Presentation on theme: "Presented by Linder O. Winter E-S Rules Committee"— Presentation transcript:
1Presented by Linder O. Winter E-S Rules Committee FossilsPresented by Linder O. WinterE-S Rules Committee
2SESSION OBJECTIVES Introduce the 2010 Fossils Event rules Suggest options and strategies to guide participants in preparing for the eventAddress major topics and themes included in the eventReview a recent exam
32010 EVENT RULESDESCRIPTION: Teams will demonstrate their knowledge of ancient life by completing several tasks at a series of stations.
4DESCRIPTION: Continued Emphasis will be on fossil identification and ability to answer questions about:ClassificationHabitatEcologic relationshipsBehaviorsUse of fossils to date and correlate rock units
5A TEAM OF UP TO: 2Roles of each team member should be defined long before the competition.Lead participant: most knowledgeable and/or most experiencedAvoid limiting participation to only two members due to potential drop-outs, illness, conflicting times, etc.Don’t discount younger students, i.e. sixth gradersAvoid identifying team members too quickly
6EVENT PARAMETERS Each team may bring only one magnifying glass. Emphasis is on the word teamControls the number of objects to transport from station to station
7EVENT PARAMETERS: Field Guides One published field guide that they may tab, write in or attach Post-It or other notesRecommend that participants consult one or more field guides and numerous books and websites while developing their binderSuggest that participants not bring field guides to the competition
8EVENT PARAMETERS: Field Guides Why not bring a field guide?Participants are given only a very brief time at each stationContains far too much information to sort through in a very short timeOften serves as a crutch rather than an effective resource
9EVENT PARAMETERS: 3-Ring Binders And one 3-ring binder (any size) containing information in any form from any source. The materials must be 3-hole punched and inserted into the rings (sheet protectors are allowed).Teammates work together to create the binder. This encourages discussions on items to include and provides an opportunity to actually work together as a team.
10EVENT PARAMETERS Rationale for Permitting Resources Most professionals take field guides with them into the field.For Science Olympiad participants, resources …Provide a means for coaches to monitor participant progressInclude only those items identified in the event rulesAre uniquely developed by the competitorsEncourage preparation
113 – RING BINDER Creating the Ideal Resource Each team of individuals should create their own binder.Binders “grow” as team members’ knowledge and experience grow.It’s the creation and continual upgrading of one’s own binder that make them such an effective tool.Avoid the temptation to pass binders on to future teams!
123 - RING BINDER: Table of Contents Suggest participants obtain a notebook with clear plastic sleeves on both front and rear covers.Create “cover sheets” with names and thumbnail images of each specimen along with page numbers where specimens are found to insert into the plastic covers.Front – invertebrates. Rear – vertebrates and plants“Speed is the key!” Design for rapid specimen identification to permit maximum time for locating requested information.Devote one page to each specimen. Standardize format for quick and easy access.
133-Ring Binder: Items to include on pages devoted to each specimen Repeat thumbnail image, if desiredMode of life, i.e. predator, scavenger …EnvironmentSpecial adaptations for survival – food gathering, defense, etc.Position on the Geologic Time ScaleTaxonomic classificationLabeled sketches identifying various body featuresSignificance of the creature to paleontology, i.e. index fossil, etc.Names, and possibly images, of related specimens
143 - RING BINDER Additional Materials – Appendix Glossary of key termsGeologic Time ScaleListing of major events that occurred during each era or period, i.e. mass extinctions, introduction of new species, etc.Descriptions of common fossil-bearing sedimentary rocks … high or low energy environments; highlands or adjacent plains, etc.Types of fossilization … descriptions and examples
153 - RING BINDER Continual Maintenance Team briefings following each level of competitionIdentify difficulties or surprises participants may have encountered during the competitionModify binder to include facts and concepts that would have been helpful had they been includedAdditional information obtained through continued study and research
163-Ring Binder: Previously Administered Exams Sources: National and State Science Olympiad sites, Coaches Clinics, etc.Science Olympiad Student Center located at(now includes the former Wright Center materials listen under “Outside Resources.”)Have participants review previously administeredexams for information that may prove beneficial during future events.
