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CSCI 690 CSCI-690 C omputer Networks: Shrinking the globe one click at a time Lecture 1 Khurram Kazi.

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Presentation on theme: "CSCI 690 CSCI-690 C omputer Networks: Shrinking the globe one click at a time Lecture 1 Khurram Kazi."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSCI 690 CSCI-690 C omputer Networks: Shrinking the globe one click at a time Lecture 1 Khurram Kazi

2 CSCI 690 2 Major sources of the slides for this lecture  Some of the Slides used in this lecture are from Tanenbaum’s and William Stallings’ websites  K. Kazi Optical Networking Standards: A Comprehensive Guide for Professionals  Larry L. Peterson & Bruce S. Davie, Computer Networks: A Systems Approach

3 CSCI 690 3 Course Outline  This course provides an introduction to the fundamentals and the applications of data communications networks. Network architectures, topology, protocols, network services and models will be discussed. Some of the protocols the course will cover are:  Protocols based on Internet Protocol (IP) (Layer 3 and above)  Routing fundamentals and protocols within IP Network (Layer 3 and above)  Ethernet (10/100 Mb/s, 1/10/100(??) Gb/s Ethernet) (LAN, Metro and Wide Area Networks)  Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET) (Wide Area Network)  Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) (Wide Area Network)  MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) (Layer 2.5)  Switching and routing architectures will be presented (Hardware/Software implementation architectures)  Time permitting we will cover some aspects of Cellular Networking and Next Generation Network Architecture (NGN) (Time permitting)  Services provided by various networks (Time permitting)  Network Security (Time permitting)  OPNET (a premier network simulator) maybe be used in simulating various aspects of networking concepts.

4 CSCI 690 4 Grading Policy  Assignments & short quizzes 30%  1 Midterm Test 30%  Final Project 40%  Final Projects will be in any topic of interest within the Data Networking field  There will be an Oral presentation of the project along with a written report  Class participation can sway the grade (so highly encouraged, don’t be shy to ASK questions)  NYIT’s Academic Integrity policy will be strictly enforced. Any student found to be cheating (in the assignments, quizzes, Midterm etc.) will get a straight “F”

5 CSCI 690 5 Do’s and Don’ts for the Final Project  DO NOT use any report / design from the net. I will know if you did!!  Properly referenced work that is not plagiarized is acceptable  Most of it should be your work!!  Select the topic that interests you. Be creative in it ! Designing some aspect in software or hardware will be highly encouraged as opposed to doing an overview/report on some networking technology  By mid semester have a good idea of your project  Team of 2 students working on the same project is allowed.  Each team member’s task within the project should be explicitly defined.

6 CSCI 690 6 Intended Results at the Culmination of the Course  You should have a good understanding of networking technologies  Ability to implement (in software) varied networking protocols  Should be able to architecturally design various components of the diverse networks  Design of a router/switching Network Element  Protocol Handling/protocol stacks  Line Cards  Switch Fabrics  Have a good understanding of various WAN/MAN/LAN Technologies  Ability to figure out which aspect is implemented in hardware and what is designed in the software

7 CSCI 690 7 Recommended Books  1) The Internet and Its Protocols; A Comparative Approach, Adrian Farrel, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2004, ISBN 1-55860-913-X  2) Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, Kurose, Ross, 5 th Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2010, ISBN 978-0-13-607967-5  3) Computer Networks: A Systems Approach, Larry L. Peterson & Bruce S. Davie, 4 th Edition, Morgan Kaufman, 2007, ISBN 978-0-12- 370548-8  4) Computer Networks, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, 4 th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003, ISBN 0-13-066102-3  5) Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, and Architectures, 4 th Edition, Volume 1, Prentice Hall, 2000, ISBN 0-13- 018380-6  6) Optical Networking Standards: A Comprehensive Guide for Professionals, edited by Khurram Kazi, Springer, 2006, ISBN 0-387- 24062-4

