2 Why are they so IMPORTANT? Key question 18/30 marks Pass & fail A or E Happiness or despair Life or death
3 In EVERY Part (c) question AO1 = 6 marks AO2 = 12 marks
4 AO1 skills PSYCHOLOGY AS Knowledge & understanding
5 Kinds of AO1 question Key terms (definitions) Research –APFCC –Research findings and conclusions Research –Explanations –Theories
6 AO1 Knowledge and understanding 6 marks Accurate and reasonably detailed. 5-4 marks Less detailed but generally accurate. 3-2 marks Basic. 1-0 marks Very brief, flawed or inappropriate.
7Detail Explain what is meant by flashbulb memory. Flashbulb memories are like a picture of an emotional event. Is this detailed and accurate? Is it very brief or flawed? Does this help you understand what flashbulb memories are? Has it captured the key points?
8 Getting enough detail Flashbulb memories are like a picture of an emotional event. Flashbulb memories are a recollection of the context when one first heard about an emotional event. Flashbulb memories are a detailed and enduring picture of the context when one first heard about an emotional event.
9 Explain what is meant by the term flashbulb memory. (3 marks) Identify 3 or 4 bullet points for 3 mark question to help your memory: –detailed and enduring –context –emotional event –For example, remembering what you were doing/where you were when you heard about the Trade towers
10 The devil is in the detail ‘Flashbulb memory is related to emotional events.’ More detail: ‘Flashbulb memory is related to the context of emotional events.’ Even more detail: ‘Flashbulb memories are detailed and enduring.’
11 The devil is in the detail ‘Repression is when you don’t remember certain events.’ More detail: ‘Repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’ Even more detail: ‘Repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events for example Williams’ study ….’
12 The devil is in the detail ‘One study found that short-term memory has a short duration.’ More detail: ‘Peterson and Peterson found that short-term memory has a short duration.’ Even more detail: ‘Peterson and Peterson found that short-term memory has a short duration, e.g. seconds rather than minutes.’
13 To provide detailed answers … Specify exactly what you mean Use focussed and/or technical terms Use examples Cite named studies Squeeze your sponge
14 Accuracy How does one remember things accurately? What do we mean by ‘learning’? Processing is the key Understanding Accurate recall Recall vs recognition Exam anxiety
15 The Goldilocks problem 1. They don’t have enough to write. 2. Sometimes they have too much to write. What is the biggest problem for candidates?
16 Identify key points 6 minutes 100 words About 6-8 key points APFCC = 3-4 points
18 The aims Some studies have looked at the duration of memory over time but have found that memories fade. It is possible that memories actually last a lot longer than was found in these studies. The problem is that the information that people were asked to remember was not very interesting, and that’s why it was forgotten. In real life people have lots of things they do remember over a long time, but these things tend to be personally important. This study aimed to investigate very long-term memory (VLTM) in a natural setting where the things to-be-remembered were of personal significance. The memories to be recalled were of high school classmates. The study also aimed to compare verbal and visual LTM.
19 Key points Past research has found that memories fade over time. This may be because they were not very interesting. So this study looked at the duration of memories that are interesting to an individual. Memories that are personally significant – of high school classmates.
20 Reduce this to a list of bullet points –Past research –Not very interesting. –Interesting to an individual. –Personally significant. When revising check that you can remember all your bullet points. And for each bullet point write a full sentence.
21 Why it works Ensures you learn just the right amount (not too much or too little) Processing: YOU select your points and practice ELABORATING them –Levels of processing theory –Processing increases understanding –Processing and elaborating improves recall (versus rote learning) –Cues help recall (cue retrieval theory)
22 Six mark version of GAS Alarm stage: stressor perceived. E.g. increased heart rate, liver releases sugar. Effective coping strategy Resistance: restore equilibrium Resources slowly depleted Prolonged stress exhaustion Adrenal glands enlarged, organism tired Collapse and physical illness
23 AO2 skills PSYCHOLOGY AS Evaluation & commentary
24 AO2 marking allocation Commentary, analysis & evaluation Selection & use of material Range of issues and/or evidence 12-10Informed and effective EffectiveBroad range in reasonable depth or narrower range in greater depth. 9-7ReasonableNot always effective Limited depth or narrower range in greater depth. 6-4Basic Superficial consideration of restricted range. 3-0Rudimentary or absent
25 SHOCK HORROR! There is no such thing as AO2, only material that is used as AO2
26 To make AO2 effective use THE AO2 ‘VOCABULARY’ This suggests that… So we can see that… This would imply… A consequence would be… An advantage of this is… An alternative explanation could be… This is supported by… This is challenged by… Not everyone reacts the same way, for example… There may be cultural variations… This has been applied to…
