Introduction Motivation This summer vacation, I went on a trip to the capital of the Czech Republic, Prague. During those days, I was really fascinated by its architectures and leisurable atmosphere. I decided to do a research on the city. Purposes I’m going to introduce the following aspects of Prague ： 1.The travel information of Prague. 2.The history of Prague. 3.The districts and architectures of Prague and their characteristics.
Travel Information – Flag and coat of arms The flag of the Czech Republic The flag of Prague The coat of arms of the Czech Republic The coat of arms of Prague
Travel Information - Location The Czech Republic is in Eastern Europe. To the north, it’s Poland. To the northwest and west, it’s Germany. To the south, it’s Austria. To the east, it’s Slovakia. Prague is at the northwest of the Czech Republic.
The History of Prague-1 The Bohemia people named the region Bohemia. Slavic tribes settled in the area and became the forefather of Czech nation. In 870, Prague was founded. In 962, Bohemia became part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1355, King Charles IV became Holy Roman Emperor.Charles IV
The statue of Charles IV, who made an era of prosperity of Prague
The History of Prague-2 Hussite wars happened in 1419, followed the First Defenestration. The Second Defenestration happened in 1618 and it led to the Thirty Years War. The defenestration was an event that the people resisted the command of the Prague priest, and they threw the city’s counselors out from the New Town Hall.
The History of Prague-3 From the 16 th century, Habsburg controlled the area. Bohemia, Moravia and Slovak created the independent republic of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Adolf Hitler occupied the whole Czechoslovakia in 1939. In 1945, Czechoslovakia became independent. The coat of arms of Habsburg
The History of Prague-4 In 1948, the Communist Party took over, bringing the country within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, Dubcek Alexander led an innovation called the Prague Spring. He made efforts to liberalize party rule. Dubcek Alexander, the leader of the Prague Spring
The History of Prague-5 In November 1989, Czechoslovakia finally overthrown the communist power through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution". On January 1, 1993, the union peacefully split in two countries, the independent Czech and Slovak republics.
The Districts and Architectures of Prague Lesser Town Prague Castle Prague Jewish Quarter Old Town New Town
The Districts and Architectures of Prague- Prague Castle Prague Castle District includes Prague Castle and a town named Hradcany, surrounding the castle. Prague Castle Saint Vitus Cathedral
Prague Castle-1 Based on Guinness World Records, Prague Castle is the largest ancient castle in the world. It became the president palace of the republic in 1918. At the entrance of the castle, there are guards and statues.
Prague Castle-2 Pass through several eras, the old royal palace contains Roman, Gothic, Baroque and Renaissance styles. Vladislav Hall with Gothic Vaults BACK
Saint Vitus Cathedral-1 Saint Vitus Cathedral was constructed for almost 600 years. The church is mainly Gothic style, added with Renaissance and Baroque elements in later erections. There is a Renaissance clock tower with Baroque top on the south side.
Saint Vitus Cathedral-2 Two spires on the west side of Saint Vitus Cathedral Thin Gothic fly buttresses around the east side of the cathedral
The Districts and Architectures of Prague- Lesser Town It is the least changed by resent history. Lesser town deserves the title “The Pearl of Baroque Architecture”. St Nicholaus church
St Nicholaus church, the core of the Lesser Town Square completed for half of the 18th century. It’s an amazing masterpiece of three excellent Baroque architects. The clock tower and the vault of St. Nicholaus church
The Districts and Architectures of Prague- Old Town It is the oldest town of Prague. Astronomical Clock Church of Our Lady Before Tyn Charles Bridge
Astronomical Clock The famous landmark of Old Town Hall is composed of three parts, a calendar below, a clock in the middle that has four figures aside, and twelve statues of the Apostles at the doorway above the clock. BACK
Church of Our Lady Before Tyn-1 Church of Our Lady Before Tyn with Gothic spires is the landmark of Old Town Square. Gothic architectures use much stone. Dirt adhered to the stone then made it turn black. It looks weird when lighted up at night. That’s why it has a nickname “Ghostly Church”.
Church of Our Lady Before Tyn-2 The spectacular Church of Our Lady Before Tyn At night, it becomes “Ghostly Church”! BACK
Charles Bridge-1 Charles Bridge connects the Lesser Town with the Old Town. Thirty statues on the bridge are related to religion. The most marked statue is St. John Nepomuk. He was thrown in the river by King Wenceslas IV because he refused to reveal the confession of the queen. The relief below his statue describes his martyrdom. People believe touching him will bring good luck to them.St. John Nepomuk
Charles Bridge-2 The statue of St. John Nepomuk His figure on the right and the dog on the left have been touched by people who wish for good luck, so his figure became as bright as gold.
Charles Bridge-3 It is now a pedestrian stone bridge with interesting stalls and buskers.
The Districts and Architectures of Prague- New Town The carefully planned New Town was founded by Charles IV in 1348. Today it is not especially attractive to tourists because of its modernity. Wenceslas Square
It is the center of the New Town surrounded by shops, cinemas, offices, hotels and restaurants. In the middle of the square lays a statue of St. Wenceslas. The square is like an avenue instead of a square.
The Districts and Architectures of Prague- Jewish Quarter In the 13th century, Jews were forced by rulers to crowd in an area as a ghetto because of racism. Until 1784, Josef II helped ease Jewish living condition. So the area is named after him in Czech. Old Jewish Cemetery Jewish Town Hall
Old Jewish Cemetery Founded in 1478, it used to be the only Jewish cemetery for 300 years long. Dead bodies had to overlap each other because of the lack of space. It has 12 layers at most and 12,000 gravestones crowded here. But there may be 100,000 people buried here. BACK
Jewish Town Hall It was funded by the rich chief Maisel in 1586. Under a wooden clock tower, there is the other clock with Hebrew figures on a gable. Its hands run backwards because Hebrews read from right to left.
Conclusions-1 Through many centuries, Prague has had a lot of great architectures with various styles. The wonderful and pleasurable atmosphere really eased me up. In my mind, the glorious architectures and leisurable ambience may be the best two things to enjoy in Prague.
Conclusions-2 In the process of doing the research, I learned a lot of precious things. Now I know much more than I did when I visited Prague. While doing the whole research, I did many things that need English and compilation abilities. After doing the research, I am sure these two abilities of mine must improve a lot.