17INTERNET RESOURCES Limit visits to professional sites only! USGS College Sites – Geology and Paleontology DepartmentsNational Parks and MonumentsScience Olympiad Student CenterMany commercial sites often include good information about the fossils they sell.
18INTERNET RESOURCESAvoid websites posted by individuals or organizations with an agendaCreation Science websites.It’s inevitable that participants will stumble onto these sites which advocate two major worldwide events, the Creation and the Great flood as the sole events that influenced early life on Earth.
19Suggested Resource for C-Division This is a remarkable book for students interested in the history of paleontology.Author: Sean B. Carroll
20THE COMPETITION Emphasis will be placed upon task-oriented activities. Participants will move from station to station, with the length of time at each station predetermined and announced by the event supervisor.Participants are not permitted to return to stations, but may alter or add information to their original responses while at other stations.Identification will be limited to species on the list, but other species may be used to illustrate key concepts.
21Supervisor Philosophies Prepare participants for different types of exams:“Old-school” individuals tend to design knowledge-based exams.Others prefer a mixture of conceptionally-based activities with knowledge content.
22SPECIMEN COLLECTIONSDon’t be disappointed when you discover that kits including all the specimens on the SO list simply are not availableBefore purchasing specimens, inventory those your school may already have or consult with the previous coach from your school.Start small and add to your collection as budget and availability permitThink twice before purchasing inexpensive kits offering a large number of specimens at a very low cost. Most include small and/or broken specimens having little value other than simple identification.
23SPECIMEN COLLECTIONS Larger specimens showing greater detail are ideal Images of specimens, although less than ideal, are fair substitutes.Many commercial websites provide quality images of specimens.
24SPECIMEN COLLECTIONSTry to include replicas of ancient creatures in your collections.Supervisors may include questions about special adaptations, such as a mammoth’s tusks used to shove aside snow, carnivores vs. herbivores, etc.
25SPECIMEN COLLECTIONSThe Fossils Event is on a three-year rotational scheme, with Rocks and Minerals as its counterpart.Plan purchases to span over a period of several years to spread cost.Emphasize the importance of treating specimens with care, returning them to designated storage areas, etc.Visit for quality speci-mens at a very “reasonable” cost.
26VOLUNTEERSAs with all events of the Science Olympiad, practicality often dictates identifying a volunteer to coach this event.If you are unable to obtain a professional or amateur volunteer, attempt to seek out an interested parent or community member. Many parents are willing to devote numerous hours to help their own children, as well as those of their friends and classmates, achieve their greatest potential.A background in paleontology is not an absolute essential, but strong interest is.Professionals often enjoy sharing their passion for fossils with others – especially with children.
27VOLUNTEERSProvide a copy of this PowerPoint presentation to your volunteer(s) as very few are familiar with the coaching regimen. Provide an opportunity to follow-up on any questions your volunteer may have.Touch base with your volunteer(s) frequently to assure that they are following through on their commitment and are comfortable with their role.A few of these volunteers become so involved that they volunteer to assist with other events, provide assistance at competitions, or even continue their role after their own children have moved on.
28COACHING STRATEGIESMonitor development of participant binders. This is especially beneficial if a large number of individuals have shown an interest in this event.Competitive rivalry increases the chances of constructing the best overall team possible.
29COACHING STRATEGIESSet up weekly practice sessions with three to five stations each. Stations included in previously administered exams makes this task a bit easier.The initial sessions can be untimed. After several weeks, set time limits of three to five minutes per station to simulate actual competitive conditions.It’s much better for participants to experience “pressure” under simulated conditions than during actual competitions.Practice drills are also valuable. Compile a list of questions; dictate them orally; clock the time required for participants to locate the answers in their notebooks; and note their accuracy.
30FOSSIL EVENT: TOPICS OF STUDY A BRIEF INTRODUCTIONTO EACH INCLUDED TOPIC
31Suggested ReferenceThe following reference was invaluable as a resource for developing many of the following slides. It is a HIGHLY recommended resource for both B- and C-Division Science Olympiad participants. Its explanations are concise and thorough. It addresses many crucial concepts often ignored by other books. Its illustrations are both beautiful and functional.Coenraads, Robert R., Rocks and Fossils – A Visual Guide. Firefly Books, Ltd., 2005ISBN-13:ISBN-10:
32TOPIC A: CONDITIONS FOR FOSSILIZATION TO OCCUR Rapid burial to (a) avoid scavenging and (b) eliminatating oxygen to prevent decayPossession of hard parts - bones, teeth, nails, shell or woody tissue
33TOPIC B: MODES OF PRESERVATION - PERMINERALIZATION Skeletal material can be quite porous. If the pores are filled in by foreign minerals that precipitate out of solution, the fossil is said to be permineralized.Petrified wood is an example of wood that has been permineralized by silica.
34TOPIC B: MODES OF PRESERVATION: PETRIFACTION/PETRIFICATION/SILICIFICATION In geology, petrifaction, petrification or silicification is the process by which organic material is converted into stone by impregnation with silica.
35TOPIC B: MODES OF PRESERVATION – MINERAL REPLACEMENT This occurs when skeletal material is replaced, molecule by molecule, with some alien material.This process occurs gradually over a long period of time as the original mineralogy dissolves away and a new mineral precipitates in its place. Examples include:(1) Silicification - when calcium carbonate is replaced by silica, and(2) Pyritization - a permineralization process involving sulfur and iron.
36TOPIC B: MODES OF PRESERVATION: CASTS & MOLDS Sometimes the original material is dissolved away, leaving a cavity in the rock which may later become filled with another material, such as a mineral.The cavity is known as a moldThe internal filling is known as a cast
37TOPIC B: MODES OF PRESERVATION: IMPRINT Carbonization occurs when all organic volatiles are distilled away due to the effects of heat and/or pressure, leaving a carbon film remnant of the organism.This usually occurs with organisms rich in carbon that possess thin or no skeletal material.
38TOPIC B: MODES OF PRESERVATION: ACTUAL REMAINS Unaltered: Occasionally an organism's skeleton is preserved intact without any chemical alteration of the original mineralogy.This mode of preservation becomes increasingly rare for fossils of older ages.Note: Copal has been added to the Official NSO List as it is cheaper and fills the same role as amber which is much more expensive.
39TOPIC B : UNCOMMON MODES OF PRESERVATION Encasement in amber or copal – smaller animals, mainly insects, but sometimes lizards, frogs and birdsMummification – rare process peculiar to desert areasFreezing – animals, including humans and mammothsEntrapment – in tar/asphalt
40TOPIC C: RELATIVE DATING The most basic concept used in relative dating is the law of superposition.Simply stated, each bed in a sequence of sedimentary rocks (or layered volcanic rocks) is younger than the bed below it and older than the bed above it.This law follows two basic assumptions: (1) the beds were originally deposited horizontally and (2) the beds were not overturned after their deposition.
41TOPIC C: RELATIVE DATING The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that the geologic feature which cuts another is the younger of the two features, i.e. the thing being cut is older than the thing doing the cutting.
42TOPIC C: RELATIVE DATING Unconformities: buried erosion surfaces
43TOPIC C: RELATIVE DATING The law of faunal succession states that groups of fossil animals and plants occur throughout the geologic record in a distinct and identifiable order.Following this law, sedimentary rocks can be "dated" by their characteristic fossil content.Particularly useful are index (zonal) fossils, geographically widespread fossils that evolved rapidly through time.Reference for this and preceding slide: Utah Geological Survey
44TOPIC D: ABSOLUTE DATING Carbon dating uses the half-life of Carbon-14 to find the approximate age of certain objects that are 40,000 years old or younger.The ratio of normal carbon (carbon-12) to carbon-14 in the air and in all living things at any given time is nearly constant.One in possibly a trillion carbon atoms is carbon-14. Both Carbon-12 and Carbon-13 are stable, but Carbon-14 decays by very weak beta decay to nitrogen-14 with a half-life of approximately 5,730 years. After the organism dies it stops taking in new carbon.
