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Early Childhood: Intensive Instruction ’12-13 Amy Matthews, Ph.D. & Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. Grand Valley State University Linda Elenbaas, M.A. Spring.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Childhood: Intensive Instruction ’12-13 Amy Matthews, Ph.D. & Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. Grand Valley State University Linda Elenbaas, M.A. Spring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Childhood: Intensive Instruction ’12-13 Amy Matthews, Ph.D. & Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. Grand Valley State University Linda Elenbaas, M.A. Spring Lake Schools / OAISD

2 Agenda Welcome Back and Review Intensive Teaching/Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) ABA Components Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)/Intensive Teaching and NET Preparing for intensive teaching

3 Intensive, Individualized Intervention What is it? Why is it critical?

4 Why was Anne Sullivan’s teaching successful? Individualized Intensive Repetition Follow through Targeted High expectations Failure was not an option

5 Children with ASD Need Good Teaching Even More Than Most Kids

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7 More Learning Opportunities Provide individualized intensive teaching to increase learning for students who do not learn from the natural environment or through typical classroom activities

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9 Presenting Instruction Request (Stimulus) Response Reaction (Consequence)

10 Presenting Instruction REQUESTRESPONSEREACTION What makes the behavior happen What increases the chance the behavior will happen again Instruction “Do This”: Imitation “MATCH”: Pre-academic “Do Puzzle”: Play Skills “Give me the...”: Receptive Language PROMPT REINFORCEMENT

11 The 3 Rs are what we call a “Learning Opportunity” or “Learning Trial”

12 Using the 3 Rs… 100% success is expected so… Failure is not an option A child will be assisted until he is successful Don’t make a request unless you can follow through

13 More About the 3 Rs Who presents Where to present What do you present How to prompt How to reinforce How many times to present How quickly to present R equest R esponse R eaction

14 What is ABA? The Basics of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) ABA is Good Teaching

15 What is ABA? ABA systematically applies procedures based on behavioral principles to the instruction and modification of socially significant behaviors.

16 Why ABA? Based on over 60 years of scientific evidence Research supports intensive, structured intervention Best way to prepare young children with ASD to learn Effective way to teach many new skills Individualized and intensive Ongoing monitoring through data collection

17 ABA as a Broad Science Applied behavior analysis contributes to a full range of areas including: AIDS prevention, conservation of natural resources, education, gerontology, health and exercise, industrial safety, language acquisition, littering, medical procedures, parenting, seatbelt use, severe mental disorders, sports, and zoo management and care of animals. ABA-based interventions have gained recent popularity in the last 20 years related to teaching students with ASD.

18 What is ABA? ABA is Not:  Only applicable to young children with ASD. It can be used with any age group and individuals with and without various disabilities.

19 Applied Behavior Analysis The broad approach to changing behavior based on behavioral principles

20 Seat-Belt Use Negative reinforcement tactics work to increase seatbelt use unless buzzing can be disconnected Research would suggest positive reinforcement strategies will increase use Geller, E.S., Casali, J.G., & Johnson, R.P. (1980). Seat belt usage: A potential target for applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 13(4) pp Researchers suggest: a light on the license plate to indicate the belt is buckled followed by a large scale community effort to reward drivers for their use, including entrance to “fast” traffic lane, discounts given by businesses with drive-thru window (banks, fast food, etc)

21 ABA methods are used to support persons with autism in at least six ways: to increase behaviors (e.g. reinforcement procedures increase on-task behavior, or social interactions); to teach new skills (e.g. systematic instruction and reinforcement procedures teach functional life skills, communication skills, social skills); to maintain behaviors (e.g. teaching self control and self-monitoring procedures to stay on task);

22 ABA methods are used to support persons with ASD in at least six ways: to generalize or to transfer behavior from one situation or response to another (e.g. from completing assignments in the resource room to performing as well in the general ed classroom); to restrict or narrow conditions under which interfering behaviors occur (e.g. playing with trains has a time and a place); and to reduce interfering behaviors (e.g. aggression, stereotypy)

