MENU ALDWORTH GIANTSALDWORTH GIANTS BRIGHTON CALLANAIS CAMBRIDGE CERNE ABBAS DUBLIN EDINBURGH KILMARTIN LOCH NESS OXFORD SNOWDONIA STONEHENGE STRATFORD- UPON-AVONSTRATFORD- UPON-AVON UFFINGTON INFO O AUTORZE
ALDWORTH GIANTS The tiny atmospheric parish church at Aldworth, contains numerous huge effigies of the De La Beche family. The figures are supposed to be life size representations, depicting knights all over seven feet tall. The De La Beche family were powerful landowners and knights in the 14th century. Many of them were retainers to the king, warders to the Tower of London, and Sheriffs of Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The family were influential during the reign of Edward the II (deposed in 1327) and Edward the III (died 1376), and were embroiled in the royal intrigue of the time. Sir Phillip was imprisoned in Scarborough castle from 1322 to 1327, but later pardoned by Edward the III; His father, also Sir Philip was jailed and later pardoned during the reign of Edward the II. Unfortunately many of the effigies were vandalised by Cromwell's men during the Civil War in the 17th century. Many of the knights are missing the lower part of their legs, noses and arms, no doubt the easiest parts to break off. They were probably seen as a symbol of royalty by the parliamentarians, although many churches were ransacked in the same period.
BRIGHTON REGENCY TOWN HOUSE A Grade I listed terraced home of the mid 1820s, currently in the final phase of restoration as a Heritage Centre. See the House whilst refurbishment work continues during 1995, and obtain a fascinating insight into the development of Regency Brighton and Hove and urban lifestyle in this period. Fully guided tours and talks explore the building of the towns' large terraced houses, the use and decoration of their rooms - and much more besides.
ROYAL PAVILION The Royal Pavilion grew over 35 years from a simple farmhouse to a spectacular palace. In 1787 Henry Holland extended the original farmhouse into a neo-classical building know as the 'Marine Pavilion'. From 1815-1823 John Nash used new technology to transform the Pavilion into the Indian style building that exists today. He enlarged the building and added the domes and minarets that characterise his design by superimposing a cast iron framework over Holland's Marine Pavilion. Other features of Nash's design were less successful: within 10 years the roof had started to leak and concealed drainpipes were overflowing and causing dry rot. The Royal Pavilion's lavish interiors combine Chinese-style decorations with magnificent furniture and furnishings. Adorned with gilded dragons, carved palm trees and imitation bamboo staircases, the Palace's unique style mixes Asian exoticism with English eccentricity.
PRESTON PARK & ROCK GARDEN Preston Park is probably the most well- known park in Brighton bring situated on the London Road and an important landmark for visitors travelling into Brighton from the north. There are 63 acres of parkland incorporating beautiful bedding schemes which can be seen from the main road. There is also a formal rose garden, six bowling greens and 12 tennis courts in the park, plus a children's playground, a croquet lawn, a garden for the blind and a small pond with stepping stones. The Rotunda Cafe is open Easter-end of October, 10am-6pm. Opposite Preston Park, on the other side of the London Road, is The Rockery, the largest municipal rock garden in Britain, containing wonderful plants and built with 1,350 tons of Cheddar stone. It is reputed that the design of the garden is similar to that of the popular Willow Pattern.
CALLANAIS STONE CIRCLE Situated near the village of Calanais on a ridge of land above Loch Roag, Calanais is one of the more remote stone circles in the British Isles. The circle consists of a central stone just under five metres in height, surrounded by a circle of thirteen stones. To the North a double avenue of stones runs from the circle for eighty metres, probably the original entrance to the site. To the South, East and West run three single rows of stones forming the arms of a cross, the Southern arm extending slightly longer than the East and West alignments.