45TOPIC D: ABSOLUTE DATING Radioactive decay is the process by which a "parent" isotope changes into a "daughter" isotope.Rates of radioactive decay are constant and measured in terms of half-life, the time it takes half of a parent isotope to decay into a stable daughter isotope.
46TOPIC D: ABSOLUTE DATING Some rock-forming minerals contain naturally occurring radioactive isotopes with very long half-lives unaffected by chemical or physical conditions that exist after the rock is formed.Half-lives of these isotopes and the parent-to-daughter ratio in a given rock sample can be measuredThen a relatively simple calculation yields the absolute (radiometric) date at which the parent began to decay, i.e., the age of the rock.
47TOPIC D: ABSOLUTE DATING Volcanic AshVolcanic ash is one of the best materials for absolute dating because it can be used for both radiometric dating and absolute dating.Geologically, volcanic events are relatively instantaneous events.Any fossils found above, below, or between can be dated “relative” to the volcanic ash layers.
50TOPIC F: INDEX FOSSILS – CRITERIA An index or zonal fossil is any fossil that may be used for correlating and dating geologic strata found in different parts of the world.A perfect index fossil will satisfy all the following criteria:
51TOPIC F: INDEX FOSSILS – CRITERIA Short geologic range so the time between appearance and extinction is short. (Trilobites may be an exception. Their designation as index fossils is most likely based upon evolutional changes … vision, etc.)Widespread geographic range so it is found in many places around the globeFound in various rock types so it is not dependent upon a particular type of bottom sediment
52TOPIC F: INDEX FOSSILS – CRITERIA Must have hard parts that easily fossilize, either calcareous, siliceous, phosphatic or organicMust be extremely abundant so that it is likely to be found in even very small samples such as drill cores
53TOPIC F: INDEX FOSSILS – EXAMPLE Micro-organisms traveling the currents in the world’s oceans (plankton) are excellent “index fossil” candidates
54TOPIC G: FOSSIL-BEARING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS LimestoneOccurs in shallow to deep marine environmentsMay form from the accumulation of calcareous microfossilsMay form spectacularly huge deposits from the remains of reef-building corals
55TOPIC G: FOSSIL-BEARING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ShaleComposed of tiny, flat, clay particles deposited in horizontal layers, as is mudstoneShale is finer than mudstoneLayering occurs because the flat, clay flakes align themselves horizontallyWeathers easilyForms in low-energy environments
56TOPIC G: FOSSIL-BEARING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SandstoneParticles are commonly rounded quartz grains, but may be feldspar and other mineralsForms in moderately high-energy beach, river-delta or desert environmentsLithification binds the grains together with quartz, calcite or iron-oxide cementThe nature and degree of cementation determines the hardness of the rock
57TOPIC G: FOSSIL-BEARING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS MudstoneComposed of tiny, flat clay particles deposited in horizontal layers, as is shaleFormed in bodies of relatively still waters – lakes, low-energy flood plains, and marine environments far from land
58TOPIC G: FOSSIL-BEARING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS CoquinaCoquina is a limestone consisting almost entirely of mechanically transported fossil debris with little or no matrix, loosely cemented together so that the rock appears to be very porous.Such rocks form in zones of high energy where finer material is winnowed away.
59TOPIC I: FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION Ideally, students should master recognition of each specimen on the list without having to refer to a guide.Suggest that students create their own “flash cards.” Place an image on the front of each card and its name on the back. Several cards may be constructed for each fossil.Having the ability to identify a fossil instantly by sight provides maximum time to complete many standard tasks presented during an exam. This knowledge, coupled with organization, permits students to quickly turn to the correct page in their binders.
