2“On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country… Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. ~ President George W. Bush, 20 Sep 2001“…the American people should remain vigilant…. Those plotting against us seek not only to undermine our security, but also the open society and the values that we cherish as Americans.~ President Barack Obama, 28 Dec 2009
3Overview History Definitions Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics US National Policy and Military PolicyFuture of Terrorism
4Hassan-i Sabbah, Iranian missionary who founded the Hashshashin HistoryTerrorism to achieve political agendas is not newJewish dissidents opposed Roman rule (48 C.E.)Islamic sect called Hashshashin pursued “righteous causes”Crusaders employed rape as terror tacticHassan-i Sabbah, Iranian missionary who founded the Hashshashin
5Radical Shiite Muqtada al-Sadr HistorySince 1990s, religious fundamentalism emerged as primary force for terrorWeapons proliferation narrowed the gap between the firepower of the state and dissidentsRadical Shiite Muqtada al-Sadr
6Definitions Walter Laqueur: Department of Defense: “Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.”Department of Defense:“The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives.”
7Joint PubThe unlawful use of violence or threat of violence to instill fear and coerce governments or societies. Terrorism is often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs and committed in the pursuit of goals that are usually political.- Joint Publication , Antiterrorism
8Key Criteria Violence Political goal Psychological impact and fear Targeting of noncombatantsLike Guerilla warfare……?
9International Legality Guerilla vs. TerrorismGuerillaTerrorismTargetsMostly military, police, or political opponentsState symbols, political opponents, and the public at largeIntended ImpactMainly physical attrition of the enemyPsychological coercionTacticsCommando-type operationsSpecialized tactics: kidnapping, car bombs, hijacking, etc.International LegalityYes, if follow rules of armed conductNo
10Typologies of Terrorism Political: Force governments to change structure or policies, or to achieve radical societal changeReligious: Objectives/actions divinely guided; often tied to ethnic and nationalist identitiesSocial: “Special interest” (e.g., ????, ????, ????)2004: Train bombings in Spain Group responsible for attack has link to Al Qaeda
11Two Categories of Terrorism 1: Domestic TerrorismTerrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against their fellow citizens(1) Domestic Terrorism: Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against fellow countrymen. These includes acts against citizens of a second country when they are in the host country, and not the principal or intended target
12Two Categories of Terrorism 2: International or transnational terrorismTerrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundariesExamples: Hezbollah; Al QaedaInternational Terrorism: Terrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundaries.
13CharacteristicsStatus: Most from middle class backgrounds, with some from extreme wealthEducation: Intelligent and literate, with varying levels of formal educationAge: Operational members aged between 20-35, while suicide bombers tend to be youngerGender: Most are male but not exclusively“There’s nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win.”(Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society)
14Objectives of Terrorism Attract attention for causeDemonstrate group’s powerShow government’s lack of powerExact revengeObtain logistical supportCause a government to overreact
15Terrorist Planning Cycle 2. Intelligence and surveillance: Information gathering on the targets with greatest possibility of success (e.g., schedules, security, layout, etc.)3. Specific target selection: Decision point!4. Pre-attack surveillance and planning: Quantity and quality of data gathering increases, and usually is gathered over days to weeks1. Broad target selection: Collection of data on large number of potential targets7. Escape and exploitation: Escape plans well rehearsed and exploitation of successful attack vital to achieve desired effect6. Action: Generally, goal is to get in, get the job done, and get out before security forces can react5. Attack rehearsal: Often includes relocation to target site, testing of security responsiveness and escape routes, and checking equipment performance
16Tactics Seizures Raids Sabotage Threat or Hoax Use of WMD AssassinationArsonBombingHostage takingKidnappingHijacking“Between now and 2015 terrorist tactics will become increasingly sophisticated and designed to achieve mass casualties.” (National Intelligence Council)
17TacticsEgyptian President Anwar al-Sadat (top right) and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (below)Assassination—Murder of prominent persons, symbolic enemies, or traitors who defect from the groupArson—Requires little technical knowledge, poses low risk to terrorist, and can cause significant destruction
18TacticsBombing—Explosive devices commonly employed in warfare are now an integral part of the terrorist’s arsenalOct 1983: Marine barracks in Beirut; 245 were killed and woundedOct 2000: Navy destroyer USS Cole attacked, resulting in the death of 17 sailors and 39 injured
19TacticsImprovised explosive device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon of choice:Inexpensive to produceDetonation techniquesLow risk to the perpetratorPlacement/concealmentHigh attention-getting capacity
20Oct 2002: Ingrid Betancourt kidnapped by the FARC; still missing TacticsSep 2004: Chechen terrorists took hundreds of school children and adults hostage in Beslan, RussiaHostage taking: Overt seizure of individuals with the intent of gaining publicity or concessions in return for release of the hostageKidnapping: Covert seizure of one or more specific person(s) in order to extract specific demandsOct 2002: Ingrid Betancourt kidnapped by the FARC; still missingRescued
21TacticsHijacking or Skyjacking: Normally executed to produce a spectacular hostage situation; any passenger transport can be usedSeizure: Usually involves a building or object that has value in the eyes of the audience1976: Highjacked Flight 139 out of Tel Aviv was diverted to Entebbe, Uganda. Israeli forces, led by Col Yoni Netanyahu, rescued the hostages in Operation Thunderbolt. Netanyahu was the only military casualty.