23 Different Forms of ABA Teaching Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) Incidental Teaching Verbal Behavior PECS Pivotal Response Training

24 ABA Credential ABA isn’t just another strategy It is a field of study based on many years of research that serves as a foundational approach to teaching Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) is the credential given to people with significant expertise and experience with ABA Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) –

25 ABA and Evidence-based Practice ABA is listed as an evidence-based practice by:  National Professional Development Center on ASD  National Standards Project  Association for Science in Autism Treatment  Numerous recent books and articles on evidence-based practice

26 ABA Effectiveness According to a cost/benefit analysis conducted by Jacobson, Mulick & Green (1996), competently-delivered, early, intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) can offer the hope of unprecedented gains for both children and taxpayers: estimated savings per child to age 22 are about $200,000; to age 55, $1,000,000. Similar analysis by Chasson, Harris, & Neely (2007) suggested the use of EIBI can lead to a savings of $208,500 per child across 18 years of education in the state of TX.

27 According to Ganz (2006), ninety percent of children with ASD who are deprived of intensive, effective early intervention will require special or custodial care throughout their lives, and this is estimated to cost the United States $35 billion dollars a year.

28 Getting STARTed with Intensive Teaching First, we need to review some of the basic components of ABA Many of them will look familiar to you; you might be surprised that much of it isn’t new!

29 ABA Components Prompting Errorless Learning Reinforcement Behavioral Momentum Stages of Learning

30 Prompting Prompting involves helping the child give the correct response after a given request. When learning new tasks, a child needs help to understand the connection between the request and the desired response. Prompts increase the success of the student. Prompting may occur at the same time as the request, right after the request, or even before the request.

31 Summary: Types of Prompts Verbal prompts Visual prompts  Model prompts  Picture prompts  Gestural prompts  Positional prompts Physical prompts  Blocking  Initiation prompts  Full Physical prompts

32 Verbal Prompts Verbal prompt involves providing a verbal instruction, cue, or model, or overemphasizing the correct word in an array of choices (direct and indirect).

33 Visual Prompts Model prompts is the acting out of the target behavior by the adult or another child with the hope that the child will imitate. Picture prompts provide a visual cue to the child. Gestural prompts includes pointing to, looking at, moving, or touching an item or area to indicate a correct response. Positional prompts involves arranging the materials of the trial so that the correct item is in a position advantageous to the child.

34 Physical Prompts Blocking involves stopping an incorrect response or behavior before it occurs Initiation prompts involves helping the child to begin an action to complete a task Physical prompts involves actually touching the child.

35 Prompting Using the right level of prompting  Least to most (reduces dependency)  Most to least (errorless learning)

36 Errorless Learning Learning it wrong Have you ever…  Learned a name and later discovered it was the wrong name  Made a wrong turn the first time going somewhere and then made the same mistake next time  Added the wrong ingredient to a recipe and then did it again

37 When are errors not okay? Surgery Pilots Bridge architects When it will take just as much work to unlearn errors

38 Errorless Learning In errorless learning, children only learn the correct skill. That is, the teacher teaches in such a manner that students do not make any mistakes. As a result, they do not learn an incorrect skill that will have to be corrected or re-taught.

39 It might look like cheating but it isn’t Examples:  You’re wearing blue shoes. If you have blue shoes, line up.  My name is Miss Lisa. Who am I?  “Raise your hand” while modeling raise hand and providing an initiation prompt.  This is a truck. What is this?  You have an apple and milk for lunch. What are you having for lunch? While showing a picture of apple and milk.