60TOPIC I: FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION Although “trace fossils” appear in the SO list, the term was inadvertently left out of the event description. However, to understand modes of life, they are too important to ignore.Trace fossils include marks, tracks, burrows, coprolites, eggs, nests and other traces an animal left behind that became fossilized.Trace fossils may reveal more about the lifestyles and habits of an ancient creature than the actual fossil itself.
61TOPIC I: FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION Examples of Trace Fossils Footprints or feeding tracks provide clues about a creature’s movement, how it captured its prey, whether it traveled in a group or was solitary, and the manner it which it ran or walked.Diggings or burrows may reveal evolutionary development for groups as they developed more efficient feeding patterns over time.
62TOPIC I: FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION Examples of Trace Fossils Coprolites, or fossil animal droppings, may reveal information about a creature’s diet and even how it chewed, swallowed and digested.Gastroliths, or stomach stones, were used by some creatures to aid digestion, similar to birds today.Dental teeth marks may be helpful in identifying the predator.Nesting structures and eggs may provide insight into an animal’s reproduction and how it reared its young.
63TOPIC H: MODES OF LIFE Filter feeder Predator Scavenger Deposit feeder BenthicPelagicIn addition to a host of other modes of life …
64TOPIC I: ENVIRONMENTSOrganisms that die in areas of frequent or high sediment accumulation are much more likely to fossilize than those that die in areas of erosion or low sedimentation accumulation.Marine continental shelf environments are commonly preserved in sedimentary strata, whereas terrestrial uplands are very rarely preserved.
65TOPIC J: MINERAL COMPOSITION Aragonite (CaCO3) is a form of calcium carbonate that is fairly unstable and commonly dissolves away.Skeletons originally composed of aragonite are commonly recrystallized to calcite and preserved as molds.Aragonite is easy to recognize. It is usually (but not always) milky white and has no shiny luster.
66TOPIC J: MINERAL COMPOSITION Calcite (CaCO3) is the more common form of calcium carbonate. It is more stable than aragonite and therefore does not dissolve as readily.Calcite usually has a grayish color and a slight vitreous (or glassy) luster when found as a skeletal mineral.It can be found as an original skeletal material, or as a product of recrystallization.
67TOPIC L: MINERAL COMPOSITION Silica (SiO2) is easy to distinguish from the carbonate minerals since it will not react with acid.Skeletons composed of silica commonly have a brown, earthy color, with or without a vitreous luster, and may have a granular texture.Silica is rarely found as an original material and most commonly occurs as a replacement product.
68TOPIC J: MINERAL COMPOSITION Chitin is a major constituent of the exoskeleton, or external skeleton, of many arthropods such as insects, spiders, and crustaceans.
69TOPIC J: MINERAL COMPOSITION Chiton: This term should actually be spelled “chitin.” It’s the skeletal material of crustaceans that permit a bit of flexibility for movement.
