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Terrorism. “On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country… Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists.

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Presentation on theme: "Terrorism. “On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country… Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terrorism

2 “On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country… Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. ~ President George W. Bush, 20 Sep 2001 “…the American people should remain vigilant…. Those plotting against us seek not only to undermine our security, but also the open society and the values that we cherish as Americans. ~ President Barack Obama, 28 Dec 2009

3 History Definitions Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics US National Policy and Military Policy Future of TerrorismOverview

4 Terrorism to achieve political agendas is not new – Jewish dissidents opposed Roman rule (48 C.E.) – Islamic sect called Hashshashin pursued “righteous causes” – Crusaders employed rape as terror tactic Hassan-i Sabbah, Iranian missionary who founded the HashshashinHistory

5 Since 1990s, religious fundamentalism emerged as primary force for terror Weapons proliferation narrowed the gap between the firepower of the state and dissidentsHistory Radical Shiite Muqtada al-Sadr

6 Walter Laqueur: – “Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.” Department of Defense: – “The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives.”Definitions

7 Joint Pub The unlawful use of violence or threat of violence to instill fear and coerce governments or societies. Terrorism is often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs and committed in the pursuit of goals that are usually political. - Joint Publication , Antiterrorism

8 Violence Political goal Psychological impact and fear Targeting of noncombatants Like Guerilla warfare……? Key Criteria

9 Guerilla vs. Terrorism TargetsMostly military, police, or political opponents State symbols, political opponents, and the public at large Intended Impact Mainly physical attrition of the enemy Psychological coercion TacticsCommando-type operations Specialized tactics: kidnapping, car bombs, hijacking, etc. International Legality Yes, if follow rules of armed conduct No GuerillaTerrorism

10 Typologies of Terrorism Political: Force governments to change structure or policies, or to achieve radical societal change Religious: Objectives/actions divinely guided; often tied to ethnic and nationalist identities Social: “Special interest” (e.g., ????, ????, ????) 2004: Train bombings in Spain Group responsible for attack has link to Al Qaeda

11 1: Domestic Terrorism – Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against their fellow citizens Two Categories of Terrorism Two Categories of Terrorism

12 2: International or transnational terrorism – Terrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundaries – Examples: Hezbollah; Al Qaeda Two Categories of Terrorism

13 Characteristics Status: Most from middle class backgrounds, with some from extreme wealth Education: Intelligent and literate, with varying levels of formal education Age: Operational members aged between , while suicide bombers tend to be younger Gender: Most are male but not exclusively “There’s nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win.” (Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society)

14 Attract attention for cause Demonstrate group’s power Show government’s lack of power Exact revenge Obtain logistical support Cause a government to overreact Objectives of Terrorism

15 2. Intelligence and surveillance: Information gathering on the targets with greatest possibility of success (e.g., schedules, security, layout, etc.) 3. Specific target selection: Decision point! 6. Action: Generally, goal is to get in, get the job done, and get out before security forces can react 1.Broad target selection: Collection of data on large number of potential targets 7. Escape and exploitation: Escape plans well rehearsed and exploitation of successful attack vital to achieve desired effect 4. Pre-attack surveillance and planning: Quantity and quality of data gathering increases, and usually is gathered over days to weeks 5. Attack rehearsal: Often includes relocation to target site, testing of security responsiveness and escape routes, and checking equipment performance Terrorist Planning Cycle

16 Tactics A ssassination A rson B ombing H ostage taking K idnapping H ijacking Seizures Raids Sabotage Threat or Hoax Use of WMD “Between now and 2015 terrorist tactics will become increasingly sophisticated and designed to achieve mass casualties.” (National Intelligence Council)

17 Assassination—Murder of prominent persons, symbolic enemies, or traitors who defect from the group Arson—Requires little technical knowledge, poses low risk to terrorist, and can cause significant destructionTactics Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat (top right) and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (below)

18 Bombing—Explosive devices commonly employed in warfare are now an integral part of the terrorist’s arsenal – Oct 1983: Marine barracks in Beirut; 245 were killed and 146 wounded – Oct 2000: Navy destroyer USS Cole attacked, resulting in the death of 17 sailors and 39 injuredTactics

19 Improvised explosive device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon of choice: – Inexpensive to produce – Detonation techniques – Low risk to the perpetrator – Placement/concealment – High attention-getting capacityTactics

20 Sep 2004: Chechen terrorists took hundreds of school children and adults hostage in Beslan, Russia Oct 2002: Ingrid Betancourt kidnapped by the FARC; still missing Hostage taking: Overt seizure of individuals with the intent of gaining publicity or concessions in return for release of the hostage Kidnapping: Covert seizure of one or more specific person(s) in order to extract specific demandsTactics Rescued

21 1976: Highjacked Flight 139 out of Tel Aviv was diverted to Entebbe, Uganda. Israeli forces, led by Col Yoni Netanyahu, rescued the hostages in Operation Thunderbolt. Netanyahu was the only military casualty. Hijacking or Skyjacking: Normally executed to produce a spectacular hostage situation; any passenger transport can be used Seizure: Usually involves a building or object that has value in the eyes of the audienceTactics

22 Raids/Attacks on Facilities: Done to gain access to media, acquire resources, and/or demonstrate government’s inability to secure critical facilities Sabotage: Destruction of equipment or infrastructure to demonstrate vulnerability of society and to disrupt servicesTactics April 2005: Insurgents led a coordinated attack on Abu Ghraib prison; intended to free detainees and kill US forces… FAILED!

23 Threat or Hoaxes: Threat that causes diversion of resources; can dull effectiveness of preventive or countermeasures Use of WMD: Chemical weapons used in the past… many groups have expressed desire to acquire WMDTactics 1995: Terror group Aum Shinrikyo released Sarin gas in the Tokyo subway, injuring thousands and killing 12 people “Acquiring weapons (WMD) for the defense of Muslims is a religious duty.” (Osama Bin Laden)

24 Terrorist Attacks

25 First articulated by the Reagan administration and reaffirmed by every president since Four enduring policy principles – Make no concessions to terrorists – Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes – Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior – Bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the United States and require assistance US Terror Policy

26 Advance effective democracies as the long-term antidote to the ideology of terrorism; Prevent attacks by terrorist networks; Deny weapons of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist allies who seek to use them; