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Globalisation, nationalism, multiculturalism, cosmopolitanism Dr Ian Woodward School of Humanities.

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1 Globalisation, nationalism, multiculturalism, cosmopolitanism Dr Ian Woodward School of Humanities

2 Globalisation: definitions 1.“the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity, p.64), and “…action at a distance…” 2. “globalization as a concept refers to both the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole…both concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole in the twentieth century” (Roland Robertson, Globalization, p.8) 3.“a social process in which the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding” (Malcolm Waters, Globalization, p.3)  Globalisation can represent a personal, economic and social opportunity. But, it also threatens the perceived integrity of the nation. Belonging to a nationality is a key aspect of identity, but belonging to a stable, wealthy nation is a privilege.

3 The hidden stuff that makes globalisation work? (according to Anthony Giddens, In Consequences of Modernity) ‘symbolic tokens’: e.g. ‘money’ - these permit the interchange of things without regard for the specific characteristics of individuals and groups that handle them at any particular juncture; money bridges time & space through electronic transfer ‘expert systems’ : although we may think we consult specific experts irregularly, many aspects of our lives are influenced by them, because you cannot know about all the things that you must trust in, e.g. engineering systems, airplanes, internet security, surgeons/therapists, financial controllers – when we can’t deal with people personally we must trust systems, protocols & security measures; has there recently been a questioning of experts in some fields?

4 Different ‘globalisations’: five theories (from John Urry, Global Complexity) 1.Globalisation as structural change  increased density of global interactions, compared to local or national ones: liberalisation of world trade, internationalisation of economic production, globalising consumption, declining cost of transportation, national economies ‘open up’ (eg. Australia, China)  development of transnational capitalist class who are ‘more or less’ in control of corporate globalisation (eg. Rupert Murdoch, Richard Branson)

5 2. Globalisation as flows & mobilities the increase of flows along various ‘scapes’: mediascapes, financescapes, technoscapes, ideoscapes, ethnoscapes includes systems of transporting people by air, sea, rail, motorways… what flows? people (for work, education, holidays); objects & goods (that are sent & received by companies & individuals); information, messages & images, capital/money flows run through spaces unequally, flows can be blocked and/or reversed, eg. the passport & visa are important flows ‘create’ culture - depending on their source they can create a homogeneous culture, rather than a hybrid, cosmopolitan culture, eg McDonaldisation processes on later slide See:

6 3. Globalisation as ideology  neo-liberal view of globalisation - focus on the inevitability, naturalness and inherent goodness of globalisation, where corporations operate on global basis, lacking any commitment to place, labour force or nation  nation-states & national interests: really play minor role relative to MNC (and deservedly so…the rhetoric suggests)  globalisation allows for the creation of a borderless, cosmopolitan utopia… those who are mobile & rich in capital benefit most

7 4. Globalisation as performance o globalisation is not so much a cause but an effect  glob. Is not a ‘thing’, but is is something that is made, and re-made continuously through various material & symbolic processes o many individuals & organisations mobilise around & orchestrate phenomena that demonstrate & possess a global character (eg. Global nature, tourism, economy, big business, war on terror), ‘making globalisation’ as much a semiotic process (ie. an image) than anything else… o e.g. a significant part of the tourist industry is based upon global pilgrimages to visit ‘global nature’ – iconic natural features & authentic wilderness experience, eg. see: o e.g. idea of a ‘global nature’ comes from our ability to see, map & measure environmental processes around the globe, including satellite images like the (iconic) one on the following slide taken on the Apollo 17 flight, 1972

8 View of Earth, from Apollo 17, 1972  allows people to identify their ‘smallness’ & their planet’s vulnerability  what was regarded as ‘separate’ is now seen as interconnected  the image fuses idea of ‘global nature’ that needs to be protected, and indeed, have looming problems reversed

9 5. Global complexity  formed around the morphology of networks, which constitute the structure of society and which the individual constitutes & is constituted by…(after Manuel Castells)  in the contemporary world, such networks are radically contingent, chaotic, fast-moving & black holes, eg internet, which nation-states cannot realistically fully control - making globalisation constant process of chaos & order  the global is made by a variety of clusters (eg cities), networks (eg. telecommunication, international air flights) & fluids (money, people, information skills)  do the structures of such global complexity inevitably lead to certain types, models & cultures dominating? How might this change over time? (consider the process of McDonaldisation…)

10 Theories of globaliation#1: Wallerstein’s world- system theory: a radical precursor to globalization theories attempts to account for global inequality through an analysis of the relative economic positions of nations a pioneering theory in that development was understood as a function of global processes, rather than internal features of nations: unit of analysis in not nation, but ‘capitalist world economy’ world economy began in 16th C. Europe, where commodity chains extracted wealth from ‘peripheral’ nations and returned it to ‘core’ nations world economy expanded as much since 1945 than it did in the period