70TOPIC K: TAXONOMIC HEIRARCHY URL for the Fossil Heirarchy that follows:Participants may choose to include this material as an appendix in their resource binder.Participants may wish to revise the list to include only specimens on the Official NSO Fossil List
71TOPIC K: TAXONOMIC HEIRARCHY Kingdom Monera - bacteria, cyanobacteria Kingdom Protista Phylum Protozoa Class Sarcodina - amoebas - Order Foraminiferida - amoebas with calcite skeletons - Order Radiolaria - amoebas with opal skeletons Kingdom Fungi - fungi Kingdom Plantae - green plants and algae Phylum Bryophyta - mosses and liverworts Phylum Tracheophyta - vascular or land plants
72TOPIC K: TAXONOMIC HEIRARCHY Kingdom Animalia - animals Phylum Porifera - sponges (Proterozoic - recent) Phylum Cnidaria Class Scyphozoa - jellyfish Class Anthozoa - corals Order Rugosa (Ordovician - Permian) Order Scleractinia (Triassic - recent) Order Tabulata (Ordovician - Permian) Phylum Bryozoa - bryozoans (Ordovician - recent) Phylum Brachiopoda - brachiopods Class Inarticulata - brachiopods with unhinged valves (Cambrian - recent) Class Articulata - brachiopods with hinged valves (Cambrian - recent)
73TOPIC K: TAXONOMIC HEIRARCHY Kingdom Animalia - animals (continued) Phylum Mollusca Class Polyplacophora - chitons Class Scaphopoda - tusk shells Class Gastropoda - snails (Cambrian - recent) Class Pelecypoda (Bivalvia) - clams (Cambrian - recent) Class Cephalopoda - cephalopods Subclass Nautiloidea (Cambrian - recent) Subclass Ammonoidea (Devonian - Cretaceous) Subclass Coleoidea - squids and octopuses Phylum Arthopoda Class Trilobita - trilobites (Cambrian - Permian) Class Ostracoda - ostracodes (Cambrian - recent) Class Insecta - insects (Devonian - recent)
74TOPIC K: TAXONOMIC HEIRARCHY Kingdom Animalia - animals (continued) Phylum Echinodermata Class Blastoidea - blastoids (Ordovician - Permian) Class Crinodea - sea lilies and feather stars (Cambrian - recent) Class Asteroidea - star fish Class Echinoidea - sea urchins and sand dollars (Ordovician - recent) Phylum Hemichordata Class Graptolithina - graptolites (Cambrian - Mississippian) Phylum Chordata - mainly vertebrate animals Class Pisces - fish (Ordovician - recent) Class Amphibia - amphibians (Devonian - recent) Class Reptilia - reptiles (Pennsylvanian - recent) Class Aves - birds (Jurassic - recent) Class Mammalia - mammals (Triassic - recent)
75TOPIC L: ADAPTATIONSAdaptations are characteristics of a plant or animal that help it to survive. In animals, adaptations can be:Structural - how the body is formed or shaped. Fins and legs are two different structural adaptations.Physiological - how the body works. Cold-blooded and warm-blooded are physiological adaptations.Behavioral - what the animal does, such as hibernating in the winter.
76TOPIC M: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS: Ediacaran Fossils (Australia) Only a handful of localities provide any insight into the evolution of the first multicellular animal life at the end of the PrecambrianTheir rarity is due to the difficulty in fossilizing soft bodiesSeafloor forms include jellyfish and other forms so strange they cannot be easily compared with later fossils or those from other Precambrian sites.
77TOPIC M: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS: Lagerstätten Lagerstätten [meaning "(fossil) deposit places" in German] are geological fossil deposits that are rich with varied, well-preserved fossils, representing a wide variety of life from a particular era. These spectacular fossil deposits represent an amazing "snapshot" in time.
78TOPIC O: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS Burgess Shale A rock formation in the western Canadian Rockies containing a wealth of fossilized invertebrates of the early Cambrian PeriodBuried by an underwater avalanche of fine siltPreserves many details of their soft parts
79TOPIC O: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS Permian Extinction In this, the gravest of Earth’s mass extinctions, 90% of marine life and some 3/4ths of vertebrate life on land were wiped out.Lost forever were the trilobites, tabulate corals, rugose corals and blastoids.Life took 150 million years to regain the diversity it had in the Permian.Volcanic eruptions in Siberia were possibly responsible for this extinction.
80TOPIC O: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS Dinosaurs with Feathers The first reptiles took to the air in the Triassic some 220 million years ago. Recent fossil evidence suggests that these pterosaurs were covered with fur and featherlike fibers.Pterosaurs were probably agile, warm-blooded fliers, capable of powered flight, rather than just gliding.The largest, Quetzalcoatlus, probably had a wingspan of more than 40 feet (12 m)
81TOPIC O: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS Dinosaurs with Feathers Feathered Archaeopteryx probably evolved from the small, meat-eating theropod dinosaurs 150 million years ago and likely led into the line of modern birds.Birds survived the Cretaceous mass extinction, which led to the demise of the pterosaurs 65 million years ago.