The stones are known as 'Fir Bhreig' meaning the false men in Gaelic, it is possible they were looked upon as petrified people in the distant past. A legend suggest that the stones were giants, turned to stone by St Kieran when they would not convert to Christianity. The stones were also said to have a spectral visitation on the dawn of the Midsummer Solstice. A shinning figure is said to walk down Northern avenue heralded by the call of a Cuckoo. This may be a folk memory of astronomical alignments or seasonal ritual at the site. One tale that has a common variant in other areas, is the tale of a white fairy cow, that came out of the sea during a year of harsh famine. The cow made its way to the stones and allowed itself to be milked by the people of the village. They were each allowed 1 pail of milk. A local witch came to the cow and tried to get 2 pails, she was refused and returned with a sieve and proceded to milk the cow dry.
CAMBRIDGE 1. A visit to King's College Chapel is a truely inspirational experience. It is the largest and most spectacular of the college chapel's in Cambridge. 2. The Fitzwilliam is known as the Art Museum of Cambridge University. It has been described as “the finest small museum in Europe”
AUDLEY END HOUSE & GARDENS- AN ELEGANT JACOBEAN MANSION (RIGHT) BURGHLEY HOUSE & PARK – FINE EXAMPLE OF LATE ELIZABETHAN ARCHITECTURE (LEFT)
DUBLIN Dublinia at Christchurch brings the turbulent history of medieval Dublin vividly to life. This award-winning exhibition allows visitors to experience life in the Middle Ages at first-hand. Walk through the reconstructed streets and laneways of the old city, visit the Merchant's House and climb aboard a ship at Wood Quay. Dublinia recreates the sights and sounds of the medieval city to offer visitors a fascinating glimpse of Dublin 800 years ago. Detailed reconstruction of the streets, houses and even the citizens of the time reveal how much life in Dublin has changed... and how much remains the same.
If for no other reason, Kilmainham Gaol would be remarkable for being the biggest unoccupied gaol in these islands. As such, it gives the visitor a dramatic and realistic insight into what is was like to have been confined in one of these forbidding bastions of punishment and correction between 1796 when it opened and 1924 when it closed and offers a panoramic insight into some of the most profound, disturbing and inspirational themes of modern Irish history. Leaders of the rebellions of 1798, 1803, 1848, 1867 and 1916 were detained here. Such names as Robert Emmet, Charles Stewart Parnell, leaders of the 1916 Rising and DeValera are associated with the gaol. The visit includes a guided tour and exhibition. Please note that this is a very busy site and visitors may experience a delay during the summer months.
EDINBURGH Edinburgh is the breathtakingly beautiful capital of Scotland, an exciting place to visit at any time of year. When the Picts built a fort on a volcanic crag in the 5th century, to protect Scotland from the invading Angles of Northumberland, Edinburgh's history began. The present Castle, was built on the site by Michael Canmore (1057-93); his wife St. Margaret, built the chapel which you can still visit today. Edinburgh and the port of Leith were granted a charter by Robert the Bruce, and from this time its prosperity and population grew. Building space was limited within the fortification wall, and so the town grew upwards. Tall buildings (tenements), some up to fourteen stories high with narrow alleys (wynds) between were built, and what is known as "old town" developed down the royal mile to Holyrood Abbey. People were crowded together, noblemen, thieves, artisans and shopkeepers. This was the Edinburgh of Mary Queen of Scots, of the famous preacher John Knox, whose house you can still see, and of Heroes such as the Marquis of Montrose. Edinburgh had much to be proud of, it was home to the Scottish Parliament and the University of Edinburgh; the town had survived everything from war, civil and religious strife, to overcrowding, severe shortage of water and outbreak of the plague. The Union of Parliaments in 1707 removed Scotland's independence, but by this time Edinburgh was established as Scotland's capital with its fine University, its own legal system and growing foreign trade coming up the Forth to the port of Leith. Today Edinburgh is once again the home of Scottish Parliament for the first time in 300 years. Free at last from the fear of invasion Edinburgh was able to grow beyond its medieval walls. In the mid 18th century the loch surrounding the castle was drained, North Bridge was built, and what is