11 Theories#2: Robertson: principal early theorist of globalization Robertson’s idea of the ‘global field’ ‘individualization’: the global redefinition of each person as a complete whole, rather than as a subordinate part of any localized collectivity, eg. ‘we are part of a global community’, ‘we are all part of a global ecosystem’ (e.g. globalisation of environmental risks) ‘internationalization’: the multiplication of inter-state dependencies and arrangements, eg. UN, EU, FTA’s, military agreements, ‘societalization’: the establishment of the modern nation-state as the likely form of society, nation-state retains influence over populations (little/no chance of true global government) ‘humanization’: the global establishment of the view that humanity cannot be differentiated by race, class or gender in terms of rights & possibilities, eg. ‘we are all human’ – (anti-war justifications), development of idea of human rights

12 Robertson: general points about globalization 1.the world is not necessarily more harmonious or integrated, but is more unified and globally systematic (Iraq conflict, UN role, ‘coalition of the willing’) 2.a globalized world is not without conflicts, only that any conflicts will commonly be interpreted as part of a global order (USA as ‘global police officer’, cricket boycotts in Zimbabwe, Australia’s treatment of indigenous people, forest clearing in Sth America, terrorism)

13 Group task (in group of 2 or 3) Who or What best symbolically represents ‘Australia’ & ‘Norway’ in the following domains? People Events & activities Places Values and beliefs

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15 What is ‘Australian’? General findings: Relative homogeneity of meaning across social groups represent ‘old’ Australia, even NESB women seem to have a common language of Australian icons symbols are self-sustaining & mutually supportive, eg. the surf lifesaver embodies multiple meanings, including ????? against social and economic elites, against ‘traitors’ who go to America, for camaraderie & mateship, for egalitarianism

16 Playing with representations of Australian icons: Chinese-born, and now Canberra-based, artist Hou Leong focuses in his work, on the idea of cultural appropriation and perceptions of identity and tradition. He raises questions of identity, for example, by combining and contrasting familiar Australian and Chinese photographic images - both of people and of landscapes - in confronting and amusing ways. In his painting, he fuses Western tradition and Asian styles, such as in a recent series based on Leonardo da Vinci ’ s famous “ Mona Lisa ”. As Melissa Chiu writes in the catalogue for the 1997 touring exhibition “ Paradox ”, Hou Leong “...juxtaposes different cultural imagery, daring us to question his images and in turn question our own assumptions and expectations. ”

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18 “ An Australian (Wood chopper) ” digital photograph, In this series, Hou Leong replaces key figures within well-known Australian images with an image of himself, creating stark cultural contrasts and demonstrating “ an intention to disrupt deeply-held cultural assumptions. ” (from the catalogue for the touring exhibition “ Paradox ” by Melissa Chiu, 1997).

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20 “ An Australian (Outback Pub) ” digital photograph,1994. What does it mean to be “ an Australian ” ? This is the question Hou Leong poses in this series, where he places himself into familiar images, which contain “ an essentialised idea of Australian- ness personified by Anglo-Celtic tradition ”. (from the catalogue for the touring exhibition “ Paradox ” by Melissa Chiu, 1997).

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22 “ An Australian (With the Flag) ” digital photograph, Hou Leong, In this series, Hou Leong questions what it means to be an Australian. “ The exclusion of other cultures within the myth of Australian identity is inverted by the inclusion of Leong himself in each image. ” (from the catalogue for the touring exhibition “ Paradox ” by Melissa Chiu, 1997).

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24 “ An Australian (Crocodile Dundee) ” digital photograph,1994. Is the character Mick Dundee from “ Crocodile Dundee ”, as quintessentially Australian as the film ’ s makers might like to think? This seems to be the question Hou Leong poses - and answers, in his own original way - in this work from the series “ An Australian ”.

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26 “ An Australian (Ampol) ” digital photograph,1994. Placing himself into this familiar Australian advertisement, Hou Leong, as he does throughout this series, prods us into questioning what the term “ as Australian as... ” should really mean in today ’ s multicultural Australia.

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28 “ An Australian (Surfers) digital photograph,1994. By placing himself into a photograph depicting one of the “ typical ” pastimes of Australians, Hou Leong raises questions about the blond, blue-eyed image often associated with the sport of surfing and indeed all too often, with Australian identity generally.

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30 “ Shells on Li River ” digital photograph,1995. In this work, Hou Leong places the Sydney Opera House on China ’ s Li River, surrounded by spectacular mountain ranges. It ’ s part of his landscape series, which draws “ attention to the symbolic and cultural value that landscape holds in the definition of a sense of place ”. (from the catalogue for the touring exhibition “ Paradox ” by Melissa Chiu, 1997).