40 Errorless Learning Errorless learning offers the following benefits: Minimizes the number of errors Increases time available for instruction Reduces the likelihood that errors will be repeated in the future Reduces frustration and increases opportunities for reinforcement

41 Errorless Learning Prompting leads to success % of the time Errorless process:  Give an instruction once  Wait for a response; prompt before an error occurs within 3-5 seconds of request  When a child is first learning a skill, the prompt may be immediate

42 When to use Errorless Learning When to use Has few skills/acquisition phase Unlikely to learn without many trials, supported by prompts When not to use Has skills; working on mastery or fluency

43 Prompting Cautions Watch for unplanned prompts (e.g. Clever Hans) Beware of prompt dependency

44 Goal is to use the least amount of prompting necessary to get the child to respond correctly

45 Fade Prompts Prompt fading Gradually reduce the level of prompting needed. For example:  Full physical to partial physical  Full physical to gestural  Model to verbal  Verbal to visual Time delay Delay prompt by 1-3 seconds

46 Prompting: Application/Activity Consider 2 tasks 1. Dressing or completing a drawing activity 2. Identifying features of an object or labeling pictures How would you prompt your student in these tasks  Most to least – errorless teaching  Least to most How would you fade

47 ABA Components Prompting Errorless Learning Reinforcement Behavioral Momentum Stages of Learning

48 Hurray for Reinforcers!!

49 Reinforcement All people use reinforcement in every day life. Something is a reinforcer if it increases the behavior that occurred immediately before the reinforcer was delivered.

50 Reinforcement A reinforcer can be positive or negative.  Positive – giving something to increase a behavior, like a smile, a cookie or a toy  Negative- taking something away to increase a behavior, like turning off the alarm clock, or a teacher removing a demand so the child will stop screaming.

51 Guidelines for Reinforcement  If it doesn’t increase behavior, it isn’t a reinforcer.  Each child will have different reinforcers.  A reinforcer for a child won’t be a reinforcer forever.  Vary reinforcers.  Reinforcers should be immediate.  Always pair tangible reinforcers with social praise, eye contact, high fives, hugs, brief games.

52 Guidelines for Reinforcement  Use descriptive praise for correct responses (e.g. “You are sitting so quietly, we are ready to get started!” or “Thanks for closing the door, you are a great helper.”).  If reinforcement is being presented after each trial, short- lived reinforcers should be used. A single mini M&M, one blow on the bubble wand, a quick high five and a "Great job!"  Start with reinforcement after every trial then thin out the reinforcement schedule once a behavior is learned.

53 101 Ways to Praise WOW WAY TO GO SUPER YOU'RE SPECIAL OUTSTANDING EXCELLENTGREAT GOOD NEAT WELL DONE REMARKABLE I KNEW YOU COULD DO IT I'M PROUD OF YOU FANTASTIC SUPER STAR NICE WORK LOOKING GOOD YOU'RE ON TOP OF IT BEAUTIFUL NOW YOU'RE FLYING YOU'RE CATCHING ON NOW YOU'VE GOT IT YOU'RE INCREDIBLE BRAVO YOU'RE FANTASTIC HURRAY FOR YOU YOU'RE ON TARGET YOU'RE ON YOUR WAY HOW NICE HOW SMART GOOD JOB THAT'S INCREDIBLE HOT DOG DYNAMITE YOU'RE BEAUTIFUL YOU'RE UNIQUE NOTHING CAN STOP YOU NOW GOOD FOR YOU I LIKE YOU YOU'RE A WINNER REMARKABLE JOB BEAUTIFUL WORK SPECTACULAR YOU'RE SPECTACULAR YOU'RE DARLING YOU'RE PRECIOUS GREAT DISCOVERY YOU'VE DISCOVERED THE SECRET YOU FIGURED IT OUT FANTASTIC JOB HIP, HIP, HURRAY BINGO MAGNIFICENT MARVELOUS TERRIFIC YOU'RE IMPORTANT PHENOMENAL YOU'RE SENSATIONAL SUPER WORK CREATIVE JOB SUPER JOB FANTASTIC JOB EXCEPTIONAL PERFORMANCE YOU'RE A REAL TROOPER YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE YOU ARE EXCITING YOU LEARNED IT RIGHT WHAT AN IMAGINATION WHAT A GOOD LISTENER YOU ARE FUN YOU'RE GROWING UP YOU TRIED HARD YOU CARE BEAUTIFUL SHARING OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE YOU'RE A GOOD FRIEND I TRUST YOU YOU'RE IMPORTANT YOU MEAN A LOT TO ME YOU MAKE ME HAPPY YOU BELONG YOU'VE GOT A FRIEND YOU MAKE ME LAUGH YOU BRIGHTEN MY DAY I RESPECT YOU YOU MEAN THE WORLD TO ME THAT'S CORRECT YOU'RE A JOY YOU'RE A TREASURE YOU'RE WONDERFUL YOU'RE PERFECT AWESOME A+ JOB YOU'RE A-OK MY BUDDY YOU MADE MY DAY THAT'S THE BEST A BIG HUG A BIG KISS I LOVE YOU!