27 Orne and Holland claimed that Milgram’s study lacked external validity because it did not relate to events in the real world. Milgram disagreed with this claim, and argued that it was the same underlying psychological process (agentic shift) operating in his laboratory studies of obedience as was operating in many of the atrocities carried out during the Holocaust, therefore his research could be said to apply to the real world. However, Mandel (1998) criticises this view and claims that Milgram’s study was not sufficiently similar to events in the Holocaust to justify this conclusion. In support of this claim, Mandel used evidence from a study of the massacre of Jews at Jozefow in Poland. In this event, the murderers were under minimal supervision, and continued to carry out the killings despite witnessing some of their peers refusing to carry out the order. This was in direct contrast to the findings in Milgram’s research, when the absence of direct supervision led to lower shock levels, and witnessing defiant peers led participants to also defy the experimenter. Orne and Holland claimed that Milgram’s study lacked external validity because it did not relate to events in the real world. Milgram disagreed with this claim, and argued that it was the same underlying psychological process (agentic shift) operating in his laboratory studies of obedience as was operating in many of the atrocities carried out during the Holocaust, therefore his research could be said to apply to the real world. However, Mandel (1998) criticises this view and claims that Milgram’s study was not sufficiently similar to events in the Holocaust to justify this conclusion. In support of this claim, Mandel used evidence from a study of the massacre of Jews at Jozefow in Poland. In this event, the murderers were under minimal supervision, and continued to carry out the killings despite witnessing some of their peers refusing to carry out the order. This was in direct contrast to the findings in Milgram’s research, when the absence of direct supervision led to lower shock levels, and witnessing defiant peers led participants to also defy the experimenter. WHEN IN ROME… Make life easier for the examiner AND better for you by… ‘Speaking AO2’
28 If you leave it out, it’s not AO2 STM has a short duration. Peterson and Peterson found that it was less than 18 seconds. STM has a short duration. This was demonstrated by Peterson and Peterson who found that it was less than 18 seconds. This was a laboratory study using nonsense words. This study may not tell us much about real life STM because it was conducted in a laboratory with nonsense words. Statement Effective use of evidence Statement Effective criticism
29 ‘SPEAKING AO2’ DRAWING CONCLUSIONS This demonstrates that you understand exactly what a piece of research has accomplished. e.g. Considering what a study of obedience has actually shown. Use ‘This shows that…’ to demonstrate that you understand what the conclusion is. e.g. This shows that… …people tend to ignore feelings of compassion and empathy for the victim when ordered to behave in a destructive way by an authority figure. This makes your AO2 OBVIOUS and therefore more likely to earn marks
30 ‘SPEAKING AO2’ USING RESEARCH It isn’t sufficient (or even appropriate) to simply describe supporting research, it should be built into an evaluative statement. Use ‘This is supported by…’ or ‘thus supporting the view…’ to demonstrate that you understand how this study relates to a point of view. “Evidence from Nemeth and Brilmayer (1987) showed that a minority of one who refused to change his position had little effect on others… …thus supporting the view that flexibility rather than consistency is important in minority influence”. This makes your AO2 EFFECTIVE and more likely to earn higher marks
31 ‘SPEAKING AO2’ USING RESEARCH It isn’t sufficient (or even appropriate) to simply describe supporting research, it should be built into an evaluative statement. Use ‘This is challenged by…’ or ‘thus challenging the view…’ to demonstrate that you understand how this study relates to a point of view. This is challenged by… Mandel (1998), who found, in his studies of real life events during the Holocaust, little evidence of the types of ‘blind obedience’ proposed by Milgram. This makes your AO2 EFFECTIVE and more likely to earn higher marks
32 ‘SPEAKING AO2’ ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS There is always an alternative explanation for theories or research findings. Use ‘This would challenge…’ to demonstrate that you understand how this contrasts with the theory or research conclusion. An alternative explanation might be… that participants went along with the experimenter’s instructions because they knew they were not giving real electric shocks. This would challenge the claim that… people readily engage in destructive acts against another person simply because they are locked into a subordinate relationship with an authority figure.
33 ‘SPEAKING AO2’ INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES People are different, which challenges the view that all people react in the same way. Use ‘Not everyone reacts in the same way…’ and use research evidence to support your claim. How does this limit the validity of whatever it is you are evaluating? (e.g. it may make the finding less universal) Not everyone reacts in the same way … e.g. some studies have found that women are more conformist than men (Eagly and Carli, 1981) because they are more concerned with social relationships. But… Masc Fem Neutral Males 34.15 43.05 39.65 Females 42.75 34.55 39.10 [Sistrunk & Mc David, 1971]
34 Meta-commentary Orne and Holland claimed that the study lacked internal validity (participants didn’t really believe they were giving shocks and only pretended during the study). Milgram disputed these claims, arguing that participants showed considerable stress during the study and in post- experimental interviews said they believed they were giving shocks. This type of evaluation is a form of debate (a bit like a tennis match), as one point is met by another which is in conflict with the first.