82TOPIC O: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS Cretaceous Extinction The second largest mass extinction in geological history occurring 65 M.Y.A.Among the 85% of living things that disappeared were the dinosaurs, pterosaurs, marine reptiles and ammonites.Many of the niches left empty were taken up by mammals.
83TOPIC O: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS Cretaceous Extinction Trace amounts of the mineral iridium found in rock strata of this age suggest two causes:Either the giant meteorite that hit Earth, creating the Chicxulub crater in MexicoOr the massive volcanic eruptions of the Deccan Traps, India. Perhaps both initiated this extinctionPerhaps a combination of the two causes listed above initiated this extinction.
84TOPIC O: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS Pleistocene Ice Age Ice repeatedly pushed out of the Arctic Circle into North America and Europe. The temperature drop associated with this advancing ice had a profound effect on life.The mammoth, rhinoceros, bison, reindeer and musk ox evolved woolly coats to protect themselves from the frigid conditions.As hominids proliferated on each continent, many of the giant mammals, flightless birds and reptiles disappeared.
85Fossils QuizCheck your knowledge of fossils. Number from 1 to 10 on a sheet of scratch paper. You will be asked a series of ten questions. The answer to each question will appear on the slide immediately following each question.
86Fossils Quiz Question # 1 1. Is the fossil record more complete for terrestrial or marine dwelling creatures?
87Fossils Quiz Question # 1 1. Is the fossil record more complete for terrestrial or marine dwelling creatures? MARINE
88Fossils Quiz Question # 2 2. Which group of animals filled many of the niches vacated by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous?
89Fossils Quiz Question # 2 2. Which group of animals filled many of the niches vacated by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous? MAMMALS
90Fossils Quiz Question # 3 3. What physical characteristic of Precambrian organisms resulted in their rarely being preserved as fossils?
91Fossils Quiz Question # 3 3. What physical characteristic of Precambrian organisms resulted in their rarely being preserved as fossils? BEING SOFT-BODIED
92Fossils Quiz Question # 4 4. What extinct arthropods were fondly referred to by Native Americans as “water creatures that live in rock?”
93Fossils Quiz Question # 4 4. What extinct arthropods were fondly referred to by Native Americans as “water creatures that live in rock?” TRILOBITES
94Fossils Quiz Question # 5 5. Was the development of the Geologic Time Scale more of a haphazard or systematic undertaking?
95Fossils Quiz Question # 5 5. Was the development of the Geologic Time Scale more of a haphazard or systematic undertaking? HAPHAZARD
96Fossils Quiz Question # 6 6. Does convergent or divergent evolution occur as related species become increasingly dissimilar?
97Fossils Quiz Question # 6 6. Does convergent or divergent evolution occur as related species become increasingly dissimilar? DIVERGENT
98Fossils Quiz Question # 7 7. Which dating technique is used to determine the approximate time of events that occurred within the past 50,000 years?
99Fossils Quiz Question # 7 7. Which dating technique is used to determine the approximate time of events that occurred within the past 50,000 years? CARBON-14
100Fossils Quiz Question # 8 8. Which group of arthropods has diversified to occupy nearly every conceivable environment, including the skies?
101Fossils Quiz Question # 8 8. Which group of arthropods has diversified to occupy nearly every conceivable environment, including the skies? INSECTS
102Fossils Quiz Question # 9 9. What phrase refers to tracks, trails, footprints and burrows remaining from the activities of ancient creatures?
103Fossils Quiz Question # 9 9. What phrase refers to tracks, trails, footprints and burrows remaining from the activities of ancient creatures? TRACE FOSSILS or ICHNOFOSSILS
104Fossils Quiz Question # 10 10. Which geologic era provided near perfect conditions for the formation of coal throughout much of the world?
105Fossils Quiz Question # 10 10. Which geologic era provided near perfect conditions for the formation of coal throughout much of the world? CARBONIFEROUS
106How well did you do? Source of questions: New 2010 version of “The Game of EARTH”