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Presentation on theme: "Terrorism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terrorism

2 “On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country… Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists.  ~ President George W. Bush, 20 Sep 2001 “…the American people should remain vigilant…. Those plotting against us seek not only to undermine our security, but also the open society and the values that we cherish as Americans. ~ President Barack Obama, 28 Dec 2009

3 Overview History Definitions Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics
US National Policy and Military Policy Future of Terrorism

4 Hassan-i Sabbah, Iranian missionary who founded the Hashshashin
History Terrorism to achieve political agendas is not new Jewish dissidents opposed Roman rule (48 C.E.) Islamic sect called Hashshashin pursued “righteous causes” Crusaders employed rape as terror tactic Hassan-i Sabbah, Iranian missionary who founded the Hashshashin

5 Radical Shiite Muqtada al-Sadr
History Since 1990s, religious fundamentalism emerged as primary force for terror Weapons proliferation narrowed the gap between the firepower of the state and dissidents Radical Shiite Muqtada al-Sadr

6 Definitions Walter Laqueur: Department of Defense:
“Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.” Department of Defense: “The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives.”

7 Joint Pub The unlawful use of violence or threat of violence to instill fear and coerce governments or societies. Terrorism is often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs and committed in the pursuit of goals that are usually political. - Joint Publication , Antiterrorism

8 Key Criteria Violence Political goal Psychological impact and fear
Targeting of noncombatants Like Guerilla warfare……?

9 International Legality
Guerilla vs. Terrorism Guerilla Terrorism Targets Mostly military, police, or political opponents State symbols, political opponents, and the public at large Intended Impact Mainly physical attrition of the enemy Psychological coercion Tactics Commando-type operations Specialized tactics: kidnapping, car bombs, hijacking, etc. International Legality Yes, if follow rules of armed conduct No

10 Typologies of Terrorism
Political: Force governments to change structure or policies, or to achieve radical societal change Religious: Objectives/actions divinely guided; often tied to ethnic and nationalist identities Social: “Special interest” (e.g., ????, ????, ????) 2004: Train bombings in Spain Group responsible for attack has link to Al Qaeda

11 Two Categories of Terrorism
1: Domestic Terrorism Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against their fellow citizens (1) Domestic Terrorism: Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against fellow countrymen. These includes acts against citizens of a second country when they are in the host country, and not the principal or intended target

12 Two Categories of Terrorism
2: International or transnational terrorism Terrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundaries Examples: Hezbollah; Al Qaeda International Terrorism: Terrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundaries.

13 Characteristics Status: Most from middle class backgrounds, with some from extreme wealth Education: Intelligent and literate, with varying levels of formal education Age: Operational members aged between 20-35, while suicide bombers tend to be younger Gender: Most are male but not exclusively “There’s nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win.” (Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society)

14 Objectives of Terrorism
Attract attention for cause Demonstrate group’s power Show government’s lack of power Exact revenge Obtain logistical support Cause a government to overreact

15 Terrorist Planning Cycle
2. Intelligence and surveillance: Information gathering on the targets with greatest possibility of success (e.g., schedules, security, layout, etc.) 3. Specific target selection: Decision point! 4. Pre-attack surveillance and planning: Quantity and quality of data gathering increases, and usually is gathered over days to weeks 1. Broad target selection: Collection of data on large number of potential targets 7. Escape and exploitation: Escape plans well rehearsed and exploitation of successful attack vital to achieve desired effect 6. Action: Generally, goal is to get in, get the job done, and get out before security forces can react 5. Attack rehearsal: Often includes relocation to target site, testing of security responsiveness and escape routes, and checking equipment performance

16 Tactics Seizures Raids Sabotage Threat or Hoax Use of WMD
Assassination Arson Bombing Hostage taking Kidnapping Hijacking “Between now and 2015 terrorist tactics will become increasingly sophisticated and designed to achieve mass casualties.” (National Intelligence Council)

17 Tactics Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat (top right) and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (below) Assassination—Murder of prominent persons, symbolic enemies, or traitors who defect from the group Arson—Requires little technical knowledge, poses low risk to terrorist, and can cause significant destruction

18 Tactics Bombing—Explosive devices commonly employed in warfare are now an integral part of the terrorist’s arsenal Oct 1983: Marine barracks in Beirut; 245 were killed and wounded Oct 2000: Navy destroyer USS Cole attacked, resulting in the death of 17 sailors and 39 injured

19 Tactics Improvised explosive device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon of choice: Inexpensive to produce Detonation techniques Low risk to the perpetrator Placement/concealment High attention-getting capacity

20 Oct 2002: Ingrid Betancourt kidnapped by the FARC; still missing
Tactics Sep 2004: Chechen terrorists took hundreds of school children and adults hostage in Beslan, Russia Hostage taking: Overt seizure of individuals with the intent of gaining publicity or concessions in return for release of the hostage Kidnapping: Covert seizure of one or more specific person(s) in order to extract specific demands Oct 2002: Ingrid Betancourt kidnapped by the FARC; still missing Rescued

21 Tactics Hijacking or Skyjacking: Normally executed to produce a spectacular hostage situation; any passenger transport can be used Seizure: Usually involves a building or object that has value in the eyes of the audience 1976: Highjacked Flight 139 out of Tel Aviv was diverted to Entebbe, Uganda. Israeli forces, led by Col Yoni Netanyahu, rescued the hostages in Operation Thunderbolt. Netanyahu was the only military casualty.