22TacticsRaids/Attacks on Facilities: Done to gain access to media, acquire resources, and/or demonstrate government’s inability to secure critical facilitiesSabotage: Destruction of equipment or infrastructure to demonstrate vulnerability of society and to disrupt servicesApril 2005: Insurgents led a coordinated attack on Abu Ghraib prison; intended to free detainees and kill US forces… FAILED!
23TacticsThreat or Hoaxes: Threat that causes diversion of resources; can dull effectiveness of preventive or countermeasuresUse of WMD: Chemical weapons used in the past… many groups have expressed desire to acquire WMD1995: Terror group Aum Shinrikyo released Sarin gas in the Tokyo subway, injuring thousands and killing 12 people“Acquiring weapons (WMD) for the defense of Muslims is a religious duty.” (Osama Bin Laden)
25US Terror PolicyFirst articulated by the Reagan administration and reaffirmed by every president sinceFour enduring policy principlesMake no concessions to terroristsBring terrorists to justice for their crimesIsolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behaviorBolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the United States and require assistance
26National Strategy for Combating Terrorism Advance effective democracies as the long-term antidote to the ideology of terrorism;Prevent attacks by terrorist networks;Deny weapons of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist allies who seek to use them;Deny terrorists the support and sanctuary of rogue states;Deny terrorists control of any nation they would use as a base and launching pad for terror; andLay the foundations and build the institutions and structures we need to carry the fight forward against terror and help ensure our ultimate success.
27US Policy Post 9/11Dept. of Homeland Security established: Third largest cabinet department after DOD and VAIncorporates existing agencies, including US Coast Guard, Secret Service, and Citizenship and Immigration Service (CIS)Coordinates capabilities of 22+ agencies to:Secure borders, transportation, critical infrastructureSynthesize/analyze homeland security intelligenceSpearheads domestic counter-terrorism efforts
28US Military Policy Guiding principles: DOD addresses terrorism from US forces will continue to engageForce protection will be a major considerationDOD addresses terrorism fromtwo distinct perspectives:Counterterrorism (offensive)Anti-terrorism (defensive)Intelligence critical component for success
29US Military Policy Counterterrorism Antiterrorism Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism include Operation El Dorado Canyon and the GWOTAntiterrorismDefensive measures to reduce vulnerability include facility hardening, setting buildings back from roads/parking lots, and limiting access to military posts
30Force ProtectionForce Protection—An integrated application of offensive/defensive actions that deter, detect, preempt, mitigate, or negate threats against or hazards to Air Force air and space operations and assets, based on an acceptable level of risk (JP 1-02)Relocation of deployed forces out ofheavily populated areas to an isolated baseDeployment of floating barriers aroundwarships in high-risk areas“Asymmetric challenges can arise across the spectrum of conflict thatwill confront US forces in a theater of operations or on US soil.”(National Intelligence Council)
31Future of TerrorismTerrorists are a dynamic enemy…and are adapting to the challenges posed by developing societiesGroups like Al Qaeda and Hezbollah benefit from and are exploiting globalization, even as they fight against itTerrorist groups are becoming more network based, encouraging loosely organized, self-financed organizational structure
32Future of TerrorismInternational or transnational cooperation among terrorist groups is becoming the normWMD proliferation amplifies the danger of broad, network-based terrorism.Terrorists increasingly display a willingness to use catastrophic violence to cause mass casualties and destruction
33(National Intelligence Council) Future of TerrorismOther trends:Intense motivational extremismFlexible organization structureAggressive training to improve operational capabilityIncreasing exploitation of mediaIncreasing mass casualties and chaos through use of more advanced weapons“States with poor governance; ethnic, cultural, or religious tensions; weak economies; and porous borders will be prime breeding grounds for terrorism.”(National Intelligence Council)
34Summary History Definitions Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics US National Policy and Military PolicyFuture of Terrorism
35Questions?Top left – 9/11Bottom left -- Suicide Bombing on a Bus in Jerusalem on August 19, people killed and over 100 woundedMiddle of woman -- Two car bombs struck a Shiite district in Baghdad on 10 Jul, killing at least eight people and wounding dozens, officials said, as sectarian tensions rose following a rampage by Shiite gunmen that killed 41 people, most of them Sunnis.“We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.” —President Bush, 20 Sep 2001