8 CSCI 690 8 Useful websites  Tanenbaum’s website at Prentice Hall  http://authors.phptr.com/tanenbaumcn4  William Stalling’s (Another good text book on data and computer networks) Website  http://www.williamstallings.com/DCC/DCC8e.html  Excellent site for the latest trends in networking  www.lightreading.com  Standards Organizations and Industry Forums  Internet Engineering Task Force  http://www.ietf.com  MetroEthernet Forum  http://metroethernetforum.org  International Telecommunication Union (ITU): The leading United Nations agency for information and communication technologies  http://www.itu.int  IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) LAN/MAN Standards Committee  http://www.ieee802.org  OPNET (Network simulator that we will be using)  www.opnet.com

9 CSCI 690 9 Standards Organizations: ITU  Main sectors Radiocommunications Telecommunications Standardization Development  Classes of Members National governments Sector members Associate members Regulatory agencies

10 CSCI 690 10 Standards Organizations: IETF  The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any interested individual. The IETF Mission Statement is documented in RFC3935.

11 CSCI 690 11 Standards Organizations: IEEE 802 Standards The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with  are hibernating. The one marked with † gave up.

12 CSCI 690 12 Implication of the Designs we work on; keep few things in mind!  During the design process we always make trade-offs  Trade-offs can be based on time to market, cost implications, complexity, environmental considerations etc.  Ethics: Keep in mind the implications of what you are designing, how it impacts the society!!  Privacy vs. Security is a big issue in networking  Network designs inherently deal with  Implementing of standardized solutions based on regional or global standards developed by industry forums or international standards organizations  Power consumption considerations: Making the Designs Green; Environmental friendly!! Especially true for Data Centers, cell sites and cellular networking infrastructure etc.  IEEE 802.3AZ working group has defined Energy Efficient Ethernet PHY specification  Cost/performance trade-offs

13 CSCI 690 13 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

14 CSCI 690 14 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

15 CSCI 690 15 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

16 CSCI 690 16 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

17 CSCI 690 17 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

18 CSCI 690 18 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

19 CSCI 690 19 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

20 CSCI 690 20 Efforts within IEEE 802.3AZ work Group to Conserve Energy

21 CSCI 690 21 Methods to Save Energy  Reduce Link Rate  Can (and does) save energy  Some NICs drop link rate when a laptop is battery powered  – Or, when a PC goes into sleep state  Turns-off PHY if no signal on link  Match the link rate to utilization  High utilization = high link rate  Low utilization = low link rate  Currently implemented using auto-negotiation  Set the Technology ability bits/message codes and then reset the link  Takes about 1000 milliseconds (a loooooooong time)

22 CSCI 690 22 Methods to Save Energy  Need for fast transitions Need for fast transitions  Can extend the benefits of link data rate reduction  By making the data rate transition faster  Need a faster way than auto-negotiation  When I need high data rate, I need it now  Can’t advertise the desire to change to a higher speed  Need a mechanism that is transparent to upper layers  Need a standard mechanism to rapidly transition:  From low to high data rate  From high to low data rate  Within the capabilities established by Auto Negotiation  IEEE Working Group 802.3AZ has developed the Energy Efficient Ethernet PHY specification

23 CSCI 690 23 Uses of Computer Networks Business Applications Home Applications Mobile Users Social Issues Vehicular networks Industrial/manufacturing networks

24 CSCI 690 24 Business Applications of Networks

25 CSCI 690 25 Business Applications of Networks (2)  The client-server model involves requests and replies.

26 CSCI 690 26 Home Network Applications  Access to remote information  Person-to-person communication  Interactive entertainment  Electronic commerce

27 CSCI 690 27 Home Network Applications (2)  In peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers.

28 CSCI 690 28 Network Applications  Some forms of e-commerce.

29 CSCI 690 29 Types of Network  Metropolitan Area Networks  Local Area Networks  Wide Area Networks  Cellular Networks  Wireless Networks (could be Broadband Networks or LANs)  Home Networks  Inter-networks

