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Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent

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Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent
4 Chapter Review Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent

2 What was the most sacred part of a temple?

3 the sanctuary

4 Why do you think many Egyptian temples had rows of shinxes leading to the entrance?

5 possible answer--as a symbolic protection for the temple

6 Who was the Egyptian sun god
Who was the Egyptian sun god? What else did the main Egyptian gods represent?

7 Re, or Amon-Re; underworld, magic, sky, wisdom, earth

8 Which part of Egypt -Upper or Lower- do you think was more valuable to a ruler? Why?

9 possible answer-- Lower Egypt, because it had the extremely fertile delta and access to the Mediterranean

10 How did the pharaoh's crown display the unification of Egypt?

11 The pharaoh combined the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt to symbolize his rule over both lands

12 Where did the First Dynasty extend its power
Where did the First Dynasty extend its power? How did the First Dynasty end?

13 great house

14 What may be some advantages and disadvantages of such a large segment of the population being farmers, servants, and slaves?

15 possible answers-- advantages: plenty of food and labor; disadvantages: potential for rebellion

16 How is the portrayal of Horus connected to the god's function in Egyptian mythology

17 He is pictured with the head of a bird, which is appropriate for a sky god.

18 What responsibilities did the pharaoh have that balanced his high status?

19 according to traditional belief, make crops grow, keep people healthy, make trade profitable, prevent wars

20 Why might Egyptians have worshipped the gods differently?

21 They built canals to direct the Nile's water to the fields.

22 How did the Egyptians see the afterlife?

23 as an ideal world where all the people are young and healthy

24 How was the ka different from the body?

25 The ka was not a physical entity, but rather the person's life force
The ka was not a physical entity, but rather the person's life force. It left the physical body at death.

26 How much of Egypt's fertile farmland was located in the Nile Delta?

27 about two thirds

28 Why was it important to Egyptians that the Nile's flooding was consistent?

29 It provided a bountiful growing season every year, and people knew they could count on a food supply in the future.

30 Why might the ruins of early Egyptian settlements lack evidence of protective walls?

31 because the desert, bodies of water, and cataracts provided natural protection from many enemies

32 How would you expect a pharaoh to be drawn on the walls of his tomb?

33 He would be drawn as young, happy, and doing the things he enjoyed while alive.

34 Do you think Menes made a good choice in building his capital city at Memphis? Why or why not?

35 possible answer--yes; because it was in a fertile region but still had the protection of being inland

36 Define 'dynasty'

37 a series of rulers from the same family

38 How did burial practices vary among Egypt's social classes?

39 The elite were mummified, while the peasants were buried in shallow graves at the edge of the desert, where the bodies were preserved naturally.

40 How long did the Old Kingdom last?

41 about 500 years, from 2700 to 2200 BC

42 Why did the Egyptian believe it was important to preserve the physical body?

43 If the body decayed, the ka would not be able to receive the food and drink it needed.

44 What is a mummy?

45 a preserved body that is wrapped in cloth

46 What is the shape of a pyramid?

47 four triangle-shaped walls that meet in a point on top

48 How would the invention of large animal-drawn wheeled vehicles have affected pyramid construction?

49 possible answer--made transporting the blocks of stone much easier, cutting labor needs and construction time considerably

50 How did pyramid design change?

51 Stepped pyramids evolved into smooth-sided ones when steps were filled in and the surface covered with smooth limestone.

52 Who made up the majority of Egypt's population?

53 farmers and other peasants

54 Who drove the Hyksos out of Egypt to start the New Kingdom?

55 Ahmose of Thebes

56 What was the political order of Egypt based on around 3200 BC?

57 wealthy farmers who emerged as leaders

58 Why were the tunnels that led to the pharaoh's burial chamber sealed after his death?

59 to protect it from invaders or robbers

60 Why did the Egyptians want the pyramids to be spectacular?

61 because they believed their own fate in the afterlife depended on the pharaoh's afterlife

62 Why did the pharaohs value talented architects?

63 Having well-designed pyramids and temples made the pharaoh powerful and, according to Egyptian religion, ensured a happy afterlife.

64 What did each symbol in the hieroglyphic system represent?

65 one or more sounds in the Egyptian language

66 What were some advantages of using papyrus?

67 made of readily available materials, tough, durable, could be rolled into scrolls

68 Where were the Hykos from?

69 southwest Asia

70 Why do you think builders placed obelisks at the gates of temples?

71 possible answer--because they pointed to the sky, leading the way to the afterlife.

72 Why was the discovery of King Tutankhamen's tomb so important?

73 possible answer--because they pointed to the sky, leading the way to the afterlife.

74 Why was the discovery of King Tutankhamen's tomb so important?

75 I had never been disturbed by tomb robbers

76 How did some people come to be enslaved in Egypt?

77 convicted criminals or prisoners captured in war

78 What may the Hykos conquest indicate about Egypt's level of technological advance?

79 Although the Egyptians had built pyramids, they may not have had chariots or advanced weapons.

80 Who was Hatshepsut?

81 a female ruler who expanded trade and built great monuments during the New Kingdom

82 What might have happened if large numbers of peasants had refused to take part in special duties, such as working on the pyramids, mining gold, and fighting in the military?

83 possible answer--rebellion crushed by the pharaoh, or his power threatened

84 What were two reasons the pharaohs' power declined at the end of the Old Kingdom?

85 They did not collect enough taxes to cover their expenses, and ambitious nobles took power from the pharaohs.

86 How might we have learned about Egyptian toys and games?

87 artifacts, art showing the toys or games in use

88 What weakened the New Kingdom?

89 fighting on several fronts, including invasions of the Hittites and the Sea Peoples

90 Why do you think leaders of the New Kingdom wanted to control all of the eastern Mediterranean shore?

91 possible answers--protection from invasion by peoples beyond the region, had valuable resources

92 What are the two types of large structures created by Egyptian architects?

93 pyramids and temples

94 What special challenge faced artists who painted a pharaoh's burial chamber?

95 No natural light reached the burial chamber, so artists had to work by torchlight or candlelight.

96 What kinds of writing did scribes do?

97 kept records and accounts for the state, wrote and copied religious and literary texts

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