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From Film to the Internet: 35 years of cartographic animation Michael Peterson Geography - University of Nebraska Omaha.

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Presentation on theme: "From Film to the Internet: 35 years of cartographic animation Michael Peterson Geography - University of Nebraska Omaha."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Film to the Internet: 35 years of cartographic animation Michael Peterson Geography - University of Nebraska Omaha

2 Personal Landmarks Super 8 Film animation Interactive animation with Macintosh Types of animation Interactive and Animated Cartography book Movie animations. Animation with sound Flight animations Thoughts about interaction and animation

3 History of Cartographic Animation Conjecture about first map animated map Maps in stone/paper for most of modern human existence Level of map interaction/ animation Time BC Ice age of cartography

4 1939 Cartographic Animation German invasion of Warsaw, Poland Disney

5 My Personal Journey University of Wisconsin-River Falls, BA Film animation with Super Boston University, MA Programming in Fortran State University of New York at Buffalo, Ph.D. More programming in Fortran / Pascal University of Zürich, Switzerland, Post-Doc

6 Super

7 MacChoro Macintosh program for Choropleth mapping Purchased 512KB, “Big Mac” in 1985 for $2,500 Ported a choropleth mapping program from a DEC VAX computer Program written in Fortran Many late hours: Adapting to event-driven computing menus and dialogs

8 1985 Big Mac 512 KB of memory 400 KB floppy-drive

9 Display Bit-map (pixels either on or off), no color 512 pixels 342 pixels

10 How MacChoro worked Polygon-based map file Spreadsheet-type data file Map update done logically by class interval rather than alphabetically 16 shadings, up to 16 classes Six different methods of data classification - Equal Interval, Quantile, Standard Deviation, Natural Breaks, Unclassed*, User-Defined

11 User Interface Map Elements Map, Title, Legend, Neatline, Text1, Text2 User-defined bounding box to define size of each element User input with dialogs and mouse

12 MacChoro Map

13 Generalization Animation

14 Temporal Animation

15 Classification Animation

16 Trend Animation

17 Map Storage/Comparison

18 Movie Editing Programs Adobe Premiere Frame-based animation With individual maps created with MacChoro Story maps concept

19 Generalization Animation Percent of births to mothers under 20 years of age; 2 to 7 classes

20 Temporal Animation Nebraska Growth in Irrigation by County

21 Classification Animation Different methods of data classification

22 Spatial Trend Age of Population by Percent, Omaha, Nebraska, by census tract

23 Interactive and Animated Cartography Prentice-Hall

24 Story Maps Universit y of Hawaii Adobe Premiere

25 Motown Maps

26 Internet Phase - Javascript > Mouseover Mouseover // TASK: PRELOADING AND RENAMING IMAGES (SEE THE EXPLANATION ABOVE){picker_n = new Image(200,200);picker_n.src = "picker.gif";red_n = new Image(200,200);red_n.src = "red.gif";blue_n = new Image(200,200);blue_n.src = "blue.gif";yellow_n = new Image(200,200);yellow_n.src = "yellow.gif";

27 Internet Phase Interactive animation with Javascript - Mouseover

28 Flight Atlas Project Interest in Frequently Updated Maps (FUMs) Internet Frequently Updated Maps (IFUMs) In cooperation with FlyteComm, Inc.

29 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING Background on Flight Tracking  Canada and the USA  Data from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is made available to venture capital companies that attempt to provide services with this data  FlyteTrax program from FlyteComm

30 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING Herndon, Virginia (near Washington D.C.)

31 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING Average: 3415; High: 5300; Low: 800

32 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING  Data made public in 1995  Flight Movement Messages transmitted from the aircraft every minute near airports; every 4 minutes in mid-flight  Since 1998, due to security, transmission of data is delayed by 5-10 minutes ASDI (Aircraft Situation Display to Industry)

33 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING Adobe Photoshop  FlightTrax Windows-based program for displaying the geographic location of aircraft - Program connects to the FlyteComm server through the Internet and receives the current database of air traffic activity - Updates locations every minute - FlyteTrax receives a radar position report on each aircraft once every 4 minutes when the are in the ARTCC airspace - Most minute-by-minute positions based on dead reckoning using the last radar position report, the established ground speed at that position report, and the direction established by the prior two position reports

34 A NIMATED A TLAS

35 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING

36 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America AIR TRAFFIC ANIMATION FlyteTrax 2002 CaptureEze Pro + Script Adobe Photoshop + batch script Adobe Premiere + batch script Virtual Dub Displays current flight traffic by minute Collection of single pics (1440 min/day) Automatic enhancement of pictures Construction of an analog clock DivX compression 1500 MB 7 MB – 15 MB

37 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

38

39 39

40 40 Time Number of flights

41 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

42 42

43 43

44 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

45 45

46 46

47 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

48 48 United Airlines - night traffic from west to east

49 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

50 50 Bombardier CR-J

51 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

52 52 JFK New Yorkxt

53 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

54 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop

55 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America FLIGHT TRACKING PATTERNS Adobe Photoshop  Other Patterns - Non-hub airline - Southwest Airlines - direct city-to-city - Boeing All night Los Angeles - The effect of zooming on speed (New York) - Concorde Supersonic - All flights - Fedex - overnight package delivery

56 56 Southwest Airlines

57 57 Boeing 737

58 58 All Night LA

59 59 Speed increases with zoom

60 60

61 61 Concorde lands in New York ^

62 62 All Flights

63 63

64 64 Fedex

65 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America AIR TRAFFIC ANIMATION Adobe Photoshop

66 Überblick A NIMATED A TLAS Air Traffic over North America PUBLICATION Adobe Photoshop Peterson, M. & Wendel, J. (2006) Animated Atlas: Air Traffic over North America. Omaha: Cartography and GIS Laboratory.

67 Final comments Animation is an important technique in our use and understanding of spatial data. Cartographic animation demonstrates that individual maps are only a snap-shot in time. One should ask: What was before? What will come after? What trends would be evident if the time element could be viewed as an animation? The individual map is a snap-shot not only in time but also in terms of the data. What non-temporal trends would be evident if a map were viewed along with other related data sets (e.g., age distribution in a city)? Finally, the individual map is a snap-shot in the choice of the representational forms that were used to depict the world. The use of different symbols or data classifications can also constitute an animation. Interactive and Animated Cartography (1995)

68 The Problem Cartographic animation is not widely used. Why?

69 Top Five Problems 1. File size Distribution dependent on the Internet Internet users are impatient. Animation files take too long to download. Compressed video formats (youtube) are unacceptable for maps.

70 Top Five Problems 2. Animations are hard to make Essentially consist of many maps, requiring multiple data sets May require different levels of generalization GIS programs either don’t incorporate animation or have poor implementations

71 Top Five Problems 3. No monetary incentive Why make many maps when most people are satisfied with one

72 Top Five Problems 4. File format No standard file format for cartographic animation Will the file be readable by different computers? Will the file be readable in the future?

73 Top Five Problems 5. Animation is by definition a non-interactive experience With an interactive map, you can always change something With paper map, you can always look around the map With animation, you look at a very small area of the screen With animation, you just sit and watch - and this is boring

74 The Future of Animation 1. 3-D movie technology will transfer to computers 3-D map animations 2. Faster Internet capable of transmitting larger files 3. Better software to make animations 4. More interactive playback/creation 5. People may eventually expect that maps be animated


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