54 Reinforcement Better responses get a better reinforcer  Faster responding  Louder responding  Longer responding (e.g., time on task)  More accurate (e.g., says word more clearly) Better reinforcers are  More (e.g., popcorn)  Better (e.g., favorite color m & m)  Longer access (e.g., more time to watch video)

55 Reinforcement Schedules Continuous – Reinforce after every correct response  Used for acquisition and difficult tasks Intermittent – Fixed or variable schedule  Used to maintain a behavior

56 Identifying and Individualizing Reinforcers Ask / Survey Observe Sample/Preference assessment

57 Reinforcer Assessment Survey  Reinforcer survey 1 Reinforcer s  Reinforcer survey 2 Conduct a reinforcer assessment

58 Rapport Building (Pairing) High quality programs have positive teacher child interactions The goal of pairing is for the learner to enjoy being with the instructor (the instructor is a big chocolate chip cookie) The learner should not want to escape from the instructor  When a child sees you, he should know that great things are going to happen and not bad things Pairing happens before instructional demands start

59 Rapport Building (Pairing) We don’t want kids working to escape from the teacher. It’s okay to work to get a fun reinforcer and learn to associate that reinforcer with a person. So… Why wouldn’t you try to use pairing? What is better than this?

60 Rapport Building (Pairing) A process of establishing yourself as a reinforcer in order to build rapport with child. Associate yourself with a reinforcer. Best types of reinforcers for pairing:  Are controlled by you  Can be delivered multiple times in small amounts  Go away by themselves and don’t need to be taken away  Are somehow better with you than without you (toy that only you know how to turn on)

61 Pairing: Steps Identify the learner’s reinforcers  Best types of reinforcers for pairing: Are controlled by you Can be delivered multiple times in small amounts Go away by themselves and don’t need to be taken away Are somehow better with you than without you (toy that only you know how to turn on) Limit the availability of other reinforcers during pairing Create an environment that is fun Offer something that is more desirable than what they are already doing Pair your voice and yourself with the reinforcers

62 Engaging Tasks Boring is not always in the task, but in the environment because you don’t have enough reinforcement (lever example) A task has to be so engaging that children do not want to escape

63 ABA Components Prompting Errorless Learning Reinforcement Behavioral Momentum Stages of Learning

64 Behavioral Momentum

65 Faced with a list of tasks, we often complete the easier tasks first so we can check them off the list and achieve satisfaction from small successes before we tackle the harder tasks… This is the concept of behavior momentum

66 Behavioral Momentum Use the same procedure with your students Roll with successes Provide the student with a series of high probability (motivating) requests or directions. This will increase the likelihood that the student will comply with the less likely (low probability) direction/request.