known as "new town" burgeoned forth. No longer confined for space, plans were drawn up by James Craig for wide streets and grand squares. It was Craig's plans which we should thank for building on only one side of Princes Street and Queen Street, allowing for the beautiful public gardens opposite. Georgian Edinburgh grew throughout the remainder of the 18th and 19th centuries. The first public building, Register House, was designed by Robert Adam; he also designed the University and the north side of Charlotte Square. Many classical buildings such as the National Gallery of Scotland inspired by ancient Greece grace the city centre and from these, Edinburgh became known as the "Athens of the North". Edinburgh blossomed into one of Europe's cultural centres. This was the Edinburgh of James Boswell, Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott; of the philosopher David Hume and the political economist Adam Smith; and of the painter Sir Henry Raeburn and the engineer Thomas Telford. Upholding its tradition for culture Edinburgh hosts the annual International Festival, three weeks of the very best of music, opera, drama and ballet. Although the Festival only lasts for three weeks, you will find top class entertainment of every sort, all year in Edinburgh. Apart from its varied and stunning Architecture, Edinburgh is a visually beautiful place, with many parks and gardens, to take a leisurely stroll through, or simply sit and watch the world go by. For those who enjoy gardens you are in for a treat! Edinburgh is the home of the world famous Royal Botanic Garden, which you will not want to miss.
KILMARTIN LINEAR CEMETERY The Kilmartin Valley is home to one of the most varied collections of prehistoric sites in the whole of Scotland. Bronze Age cairns, Neolithic chambered tombs, and enigmatic rock carvings, can all be found within a two-mile radius from Kilmartin village. Further South is Dunadd, the Dark Age fortress once home to the people after whom Scotland was named. The most easily accessible group of sites form the Kilmartin Linear Cemetery, a collection of Bronze Age cairns, all of which can be reached on foot from the museum at Kilmartin House. The linear cemetery consists of five cairns dating from the Bronze Age, some of which overlay older sites. Intermingled with these are Temple Wood Stone circle, and Nether Largie standing stones.
LOCH NESS Loch Ness is the largest of three lochs located in the Great Glen which divides the North of Scotland along a line from Fort William to Inverness. The loch is large by British standards, being 23 miles long and a mile in width, and averaging 600ft in depth. Its catchment is hilly and wet, and is drained by 6 major rivers which flow into the loch. It contains over 2 cubic miles of fresh water, and the River Ness outlet, although only 5 miles long, is one of the greatest in Britain for average flow.
A new Loch Ness mystery has unfolded with the discovery of a huge underwater cavern which sections of the media have dubbed 'Nessie's Lair'. Auxiliary coastguard and Drumnadrochit businessman George Edwards made this spectacular find when he was on a coastguard training exercise on the Loch. He picked up an abnormal signal on his sonar. The depth of the Loch is around 750 ft, and as he made a circular manoeuvre with his boat he got a reading of 812 ft on his sonar equipment. George, who over the years has seen many strange shapes on the Loch, has been a tour boat operator for 12 years. His findings have been quoted by experts as 'the most significant in years', but it has only come to light now as he was fearful of being accused of promoting self-interest. Being a firm Nessie believer, George says there must be more than one creature in the Loch and this cavern could lead to a network of caves. He feels the time has come to investigate the underwater caves and has been contacted by a North Sea oil company offering equipment and experts to seek out 'Nessie's Lair'. These are sonar readings George took on his travels in his boat showing the contours of the Loch.
OXFORD Oxford University Museum of Natural History Ashmolean Museum – Museum of Art and Archeology – Britain’s Oldest Public Museum
STONEHENGE Stonehenge is probably the most recognisable and enigmatic stone circle in Britain. The structure has fascinated people for centuries, and there are many theories as to what purpose it was put to by ancient man. Stonehenge has suffered over the years from trophy hunters, and the wear and tear of many visitors. The structure is now surrounded by a fence, which although not aesthetically pleasing is helping to preserve the monument from erosion.