31 Australian national identity: What is considered to be ‘Australian’ and what is ‘Un-Australian’? Why study such cultural keywords? the idea of a nation is constructed by myth, discourse and symbol people use simple, single words to refer to complex assessments and judgements, so ‘Australian’ & ‘Un-Australian’ reference/hide complex ideas about Australian collective national identity struggles over the meaning of words are symbolic of broader social struggles for power there are widely shared common conceptions of ‘Un-Aus’, suggesting commitment to common conceptions despite social status What are the principles of being ‘Un-Australian’? behaviour seen as contrary to the spirit of equity and fair play, eg. unsporting behaviour, under-handedness a desire to be outside mainstream culture, eg. migrants living in enclaves embrace foreign influences, Americanisation, ‘ethnics’ Key point: these are anxieties about what is happening to Australia in the face of globalisation – Australians are obsessed with the policing the nation’s borders – a result of our relative global isolation & island status

32 Globalisation and everyday life ‘glocalisation’ (Robertson): refers to intersection of global and local, esp. the way local cultures are integrated with global processes, eg. adjustment of McDonalds meals to local tastes, pre-packaging of exotic tourist experiences for westerners, the way local economic conditions are effected by economic imperatives far away Everyday domains of engagement with globalisation:  Media and cultural consumption  Travel  Personal consumption, eg. food, clothing  Communication technologies, eg. internet, telephone  Membership of global and international communities, eg. worldwide discussion groups  Attitudes towards global environment issues  International relations and politics  Personal and professional networks

33 George Ritzer, rationalisation & McDonaldisation: McDonalisation is: ‘the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more & more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world’ … the globalisation of cultural sameness & homogeneity McDonalds is metaphor for leakage of instrumental rationalisation from within organisations to all social relations Application of routinised, instrumental, goal-oriented rationality to areas of human life which have aspects not conducive to goal-directedness, standardisation, routinisation or calculability, & bureaucratic organisation

34 Dimensions of McDonalisation Efficiency: making organisations more efficient has involved shifting labour to consumer, eg. service stations, salad bars, ATMs Calculability: quantifiability, measurability & calculability are dominant paradigms of the contemporary world – eg. in judging whether or nor to finance creative projects such a movies, music or tv shows; or in the realm of education Control: Ritzer uses example of Disneyland where employees must maintain weight, not have facial hair, long hair or wear jewelry, women must not wear short skirts, nor ‘too much’ jewelry or makeup Predictability: involves standardisation processes, eg. McDonalds food, international hotels, furniture chains like Ikea, some University curricula (eg, vocational degrees) Reactions to McDonaldisation: embrace of ‘anti-consumerist’ consumption: local, organic, small-scale, vintage ….

35 3 basic views on globalisation The Advocates - Enthusiasts: Globalization is good and creates a better world based on free trade and beneficial exchanges The Sceptics: Globalization is driven by national governments following neo-liberal agendas of economic restructuring and fearful of losing ‘international competitiveness’ The Opponents and Critics: Globalization destroys local communities and identities. Citizens should collectively organize at a grassroots level to resist.

36 Australian views on globalisation – personal opportunity vs loss of local culture 1. Culture – something lost or diluted by globalisation (from focus groups, 2007, Woodward & Skrbis) local culture is destroyed by global business interests globalisation homogenises cultural experience, causing local expressions to lose distinctive qualities, eg. McDonalds & food, US movies, shopping malls & global brands, western pop music, cities “Jenny had a point - the imports we’re bringing in are putting all our small business out. Like the corner shop, how long since you saw a corner shop? They cannot compete with the globalisation of the markets. Coles and Woolworths buy in bulk, thousands and thousands of items, but you’re little old corner shop keep can only buy 5. It has affected the Australian economy. In the time I’ve been alive I’ve seen it just go down and down.”

37 2. Globalisation as personal opportunity (from focus groups, 2007, Woodward & Skrbis) Individuals endorse possibilities allowed for by globalisation: employment, consumption, tourism & travel, economic benefits Philip: “I wrote a book, I breed parrots for a hobby, and I published a book on parrots and through the internet I’ve sold 2000 copies, all around the world through the internet from Finland to Brazil. Unbelievable.” Steve: “the lady I live with and I run a biker web site which is international. We’ve made several friends and a couple of them are going to relocate to Australia from America. Before they do so they need to have guaranteed jobs in Australia, if not they must be sponsored by an Australian, and we intend to sponsor these people, so that they can move to Australia and experience good riding…..I’ve got people sending me over parts for the bike that I’m building. I’m currently in the process of building a Harley Davidson. Through Australian sources it would cost me well over to build, it’s going to be just under when you source the parts from America and a few other places”

38 Reflexive deliberations on the global ….

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41 From Woodward, Skrbis & Bean, 2008: summing up on social cleavages & cosmopolitan disposition

42 Features of cultural diversity in Australia up/2071.0main+features Compared to Norway: ia/Norway/Immigration


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