67 Behavioral Momentum and the Classroom Schedule Avoid starting the day with “unlikely” or “nonpreferred” activities, such as a review of the previous day’s problems, a difficult assignment, or calendar review. Instead, begin with “likely” or “preferred” behaviors, games or activities, such as “Simon Says,” team guess of a teacher’s selected mystery animal, or reading a high-interest story. Follow the preferred activities with less likely activities (e.g., academic assignments, problem review). Ben’s Picks

68 Behavioral Momentum and Individual Student Responses Use behavior momentum to encourage students to follow directions and complete demands  Start by giving three or more requests that a student will readily do. After successfully completing each request, reinforce the student—this builds “behavior momentum.”  Next make a more difficult request This is why we use “mixed trials” – more about this later

69 Behavioral Momentum: Example Mrs. Cleaver is working with 4-year-old Allison to improve following directions. After identifying high and low probability behaviors for Allison, she uses the following sequence... “Allison, where’s the dog?” “Allison, give me five.” “Allison, what’s your favorite animal?” “Allison, put your puzzle back on the shelf.”

70 ABA Components Prompting Errorless Learning Reinforcement Shaping Behavioral Momentum Stages of Learning

71 Stages of learning For each targeted goal, consider the stage of learning. 1. Acquisition 2. Fluency building 3. Maintenance 4. Generalization

72 Acquisition Characterized by high rates of inaccurate responses. Students have little or no skill at this stage. With careful teacher-directed instruction, the rate of accurate responses rises.

73 Acquisition Acquisition requires intense teacher-student interaction Numerous prompts are needed for correct responses Correct responding is the focus not fast responding Use errorless learning to reduce errors

74 Acquisition Foreign languages Reading Picture Exchange Communication: Request

75 Fluency Building When the responses reach independence at % accuracy, students are moving into fluency building. Students practice to increase the speed of responding accurately. Teacher provides corrective feedback.

76 Fluency Foreign languages Reading Picture Exchange Communication: Request

77 Maintenance Once students respond fluently, instructional time for the target skill is reduced Practice is provided for maintenance (Goal selection)

78 Maintenance Foreign languages Reading Picture Exchange Communication: Request

79 Generalization If you don’t program for generalization, don’t bother teaching at all.

80 Generalization Transfer of learning:  Stimuli – use multiple exemplars and real objects  People – use multiple instructions, parents  Settings – use varied and natural settings  Behaviors – teach behaviors of similar response class Reduce the level of prompting and reinforcement used so the student can demonstrate the behavior independently.

81 Generalization Foreign languages Reading Picture Exchange Communication: Request

82 Ways to Increase Generalization Teach in the target situation Use common items that will be encountered in the natural environment Provide multiple examples Vary instructors Increase reinforcement in the natural environment for taught behaviors Teach meaningful behaviors that are useable across people and settings

83 Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)

84 What is the difference between ABA and DTT?

85 Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) DTT is a teaching procedure based on ABA principles Steege, M. W., Mace, F. C., Perry, L., & Longnecker, H. (2007). Applied behavior analysis: Beyond discrete trial teaching. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1),

86 Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) Primarily adult-directed and implemented in a structured setting Particularly effective for teaching early learning and language skills One component of a comprehensive program for children with ASD

87 Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) Breaks skills into small parts Provides concentrated teaching opportunities Uses prompting & prompt fading Uses reinforcement procedures Data collection informs programming decisions Teaches to fluency and generalization

88 To Master a Concept 8-12 repetitions for a gifted student repetitions for an average student 1400 repetitions for a “naïve” student What works: Research about teaching and learning, US Dept of Ed, 1996

89 Presenting Instruction REQUESTRESPONSEREACTION What makes the behavior happen What increases the chance the behavior will happen again Instruction “Do This”: Imitation “MATCH”: Pre-academic “Do Puzzle”: Play Skills “Give me the...”: Receptive Language PROMPT REINFORCEMENT

90

91 Instructional Delivery Nuances of presentation  Environment  Teaching session length  Instructor language  Mixing vs. massing  Pacing  Varying placement  Set size Request  Response  Reaction Stimulus  Response  Consequence

92 Instructional Delivery: Environment Work in the most natural environment that will still allow the child to learn Use the environment to block and manage behavior, but gradually move to a natural learning environment

