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Selected Work #4 ART RESOURCE GUIDE. Watch these: Khan Academy's Pantheon (8:31):

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Presentation on theme: "Selected Work #4 ART RESOURCE GUIDE. Watch these: Khan Academy's Pantheon (8:31):"— Presentation transcript:

1 Selected Work #4 ART RESOURCE GUIDE

2 Watch these: Khan Academy's Pantheon (8:31): Engineering an Empire (9:39) start 2 min. into video clip: Building the Pantheon (8:41): 8c4&index=5&list=PL_vT94oYGFZTekvqXh0sgVF1mp aVRIr4g 8c4&index=5&list=PL_vT94oYGFZTekvqXh0sgVF1mp aVRIr4g



5 The development of concrete CONCRETE: allowed construction projects to last through time Used by Some scholars think it was used by Egyptians It arose DEFINITIVELY with the Romans Developed out of NECESSITY No convenient MARBLE QUARRIES in Rome as in Greece Local stone mostly soft volcanic material Unsuitable for big building! Ambitious projects required a new, more flexible bldg. material TRIAL & ERROR led to ideal CONCRETE recipe THUS…development of concrete NOT a single great discovery But more of an EVOLVING process of Innovation & investgation

6 CONCRETE Made of a mixture of Lime mortar Volcanic sand Stone Water A chemical reaction w/ water changes the molecular structure, which Creates heat Binds them strongly creating “artificial stone” The resulting material is excellent for construction Can be molded into any shape Is FIRE-RESISTANT Renders ARCHITECTURE a matter of SPACE rather than MASS (lg., unobstructed areas can be built in almost any configuration)

7 Distinctive Features of Roman Concrete In earlier eras, builders had used Lime mortars Manifestations of concrete But what made Roman concrete different was The particular materials used The sophistication of their application

8 Roman builders Began with simple techniques Such as mortared rubble construction 2 closely placed brink walls Filled with rubble Covered in clay

9 Later methods Included binding the rubble with poured mortars of various formulas The most significant advancement = the addition of POZZOLANA to the mortar mixture Reddish volcanic dust A.k.a. POZZOLANIC ASH Bound esp. well with sand & lime to create a strong, waterproof mass as it cured Also, could be set in DAMP CONDITIONS Allowing for greater flexibility w/ construction schedule

10 Roman concrete Used a wide variety of aggregate stone STONE gives concrete Strength mass The Romans were careful to choose the right aggregate for the right project. They used everything from SELCE, a very heavy lava stone to TUFTA and PUMICE – lightweight They even recycled for use as aggregate: architectural sculptures Stone buildings Experimentation & innovation = typical PANTHEON: significant monument and significant example of innovation

11 The Pantheon: Analysis One of the most unusual/remarkable ancient temples Built under emperor HADRIAN Although inscription on front states M ·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT Indicating it was Founded by MARCUS AGRIPPA And completed during his 3 rd round as consul (27 or 25 BCE) Agrippa’s original burned (80 CE) 2 nd structure built by DOMITIAN was destroyed, too. So this is actually the 3 rd version of a temple at this location


13 The inscription shows respect for Tradition The original building The emperor who first sponsored it The PANTHEON Like the 2 previous versions Was dedicated to all the gods in the Roman pantheon

14 BASIC ARCHITECTURE Quite simple Hemispherical dome Set on cylindrical base Walls are Rounded like a drum Resulting in a perfect sphere in the interior


16 Interior Amazing scale Very open No central supports to break it up Particularly striking and surprising because entry = traditional Corinthian PORTICO with COLONNADE PEDIMENT PITCHED ROOF LINE BUT…

17 Instead of the rectangular space suggested by the temple front One enters a vast, circular space For a PANORAMIC VIEW, visit e_pantheon_ e_pantheon_

18 INTERIOR Marvel of an interior is made possible primarily through use of CONCRETE FLEXIBILITY allowed shaping of perfectly curved lines of DRUM DOME The DOME itself possible only due to newly formulated material (CONCRETE) 142 feet in diameter The largest such structure built in Europe before the 20 th century

19 The Treasury of Atreus Before the PANTHEON, the TREASURY OF ATRUS = Only comparable vaulted space WITHOUT interior supports But it’s quite small in comparison only 43 feet high

20 THE DOME Quite complex in design Supported at its base by curved walls of temple Walls are 20 FEET THICK Dome is 20 FEET THICK as it joins the walls From there, the dome rises to the ceiling Its width gradually decreasing until it’s a mere 6 FEET THICK at the pinnacle

21 THE DOME The dome’s concrete mix included FIVE different aggregates With denser, heavier materials closer to the drum Lighter materials used as dome springs upward COFFERS Telescoping square forms Used to remove material and further lighten the load of the dome OCCULUS 30-foot wide opening at top of dome Circular hole = primary source of light for the interior in antiquity

22 DECORATIONS: Originally richly decorated Each COFFER adorned with a GILDED BRONZEROSETTE Made it look like a starry night The walls were multicolored - - covered with marble thin sheets of MARBLE VENEER MARBLE COLUMNS

23 Niches The niches in the drum interior were Filled with sculptures Dedicated to all the Roman gods Decorative elements were brought to the temple from throughout the empire Reminder of wealth Extent of Roman holdings Sheathed modest-looking concrete material from which temple was built Rich marble & bronze used to spectacular effect

24 Loss & Recovery of Concrete After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the use of concrete was drastically reduced By 400 CE ROMAN RECIPE was lost effectively disappeared until the 14 th century 1300s to mid-1600s, concrete used sporadically until the CANAL DU MIDI 1670 southern France EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE 1759 British engineer JOHN SMEATON used concrete Devon, England

25 MODERNIZATIONS Development of PORTLAND CEMENT Most commonly used form today By JOSEPH ASPDIN 1824 Invention of REINFORCED CONCRETE 1849 JOSEPH MONIER used to perfection by the Romans, but has only reemerged relatively recently in history Is one of the most prevalent building materials in use around the world

26 Review Games & Flashcards Play JEWELS OF WISDOM: The Pantheon at the-pantheon-4788385 the-pantheon-4788385 Practice at Quizlet: 66-flash-cards/ 66-flash-cards/

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