The stones have inspired many legends and folklore over the centuries. Much of the folklore seems to try and explain the origin of the circle structure as the work of giants, gods or wizards. It was probably easier to accept this than to believe that a past culture could have better technology. The heel stone is said to have been thrown by the Devil at a monk who was spying on him between the stones. The stone pinned the unfortunate clergyman to the ground by his heel. Other folklore suggests that the stones are uncountable, a baker tried to count them by placing a loaf of bread on each stone. He came up with a number but then made the mistake of going through the whole process again, and could never get the sets of numbers to tally.
Ancient Astronomy. Stonehenge has stimulated a great deal of debate over the years, from experts and laymen alike. The first account that the stones may have been aligned to key dates was by William Stukeley, who noted that the axis of the earthen avenue aligns to where the sun rises on the longest day. In the 1960's an astrophysicist called Gerald Hawkins studied Stonehenge alignments by computer, and concluded that the Trilithons framed key dates in the megalithic calendar. Although the alignments are not razor sharp in accuracy, they are accurate enough to have been used by megalithic man for ceremonial and astronomical purposes. The cycle of the moon is over a 18.61 year cycle, and the observation of the sky must have been over a prolonged period of time to incorporate the corrects alignments.
STRATFORD-UPON-AVON The half-timbered house where William Shakespeare was born in 1564 is Stratford's most cherished historic place. It is the most frequently visited of all the tourist places. Descendants of the dramatist lived there until the nineteenth century, and it has been a place of pilgrimage for over 250 years. Open daily, tours start in The Birthplace which contains an acclaimed exhibition of the poet's life, William Shakespeare: His Life and Background They then carry on through the house, which is furnished in period style with many historic manuscripts and books.
New Place, Shakespeare's home from 1597 until his death in 1616,was pulled down in the eighteenth century but its foundations and grounds can be seen, including a beautiful Elizabethan-style knott garden created eighty years ago. The site is approached through Nash's House adjoining, which contains exceptional furnishings of Shakespeare's period. The rooms on the lower level include some early seventeenth century oak furniture. Upstairs, there is an exhibition dealing with the history of Stratford-upon-Avon before and after Shakespeare.
Anne Hathaway's Cottage Exquisitely picturesque - the second favourite Shakespearian property. Before marrying William Shakespeare in 1582, Anne Hathaway lived in what is justifiably described as one of England's most famous buildings. Part of the building dates from the mid-fifteenth century, and some of the furniture belonged to the Hathaways and their descendants. The garden is outstanding.
UFFINGTON The White Horse of Uffington, with its elegant lines of white chalk bedrock, is thought to be the oldest hill figure in Britain. The image is a stylised representation of a horse (some would say dragon) some 374 feet in length, and is thought to date back as far as 1000BC in the late Bronze Age. Similar images have been found depicted on coins from that period, and it is thought that the figure represents a horse goddess connected with the local Belgae tribe. The goddess is generally believed to be one form of Epona, worshiped throughout the Celtic world.
Dragon Hill is a low flat-topped mound situated in the valley below the White Horse. In legend it is the place where St George slew the dragon, its blood spilling on the hilltop and leaving forever a bare white patch where no grass can grow. Some suggest that the horse is a representation of St George's steed or even of the slain dragon itself.
INFO O AUTORZE AUTOR: MGR BEATA KOZŁOWSKA SZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA W TRZYGŁOWIE BIBLIOGRAFIA: WWW.BRIGHTON.CO.UK WWW.OXFORDCITY.CO.UK WWW.CAMBRIDGE.GOV.UK WWW.STRATFORD-UPON-AVON.CO.UK WWW.EDINBURGH.ORG WWW.EDINBURGHGUIDE.COM WWW.VISITDUBLIN.COM WWW.LOCHNESS.CO.UK WWW.MYSTERIOUSBRITAIN.CO.UK WWW.PLACES-TO-VISIT.CO.UK WWW.ABOUTBRITAIN.COM