30 CSCI 690 30 Network classification based on distances  Classification of interconnected processors by scale.

31 CSCI 690 31 Fuzzy Networking Demarcation Points

32 CSCI 690 32 Communications Tasks Transmission system utilizationAddressing InterfacingRouting Signal generationRecovery SynchronizationMessage formatting Exchange managementSecurity Error detection and correctionNetwork management Flow control

33 CSCI 690 33 A Communications Model or cable/DSL modem or cable network

34 CSCI 690 34 Data Communications Model

35 CSCI 690 35 Transmission Medium  Selection is a basic choice  internal use entirely up to business  long-distance links made by carrier  Rapid technology advances change/mix various transmission medium  fiber optic  Copper Cable (still alive and widely used)  Wireless (microwaves, satellite, light waves, cellular etc.)  Transmission costs still high (but decreasing as time progresses)  Hence interest in efficiency improvements (never ending so to speak!)

36 CSCI 690 36 Some of the Drivers for Innovative Networking Technologies  Growth of number & power of computers is driving need for interconnection  also seeing rapid integration of voice, data, image & video technologies  Voice over IP  IPTV  Traditional net connectivity for data transmissions  Gaming industry  Interactive gaming services enabling multiple players across diverse geographical locations

37 CSCI 690 37 Types of Networks: Wide Area Networks  Span a large geographical area  Cross public rights of way  Rely in part on common carrier circuits  Technologies used include:  circuit switching  packet switching (IP or MPLS based)  Ethernet based transport  Legacy Technologies  frame relay  Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

38 CSCI 690 38 Types of Networks: Wide Area Network

39 CSCI 690 39  Relation between hosts on LANs and the subnet. Types of Networks: Wide Area Network

40 CSCI 690 40 Types of Networks: Wide Area Network  A stream of packets from sender to receiver.

41 CSCI 690 41 Circuit Switching  Uses a dedicated communications path established for duration of conversation  Comprising a sequence of physical links with a dedicated logical channel  e.g. telephone network

42 CSCI 690 42 Packet Switching  Data sent out of sequence over diverse paths  Small chunks (packets) of data at a time  Packets passed from node to node between source and destination  Used for terminal to computer and computer to computer communications

43 CSCI 690 43 Types of Networks: Metro Area Network  MAN  Middle ground between LAN and WAN  Private or public network  High speed  Large area

44 CSCI 690 44 Types of Networks: Metro Area Network

45 CSCI 690 45 Types of Networks: Metro Area Network  A metropolitan area network based on cable/Satellite service providers.

46 CSCI 690 46 Types of Networks: Local Area Networks  Smaller scope  Building or small campus  Usually owned by same organization as attached devices  Data rates much higher  Switched LANs, e.g. Ethernet  Wireless LANs

47 CSCI 690 47 Types of Networks: Local Area Networks  Two broadcast networks  (a) Bus  (b) Ring

48 CSCI 690 48 Types of Networks: Wireless Networks  Categories of wireless networks:  System interconnection  Wireless LANs  Wireless WANs

49 CSCI 690 49 Types of Networks: Wireless Networks  (a) Bluetooth configuration  (b) Wireless LAN

50 CSCI 690 50 Types of Networks: Wireless Networks  (a) Individual mobile computers  (b) A flying LAN (several airlines offer internet connectivity during flights)

51 CSCI 690 51 Types of Networks: Home Networking  Computers (desktop PC, PDA, shared peripherals  Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camera, stereo, MP3)  Telecomm (telephone, cell phone, intercom, fax)  Appliances (microwave, fridge, clock, furnace, air-conditioning etc.)  Telemetry (utility meter, burglar alarm, babycam).

52 CSCI 690 52 Home Networking: Digital Living Room  Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA)  http://www.dlna.org/en/industry/about

53 CSCI 690 53 The Internet  Internet evolved from ARPANET  first operational packet network  applied to tactical radio & satellite nets also  had a need for interoperability  led to standardized TCP/IP protocols

54 CSCI 690 54 Internet Elements SONET/OTH (MPLS based routing)

55 CSCI 690 55 Internet Architecture

56 CSCI 690 56 Example Configuration


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