22 Tactics Raids/Attacks on Facilities: Done to gain access to media, acquire resources, and/or demonstrate government’s inability to secure critical facilities Sabotage: Destruction of equipment or infrastructure to demonstrate vulnerability of society and to disrupt services April 2005: Insurgents led a coordinated attack on Abu Ghraib prison; intended to free detainees and kill US forces… FAILED!

23 Tactics Threat or Hoaxes: Threat that causes diversion of resources; can dull effectiveness of preventive or countermeasures Use of WMD: Chemical weapons used in the past… many groups have expressed desire to acquire WMD 1995: Terror group Aum Shinrikyo released Sarin gas in the Tokyo subway, injuring thousands and killing 12 people “Acquiring weapons (WMD) for the defense of Muslims is a religious duty.” (Osama Bin Laden)

24 Terrorist Attacks

25 US Terror Policy First articulated by the Reagan administration and reaffirmed by every president since Four enduring policy principles Make no concessions to terrorists Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior Bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the United States and require assistance

26 National Strategy for Combating Terrorism
Advance effective democracies as the long-term antidote to the ideology of terrorism; Prevent attacks by terrorist networks; Deny weapons of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist allies who seek to use them; Deny terrorists the support and sanctuary of rogue states; Deny terrorists control of any nation they would use as a base and launching pad for terror; and Lay the foundations and build the institutions and structures we need to carry the fight forward against terror and help ensure our ultimate success.

27 US Policy Post 9/11 Dept. of Homeland Security established: Third largest cabinet department after DOD and VA Incorporates existing agencies, including US Coast Guard, Secret Service, and Citizenship and Immigration Service (CIS) Coordinates capabilities of 22+ agencies to: Secure borders, transportation, critical infrastructure Synthesize/analyze homeland security intelligence Spearheads domestic counter-terrorism efforts

28 US Military Policy Guiding principles: DOD addresses terrorism from
US forces will continue to engage Force protection will be a major consideration DOD addresses terrorism from two distinct perspectives: Counterterrorism (offensive) Anti-terrorism (defensive) Intelligence critical component for success

29 US Military Policy Counterterrorism Antiterrorism
Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism include Operation El Dorado Canyon and the GWOT Antiterrorism Defensive measures to reduce vulnerability include facility hardening, setting buildings back from roads/parking lots, and limiting access to military posts

30 Force Protection Force Protection—An integrated application of offensive/defensive actions that deter, detect, preempt, mitigate, or negate threats against or hazards to Air Force air and space operations and assets, based on an acceptable level of risk (JP 1-02) Relocation of deployed forces out of heavily populated areas to an isolated base Deployment of floating barriers around warships in high-risk areas “Asymmetric challenges can arise across the spectrum of conflict that will confront US forces in a theater of operations or on US soil.” (National Intelligence Council)

31 Future of Terrorism Terrorists are a dynamic enemy…and are adapting to the challenges posed by developing societies Groups like Al Qaeda and Hezbollah benefit from and are exploiting globalization, even as they fight against it Terrorist groups are becoming more network based, encouraging loosely organized, self-financed organizational structure

32 Future of Terrorism International or transnational cooperation among terrorist groups is becoming the norm WMD proliferation amplifies the danger of broad, network-based terrorism. Terrorists increasingly display a willingness to use catastrophic violence to cause mass casualties and destruction

33 (National Intelligence Council)
Future of Terrorism Other trends: Intense motivational extremism Flexible organization structure Aggressive training to improve operational capability Increasing exploitation of media Increasing mass casualties and chaos through use of more advanced weapons “States with poor governance; ethnic, cultural, or religious tensions; weak economies; and porous borders will be prime breeding grounds for terrorism.” (National Intelligence Council)

34 Summary History Definitions Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics
US National Policy and Military Policy Future of Terrorism

35 Questions? Top left – 9/11 Bottom left -- Suicide Bombing on a Bus in Jerusalem on August 19, people killed and over 100 wounded Middle of woman -- Two car bombs struck a Shiite district in Baghdad on 10 Jul, killing at least eight people and wounding dozens, officials said, as sectarian tensions rose following a rampage by Shiite gunmen that killed 41 people, most of them Sunnis. “We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.” —President Bush, 20 Sep 2001

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