peterson]

3 Nugget Development of Electro- Galvanized Steel (a) 5 Cycles (b) 6 Cycles (c) 7 Cycles (d) 9 Cycles (e) 12 Cycles [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8814, p.23, Gould & Peterson]

4 Nugget Development of Galvannealed Steel (a) 3 Cycles (b) 4 Cycles (c) 5 Cycles (d) 6 Cycles (e) 7 Cycles (f) 9 Cycles (g) 12 Cycles [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8814, p.25, Gould & Peterson]

5 Nugget Development of Fe-Zn Electro-Coated Steel (a) 4 Cycles (b) 5 Cycles (c) 6 Cycles (d) 7 Cycles (e) 9 Cycles (f) 12 Cycles [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8814, p.27, Gould & Peterson]

6 Electrode Alloying during Resistance Welding on Electro-Galvanized Steel HV Cu Zn Fe  m

7 Variations in Button Size during Electrode Life Testing Uncoated Steel Number of Welds (Thousands) Button Size (inch) Test Stopped at 8145 Welds

8 Variations in Electrode Tip Size during Electrode Life Testing Uncoated Steel Number of Welds (Thousands) Contact Area (in. 2 ) Test Stopped at 8145 Welds

9 Variations in Button Size during Electrode Life Testing Hot-Dipped Galvanized Steel Number of Welds (Thousands) Button Size (inch)

10 Variations in Electrode Tip Size during Electrode Life Testing Hot- Dipped Galvanized Steel Number of Welds (Thousands) Contact Area (in. 2 )

11 Variations in Button Size during Electrode Life Testing Galvannealed Steel Number of Welds (Thousands) Button Size (inch)

12 Variations in Electrode Tip Size during Electrode Life Testing Galvannealed Steel Number of Welds (Thousands) Contact Area (in. 2 )

13 Weldability Lobe for Uncoated Steel Averaged from Five Individual Lobes Minimum Nominal Expulsion Welding Current (kA) Welding Time (Cycles) [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8802, p.17, Gould & Peterson]

14 Weldability Lobe for Hot-Dipped Galvanized Steel Averaged from Five Individual Lobes Welding Current ( kA) Welding Time (Cycles) [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8802, p.19, Gould & Peterson] Minimum Nominal Expulsion

15 Weldability Lobe for Electro- Galvanized Steel Averaged from Five Individual Lobes Welding Current (kA) Welding Time (Cycles) Minimum Nominal Expulsion [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8802, p.22, Gould & Peterson]

16 Variations in Electrode Life Tests on HDG Steel Number of Welds (Thousands) Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Nugget Size (inch)

17 Dynamic Resistance Curves Beta Peak Faying Surface Resistance Faying Surface Resistance Nugget Initiation Resistance (micro-ohme) Weld Time (Cycles) (a) Uncoated Steel(b) Hot-Dipped Galvanized Steel [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8814, p.49, Gould & Peterson]

18 Dynamic Displacement Curves (a) Weld Time (Cycles) (b) Weld Time (Cycles) Displacement ( x 10 3 inches) Expulsion was noted at 12 welding cycles. Expulsion was evident at 6 welding cycles. [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8814, p.50, Gould & Peterson]

19 Oscillating Weldability Lobe - Uncoated Steel Number of Welds Current (kA) Tip Size (inches) Nominal Expulsion Tip Size Bottom Size

20 Oscillating Weldability Lobe - HDG Steel Top TipBottom Tip Number of Welds Current (kA) Tip Size (inches) NominalExpulsion

21 Oscillating Weldability Lobe - Galvannealed Steel NominalExpulsion Top TipBottom Tip Number of Welds Current (kA) Tip Size (inches)

22 Effect of Al Content in Zn Bath on Electrode Life Incomplete Al 2 O 3 Layer Increased Electrode Alloying % Al in Zn Bath Electrode Life (Number of Welds)

23 Scribe Creep on Full Painted Panels [Reference: SAE Technical Paper Series: , p.8, Mats Strom] Max. Total Scribe Creep (mm)

24 Oscillating Weldability Lobe Test Results on HDG Using Cu-Al 2 O 3 DSC Electrodes Number of Welds Current (kA) Tip Size (inches) Top Tip Bottom TipNominal Expulsion (a) Current Level Variations (b) Tip Size Variations

25 Oscillating Weldability Lobe Test Results on HDG Using Cu-Cr Electrodes Current (kA) Tip Size (inches) Number of Welds NominalExpulsion Top TipBottom Tip (a) Current Level Variations (b) Tip Size Variations

26 Electrodes Used on Uncoated Steel [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8802, p.36, Gould & Peterson] (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

27 Electrodes Used on Electro- Galvanized Steel [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8802, p.41, Gould & Peterson] (a)(b) (c) (d)(e)

28 Electrodes Used on Galvannealed Steel [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8802, p.44, Gould & Peterson] (a) (b)(c) (d)(e)

29 Electrodes Used on Hot-Dipped Galvanized Steel [Reference: EWI Research Paper: MR8802, p.39, Gould & Peterson] (a)(b) (c) (d)(e)


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