93 Instructional Delivery Nuances of presentation  Environment  Teaching session length  Instructor language  Mixing vs. massing  Pacing  Varying placement  Set size Request  Response  Reaction Stimulus  Response  Consequence

94 Instructional Delivery: Session Length Keep track of when a child starts to lose momentum and stop a minute before Always end on a positive request Work up to longer periods of work

95 Instructional Delivery Nuances of presentation  Environment  Teaching session length  Instructor language  Mixing vs. massing  Pacing  Varying placement  Set size Request  Response  Reaction Stimulus  Response  Consequence

96 Instructional Delivery: Instructor Language Simple vs. complex When do you keep the lead constant vs. vary the lead (e.g. point to…, touch…, show me…, where is…)

97 Instructional Delivery Nuances of presentation  Environment  Teaching session length  Instructor language  Mixing vs. massing  Pacing  Varying placement  Set size Request  Response  Reaction Stimulus  Response  Consequence

98 Presentation: Mass Trial vs. Mixed Trial Mass trial is repeated practice of the same task  Provides lots of practice  Rote and sometimes hard to generalize Mixed trials involve asking a combination of questions  More natural and easier to generalize  Some students may have a hard time learning a task in a mixed presentation

99 Mass Trial vs. Mixed Trial

100 Instructional Delivery Nuances of presentation  Environment  Teaching session length  Instructor language  Mixing vs. massing  Pacing  Varying placement  Set size Request  Response  Reaction Stimulus  Response  Consequence

101 Instructional Delivery: Pacing How quickly to you present a request to a student? Considerations:  Child’s processing speed  Errorless learning approach  Stage of learning (acquisition vs. fluency)

102 Instructional Delivery Nuances of presentation  Environment  Teaching session length  Instructor language  Mixing vs. massing  Pacing  Varying placement  Set size Request  Response  Reaction Stimulus  Response  Consequence

103 Instructional Delivery: Vary Placement Change position of item presented each time Change from horizontal to vertical Change setting (e.g. PECS) Change location (table vs. held by instructor)

104 Instructional Delivery Nuances of presentation  Environment  Teaching session length  Instructor language  Mixing vs. massing  Pacing  Varying placement  Set size Request  Response  Reaction Stimulus  Response  Consequence

105 Instructional Delivery: Set Size How many items are presented at a time? When do you present two? When do you present three? (why is this better?) When do you present multiple items?

106 Autism and ABA Apps Autism Apps ABA Apps

107 Day Two

108 Next Steps How do we set up intensive teaching?

109 Next Steps: How do we set up intensive teaching? Identify curricula Complete a student skills assessment Select targets based on the assessment Establish a data collection system Complete reinforcer survey and collect items Identify time in the daily schedule for intensive teaching

110 Intensive Teaching Curriculum Areas Readiness skills/Learning to learn  Attention  Imitation  Motivation  Making choices Language Play/Social skills Pre-academic/Academic/Literacy Self help/Adaptive Motor

111 Curriculum to Teach Specific Skills Assessment, Evaluation and Programming System (0-3 and 3-6) (AEPS) - The STAR Program – Rethink Autism - Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities by Sundberg & Partington Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism by Maurice, Green, & Luce Teach Me Language by Freeman & Dake

112 Next Steps: How do we set up intensive teaching? Identifying curricula Complete a student skills assessment Select targets based on the assessment Establish a data collection system Complete reinforcer survey and collect items Identify time in the daily schedule for intensive teaching

113 Conducting a Skills Assessment You only know what to teach by assessing a child’s current skills and knowing where you want the child to go next. One day Alice came to a fork in the road and saw a Cheshire cat in a tree. “Which road do I take”? she asked. His response was a question: “Where do you want to go”? “I don’t know,” Alice answered. “Then,” said the cat, “it doesn’t matter.” ~Lewis Carroll Alice in Wonderland

