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Championing Nanotech Innovation: Lessons Learned Presented by Christine Peterson Vice President, Foresight Institute Accelerating Change 2004 November.

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Presentation on theme: "Championing Nanotech Innovation: Lessons Learned Presented by Christine Peterson Vice President, Foresight Institute Accelerating Change 2004 November."— Presentation transcript:

1 Championing Nanotech Innovation: Lessons Learned Presented by Christine Peterson Vice President, Foresight Institute Accelerating Change 2004 November 2004 © Foresight Institute 2004

2 What is nanotechnology? Creating and using structures, devices, and systems that have useful properties and functions because of their structure at the 1 to 100 nanometer sizeCreating and using structures, devices, and systems that have useful properties and functions because of their structure at the 1 to 100 nanometer size Today, same as chemistry and materials science (sexy marketing term)Today, same as chemistry and materials science (sexy marketing term) Longer-term: combines with mechanical engineering to give molecular manufacturingLonger-term: combines with mechanical engineering to give molecular manufacturing

3 Funding levels rising U.S. Nanotech Nanotech Initiative $3.7 billion over 4 years (plus military) authorizedU.S. Nanotech Nanotech Initiative $3.7 billion over 4 years (plus military) authorized European Union and Japan gov’ts spending roughly similar to U.S.European Union and Japan gov’ts spending roughly similar to U.S. Other Asian nations, Australia, Israel also competing. India wants in.Other Asian nations, Australia, Israel also competing. India wants in. China has cost advantageChina has cost advantage Increasing amounts being spent in private sector; figures vary widely; can rationalize almost any numberIncreasing amounts being spent in private sector; figures vary widely; can rationalize almost any number

4 Near-term products (< 5 yrs): Mostly materials Drug delivery, medical implants, sensors (bio & chemical), solar energy (photovoltaic or direct hydrogen production), batteries, displays & e-paper, nanotube and nanoparticle composites, catalysts, coatings, alloys, insulation (thermal & electrical), filters, glues, abrasives, lubricants, paints, fuels & explosives, textiles, hard drives, computer memory, optical components, etc.Drug delivery, medical implants, sensors (bio & chemical), solar energy (photovoltaic or direct hydrogen production), batteries, displays & e-paper, nanotube and nanoparticle composites, catalysts, coatings, alloys, insulation (thermal & electrical), filters, glues, abrasives, lubricants, paints, fuels & explosives, textiles, hard drives, computer memory, optical components, etc. Not an integrated “industry” — incremental products in many industriesNot an integrated “industry” — incremental products in many industries

5 Near-term: Nanoparticles Just one sector of today’s nanotechJust one sector of today’s nanotech Positive example: gold-coated particles with biological functionality bind to tumor cells and then heated, to treat cancerPositive example: gold-coated particles with biological functionality bind to tumor cells and then heated, to treat cancer Concerns about unwanted side effects. Recent result: control of toxicity by designConcerns about unwanted side effects. Recent result: control of toxicity by design Regulatory agencies need awareness and expertise: environmental protection (EPA), occupational safety (OSHA), food and drug (FDA). Process has begun, not complete.Regulatory agencies need awareness and expertise: environmental protection (EPA), occupational safety (OSHA), food and drug (FDA). Process has begun, not complete. Similar to regulation of new chemicalsSimilar to regulation of new chemicals

6 Tools for looking ahead to advanced nanotech Laws of physicsLaws of physics Laws of economicsLaws of economics Laws of human natureLaws of human nature Result: technological advance to the limits allowed by natureResult: technological advance to the limits allowed by nature Process does not result in a time estimateProcess does not result in a time estimate Does result in 4th generation nanotech: nanoscale productive systemsDoes result in 4th generation nanotech: nanoscale productive systems

7 Feynman, 1959 “The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.” “The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big.” There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom

8 Molecular manufacturing New way of viewing matterNew way of viewing matter Today, can have atomic precision or large complex structures, not bothToday, can have atomic precision or large complex structures, not both Want both at the same timeWant both at the same time Goal: Direct control down to molecular level, not indirect control as today (e.g. drugs, surgery) for products of any sizeGoal: Direct control down to molecular level, not indirect control as today (e.g. drugs, surgery) for products of any size Can change/repair structure of all physical things including human bodyCan change/repair structure of all physical things including human body

9 Basis of advanced nanotech: Molecular machines Found in nature (e.g. molecular motors)Found in nature (e.g. molecular motors) Now learning to design and build new molecular machine systemsNow learning to design and build new molecular machine systems Goal: nanosystems for manufacturing complex, atomically-precise products of any size (from cubic-micron mainframes to aircraft carriers)Goal: nanosystems for manufacturing complex, atomically-precise products of any size (from cubic-micron mainframes to aircraft carriers) Digital-style control of matter: patterning it as today we write a CDDigital-style control of matter: patterning it as today we write a CD

10 Differential gear (cutaway)

11 Standard confusions about molecular machine images Mistaken for artist’s conceptions (“pretty pictures”)Mistaken for artist’s conceptions (“pretty pictures”) Mistaken for final, immutable designs, which— if not perfect now—invalidate molecular machine systems conceptMistaken for final, immutable designs, which— if not perfect now—invalidate molecular machine systems concept Actually: examples of designs possible with today’s tools plus conservative engineering assumptions: “something like this should work, after iteration”Actually: examples of designs possible with today’s tools plus conservative engineering assumptions: “something like this should work, after iteration”

