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Climate Change and Sustainable Mountain Development in Hindu Kush - Himalaya Presented by Bidya B. Pradhan.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Change and Sustainable Mountain Development in Hindu Kush - Himalaya Presented by Bidya B. Pradhan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Change and Sustainable Mountain Development in Hindu Kush - Himalaya Presented by Bidya B. Pradhan

2 ICIMOD’s Mission Develop and provide integrated and innovative solutions, in cooperation with national, regional and international partners, which foster action and change for overcoming mountain people’s economic, social, environmental and physical vulnerability.

3 The Hindu Kush-Himalayas Extends over 3500 km from Afghanistan to Myanmar and Home to 150 million People Major Characteristics: Youngest geological formation and fragile mountain ecosystem; Extremely high spatial variations with diverse physical and climatic conditions; World’s highest peaks and deepest gorges and with very high degree of inaccessibility; Prone to natural disasters: earthquakes, landslides, flash floods and GLOFs; One of the poorest region of the world and often marginalised by main development mainstream environmental fragility and social economic vulnerability put HKH on the top of the WSSD and BGMS agenda

4 Mountain Matters…  Fresh Water  Medicinal Plants  Biodiversity  Energy  Minerals  Air / Atmosphere  Spectacular Views  Diverse Culture  Anchor to the Plains Mountains Provides Important Ecosystem Services…

5 Minimizing Pressure on Natural Capital Biodiversity Forest Water Climate Energy… Minimizing Pressure on Natural Capital Biodiversity Forest Water Climate Energy… Natural Processes: Self-Regulating Creating Very High Demand InfrastructureDevelopmentInfrastructureDevelopment Natural Resource Exploitation Exploitation Natural Resource Exploitation Exploitation PopulationGrowthPopulationGrowth Climate Change, Natural Hazard Climate Change, Natural Hazard Natural and Human-led Processes Human–led Processes: Unsustainable Improving Livelihoods Socio-economic Conditions Cultural Heritage Land Use Pollution… Improving Livelihoods Socio-economic Conditions Cultural Heritage Land Use Pollution… Twin Challenges

6 Global Environment Change Systematic Change taking place in one locale, can effect changes in systems elsewhere Cumulative Change localized where changes in one place do not affect changes in other distant places. When accumulated, however, results in resource degradation and have adverse effect on ecosystem Mountains are the areas most sensitive to all climatic changes in the atmosphere However lack of sufficient knowledge of mountain environment for understanding of mountain specificities Thus ICIMOD has been working on developing methodologies for applying the technology in portraying the livelihoods of the people in sustainable management of mountain resources to minimize the outcomes of these both types of changes.

7 Successive development of the Tsho Rolpa Glacial Lake from 1957 to 2000 Source: Mool et al Almost 67% of Glacials have retreated SNP & KCA already experience GLOF Study by UNEP & ICIMOD found more than 20 glacial lakes at risk of bursting

8 Source: S. Bajracharya Average growth of the lake sq.km per year sq.km per year 0.08 sq.km per year

9 Tsho Rolpa – Before & After Photo:S.Joshi 1998 Photo:S. Bajracharya 2000 it is important to understand to mitigate Mountain Hazards for Downstream Security

10 Poiqu Basin in China and Bhote Koshi – Sun Koshi Basin in Nepal Glacier retreat and successive development of glacial lakes Gangxi Co Lake Source: Mool et al Lumu Chimi Lake Gungco Lake

11 Transboundary Air Pollution Malé Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution and its likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC)

12 PHASE I Awareness and preparation of the baseline information PHASE II Capacity development for monitoring and analysis PHASE III Provide scientific information; assist in activities to reduce pollution Implementation of Male’ Declaration

13 Hanimaadu Anuradaphura Abadan Port Canning Suntharban Geliphu Narowal Chitwan Monitoring Stations Parameters Monitored TSP, PM10 SO2, NO2 Rainwater analysis pH, Electrical Conductivity anions NO3-, SO4 cations Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+

14 Source: M. Engardt Source: Kuylenstierna et al Terrestrial Ecosystem Sensitivity to Acidic Deposition in South Asia (preliminary assessment)

15 Photographs taken 30 km south of Mt. Everest from a flight altitude of about 3 km reveal the extent of the haze in Nepal. Both photographs were taken from the same location, one (left photo) taken towards the northern side and the other southern side (right photo). Source: V. Ramanathan Himalaya region is likely be subjected to a heavy loading of aerosol during the winter season

16 Pilot Study in Nepal Locations

17 AOD AOD from Satellite LIDAR Observation Preliminary Results

18 Instrumentation

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20 Regional Water Quality Network and Database Monitoring Stations across HKH Region The South Asia Water Analysis Network (SAWAN) In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, USA

21 Regional Flood Forecasting Programme

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