114 MDE Approved Assessment Systems Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS) Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2n edition (BDI-2) Brigance Inventory of Early Development-II (IED-II) Carolina Curriculum for Preschoolers with Special Needs (CCPSN) Preschool Child Observation Record, 2 nd ed (COR) Creative Curriculum Development Continuum for Ages 3-5 (CCDC) Learning Accomplishment Profile – Third Edition (LAP-3)

115 Assessment systems often used with children with ASD Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System for Infant and Children (AEPS)  AEPS Interactive (AEPSi) The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised (ABBLS-R) Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP)

116 Classroom Skills Assessment You can use a skills assessment data sheet for all of your students to assess performance in typical classroom activities and self-help skills This data can be used for the development of IEP goals and intensive teaching targets

117 Skills Data Sheet Across Students Fine motor Social Eating

118 Basically…know thy student Student summary Student summary example

119 Student Example Gavin knows his upper and lowercase letters, letter sounds, numbers to 29, the concept of one and all in a set, basic colors and shapes. He is able to copy simple lines, trace letters and lines. He is independent in eating and beginning toileting. He has some overall delays in motor coordination for his age but navigates safely in multiple environments. He has significant delays in functional use of language and speaks in primarily one word utterances. He does not communicate to get his needs met, seek information or interact by answering questions or recalling events. He is able to receptively and expressively identify pictures and objects. He is beginning to understand the features, function and category of objects. He understands the concepts of small, medium and large He has difficulty initiating interaction with peers and primarily plays alone or with an adult. He will participate in organized games supervised by an adult and do some basic pretend play with adult supervision. He rarely responds to peer initiated interactions or initiaties with peers.

120 Student Example: Gavin Progress record Graph 1 Graph 2 Child report

121 Select a student for intensive teaching Based on your assessments of all students, who would require more intensive instruction. Develop an intensive teaching program for one student to begin.

122 Next Steps: How do we set up intensive teaching? Identifying curricula Complete a student skills assessment Select targets based on the assessment Establish a data collection system Complete reinforcer survey and collect items Identify time in the daily schedule for intensive teaching

123 What do we teach? We teach those skills that will help the child become better learners, gain independence, and be successful in general education

124 Choosing Goals Expectations are addressed throughout the day in all activities and generally are not chosen as IEP goals and targets Choose your IEP goals and targets from the items on the assessment and from a solid curriculum

125 Choosing Targets Balance across curriculum areas Ask the following question:  Does the child have the necessary prerequisite skills for this target?  Is this target developmentally/age appropriate for the child?  Will this skill help to reduce problem behaviors?  Will this skill lead to the teaching of other meaningful skills?  Is this skill likely to generalize?  Will this skill be maintained?  Will the child acquire this skill in a reasonable amount of time?  Is this skill important for the child and family?

126 Choosing target words to teach If you were going to Japan and you wanted to choose 12 words that would be very relevant to get around, what would they be? When choosing any target, choose what is most relevant and likely to be learned and used This concept applies generally across all areas: pre- academic skills, play, etc.

127 Choosing target words to teach Teach words that can be used broadly (e.g., “open” can be understood and used for open door, open jar, open lid, open goldfish bag, open mouth and say ahh) Avoid choosing words that do not convey a concrete meaning (e.g. more) or words that are not critical for understanding (e.g. please, more) Choose words that are motivating to the child and will be used frequently and reinforced Teach yes and no

128 Target Examples Target Areas Target Areas with Examples Circle Time Targets

129 Student Example: Gavin Student summary IEP Summary IEP Goals 1 IEP Goals 2 IEP Goals 3

130 Next Steps: How do we set up intensive teaching? Identifying curricula Complete a student skills assessment Select targets based on the assessment Establish a data collection system Complete reinforcer survey and collect items Identify time in the daily schedule for intensive teaching

131 Identifying a Data Collection System Identify an appropriate data sheet  Clearly define targets and instructions  Probe data collection vs. trial by trial  Indicate prompt level