35 ‘SPEAKING AO2’ CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Cultural differences exist in many different aspects of behaviour. Use ‘A consequence of this is that…’ to demonstrate that you understand what this means for the research in question (and earn extra AO2 credit)! There may be cultural variations in this behaviour…. e.g. Bond & Smith, (1996) found that participants from collectivist countries tended to show higher levels of conformity than participants from individualist countries. A consequence of this is that… research into conformity using members of one culture may tell us little about conformity in other cultures.
36 ‘SPEAKING AO2’ APPLICATIONS Much of the psychology you have studied has VALUE through its applications. Use ‘This research has been applied to…’ to introduce the application and say why this is valuable. This research has been applied to… commercial pilot training in the US, where flight captains and first officers are assessed on the ‘obedience dynamic’, i.e. excessive domination (captain) or excessive obedience (first officer) so that accidents attributable to this relationship can be minimised.
37 DEPTH … ELABORATION THREE POINT RULE…. Identify your criticism (“What is it?”) Justify it (“How do I know that?”) Elaborate it (e.g. “Why is this a good or bad thing?”) ‘What do I know, how do I know it, and so what?’ WHY? Because it takes you from ‘reasonably effective’ to ‘effective’ (which may be the difference between a Grade C and a Grade A)
38 Criticisms: The three point rule Name the criticism Present evidence to support this Explain why it is a criticism Study lacked ecological validity. The word lists used to test memory didn’t resemble the kinds of things people do in the real world and involved one kind of memory. This means you can’t generalise the findings to memory related to different kinds of tasks.
39 Criticisms: The three point rule Name the criticism Present evidence to support this Explain why it is a criticism Study was unethical. Participants were not able to give fully informed consent and therefore agreed to participate in something that could cause them distress. This undermines the value of this research because human rights were abused.
40 Criticisms: The three point rule Name the criticism Present evidence to support this Explain why it is a criticism Study was replicated. A similar study was conducted by X in a different setting and produced similar findings. This replication supports the original findings providing external validity.
41 INFORMED COMMENTARY Milgram’s study is unethical. Milgram’s study is unethical because the participants were psychological harmed. The participants were sweating and one reportedly had an epileptic fit. Baumrind (1964) suggested Milgram showed little respect for his participants and didn’t adequately protect them. An opinion but it’s not informed An opinion with some justification A little bit more informed Very informed
43 AO1 + AO2 skills PSYCHOLOGY AS 18 Mark questions
44 1. Have an opinion The part (c) question is your chance to show that you can think about a topic in such a way as to answer a slightly more challenging question than in the part (a) and part (b) questions. Your opinions must be supported by psychological knowledge = informed.
45 2. AO1 and AO2 Each question has an AO1 component and an AO2 component. Outline and evaluate…. Discuss at least two criticisms that have been made of research into majority influence. To what extent does research (theories and/or studies) into deprivation and/or privation support the view that such experiences are reversible? Consider methods of stress management in terms of strengths and weaknesses. How do you know what is AO1 and AO2?
50 THREE PARAGRAPHS TECHNIQUE 1.AO1 (100 words) 2.AO2 (100 words) 3.AO2 (100 words) e.g. ‘Outline and evaluate….’ Outline of theories/explanations or studies = 100 words Evaluation of first theory or studies = 100 words Evaluation of second theory or studies = 100 words
51 ALTERNATIVELY… Mix and Match, but… Get the proportions right! 1.AO1 then AO2 2.AO1 then AO2 3.AO1 then AO2 etc. Whatever approach you take…. Remember that overall… one third AO1 and two-thirds AO2 in all Part (c) questions
52 WORKING BACKWARDS FROM YOUR CONCLUSION What is my conclusion? What evidence would lead to that conclusion? What arguments (or evidence) might I meet along the way, and how would I discount them? Appropriate for questions such as ‘To what extent has research shown that day care has negative effects on cognitive and/or social development?’
53 6. Answering the question that was set Describe and evaluate ethical issues in psychological research. Describe and evaluate how psychologists deal with ethical issues in psychological research. Discuss research studies into majority influence. Discuss at least two criticisms that have been made of research into majority influence. Spot the differenc e
55 The secrets of success Have an opinion AO1 should be detailed and the right amount AO2 should be effective, elaborated and informed Have a plan Be balanced Timing They are skills which need practice.
56 A note on bullet points It is acceptable to write in bullet points in an exam but they should be elaborated bullet points not one word or phrase: THIS Past research has found that memories fade over time. NOT Past research
57 Use subheadings Aims xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Findings xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
58 Make your own LITTLE BOOK of AO1 notes Three mark versions of all definitions Four mark versions of APFCC Six mark versions of research findings/conclusions (for part (c) questions too) Three and six mark versions of explanations and theories Criticisms Keep it brief And practice elaborating