12 Fine motion controller, partial

13 Atom contact bearing model (~2 nanometers)

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16 Convergent assembly using highly parallel systems

17 Molecular manufacturing of nanosystems (4th gen.) Extreme decrease in direct manufacturing costs (not including insurance, legal, IP licensing, etc)Extreme decrease in direct manufacturing costs (not including insurance, legal, IP licensing, etc) Extreme decrease in pollution: “zero waste” of materials, minimum use of energyExtreme decrease in pollution: “zero waste” of materials, minimum use of energy Extreme increase in device complexity possible (e.g. medical nanorobots)Extreme increase in device complexity possible (e.g. medical nanorobots)

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19 Lessons learned ( ) The following are some lessons learned at each stage of the nanotech process to dateThe following are some lessons learned at each stage of the nanotech process to date Should be useful for other areas of substantial innovationShould be useful for other areas of substantial innovation Some things we did right and succeeded with — some we did wrong and paid the priceSome things we did right and succeeded with — some we did wrong and paid the price

20 Extremely early research stage (late 70’s, early 80’s), pre-competitive Few will understand, no matter what you doFew will understand, no matter what you do Don’t worry about someone stealing your ideas — no one is paying attentionDon’t worry about someone stealing your ideas — no one is paying attention Call your new field by a name that no one will want to redefine (not too sexy or generic)Call your new field by a name that no one will want to redefine (not too sexy or generic) Publish in refereed journalsPublish in refereed journals Write technical booksWrite technical books Avoid the popular press and publicAvoid the popular press and public

21 Very early research stage (80’s), still pre-competitive Hold invitational workshops to find the few others who “get it”Hold invitational workshops to find the few others who “get it” −Invitational to keep out the flakes Teach a Stanford class on your work so that a Steve Jurvetson will attend and later fund relevant workTeach a Stanford class on your work so that a Steve Jurvetson will attend and later fund relevant work −Not a joke Publish proceedings, refereed journals articlesPublish proceedings, refereed journals articles Write technical booksWrite technical books Avoid the popular press and publicAvoid the popular press and public

22 Early research stage (early 90’s), still pre-competitive Engage with gov’t research funding process, play the gameEngage with gov’t research funding process, play the game −Lots of funding sources, sidestep those not interested −Find research allies, esp. experimentalists, get funding circle going −Takes time, political skills, strong stomach Hold invitational conferencesHold invitational conferences Publish proceedings, refereed articlesPublish proceedings, refereed articles Write technical booksWrite technical books Avoid the popular press and publicAvoid the popular press and public

23 Early R&D stage (90’s to now) “Funding gap”“Funding gap” Try DARPATry DARPA Good luckGood luck

24 Early commercialization stage (now) Probably better not to put nano in your company name or product nameProbably better not to put nano in your company name or product name Use the term only where it will helpUse the term only where it will help Watch out for regulatory issues (nanoparticle report from Swiss Re)Watch out for regulatory issues (nanoparticle report from Swiss Re) Try Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs?Try Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs?

25 Maximizing social benefits of innovation Lowering direct costs (industry, w/some government contracts): In progressLowering direct costs (industry, w/some government contracts): In progress Lowering IP costs: Keep basic tools as open source? Nonexclusive licensing? (e.g., HTML)Lowering IP costs: Keep basic tools as open source? Nonexclusive licensing? (e.g., HTML) Preventing accidents (industry/ government partnership): Doable: more control enables more responsibilityPreventing accidents (industry/ government partnership): Doable: more control enables more responsibility Reducing use in war, terrorism (mostly government, w/ industry cooperation): Very difficult challengeReducing use in war, terrorism (mostly government, w/ industry cooperation): Very difficult challenge Preserving freedom and privacy in a world capable of nanosurveillancePreserving freedom and privacy in a world capable of nanosurveillance

26 Guidelines for Responsible Development Foresight Guidelines Version 4.0: Self Assessment Scorecards for Safer Development of NanotechnologyForesight Guidelines Version 4.0: Self Assessment Scorecards for Safer Development of Nanotechnology Scorecards for nanotech professionals, industry, and government policyScorecards for nanotech professionals, industry, and government policy Ongoing process: your comments greatly encouragedOngoing process: your comments greatly encouraged

27 “Sounds like science fiction” If you’re trying to look far ahead, and what you see seems like science fiction, it might be wrong.If you’re trying to look far ahead, and what you see seems like science fiction, it might be wrong. But if it doesn’t seem like science fiction, it’s definitely wrong.But if it doesn’t seem like science fiction, it’s definitely wrong.

28 For more information — main site, includes large section on Nanomedicinewww.foresight.org — main site, includes large section on Nanomedicine nanodot.org — searchable news sitenanodot.org — searchable news site Abstracts for recent 1st Conference on Advanced Nanotechnology, Oct , 2004Abstracts for recent 1st Conference on Advanced Nanotechnology, Oct , 2004 Foresight Vision Weekend 2005Foresight Vision Weekend 2005 Books: Nanomedicine Vol. I and II, Engines of Creation, NanosystemsBooks: Nanomedicine Vol. I and II, Engines of Creation, Nanosystems


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