132 Taking Data Identify an appropriate data sheet  Clearly define targets and instructions Probe Data Sheet Sample Probe Data Sheet

133 Develop criteria for success/mastery Consider how same aged typical peers perform this skill. Does a typical child perform this skill 80% of the time or more?  Do not set your criteria too low or the child will not achieve true mastery. Anything less than 80% mastery probably will not be maintained once intensive teaching is ended.  Do not set your criteria higher than would be observed in same aged peers without a disability For intensive teaching, the criteria often used in the Ottawa program is independent responses on the first cold probe over 3 consecutive days

134 Student Example: Gavin Probe data sheet

135 Multiple students Data Tracking Goals may be clustered across students Examples Skills Assessment Classroom Behavior Social Goals

136 Classroom IEP Data Sheets IEP Goals 1 IEP Goals 2 Skills Assessment Toilet training data sheet

137 Monitoring Progress The data needs to be reviewed weekly to decide whether changes need to be made to the program Use a systematic process to decide when to make changes:  Mastery criteria for movement forward  Problem solving model for lack of progress

138 Probe Data Sheet Example

139 What does this graph tell us?

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143 Next Steps: How do we set up intensive teaching? Identifying curricula Complete a student skills assessment Select targets based on the assessment Establish a data collection system Complete reinforcer survey Identify time in the daily schedule for intensive teaching

144 Reinforcer Assessment Ask/Survey  Reinforcer survey 1 Reinforcer s  Reinforcer survey 2 Observe Create a Summary  Reinforcer Summary Reinforcer Summary

145 Next Steps: How do we set up intensive teaching? Identifying curricula Complete a student skills assessment Select targets based on the assessment Establish a data collection system Complete reinforcer survey and collect items Identify time in the daily schedule for intensive teaching

146 Accumulated Information You now have lots of knowledge about practices and strategies. Let’s go back to your schedule and think about maximizing time.

147 Finding Time: Be Creative Specials class (e.g., art or music) when another teacher is in the room – only a segment of the time Snack – two children do intensive teaching and the snack can be part of the reinforcer Story time – two children do intensive teaching, especially if you have children that have trouble sitting and paying attention and may require lots of redirection, and thus adult attention, anyway Coloring time may be a good time for a couple of children to get some intensive teaching time Speech or OT time when some children might be with the therapist, then the other children can get intensive teaching If a child is having behavior problems that require 1:1 adult time anyway, then change the schedule to give intensive teaching time to that child Set up stations/centers, including at least 1-2 independent centers, and have 1-2 centers be intensive teaching with a teacher and a para In all of these situations, rotate the children so they do not consistently miss the same activity

148 Next Steps: How do we set up an intensive teaching program? Complete reinforcer survey and collect items: Review HandoutReview Handout Fill in scheduling activity form Identify time in the daily schedule for intensive teaching: Review HandoutReview Handout

149 Guidelines to Maximize Progress Make it fun; Use lots of interesting and varied reinforcers (and materials when appropriate) Begin with shorter sessions then extend time Take breaks Mix the trials Alternate difficult & easy trials (behavioral momentum) Generalize skills daily

150 How do we do intensive teaching with more than one child?

151 Working with More than One Child at a Time Identify students with same targets or similar targets (quick movement back and forth between students) If students have different targets, create a system for moving between different materials and presentations (occupy non- engaged student)

152 How do we find time to offer intensive teaching?

153 Models of Intensive Teaching Additional staff to run intensive teaching sessions across classrooms (TBA model) Extra training and assistance to classroom staff when a child with ASD starts in a new classroom Project DATA/extended day (Schwartz et al.) Embedded in classroom schedule (McBride & Schwartz)

154 Expanding Learning Opportunities Project Rethink Autism curriculum Project DATA model Undergrads supervised by professional staff

155 What to do before the next training? Keep Working on the Classroom Priorities Develop Intensive Teaching for one student


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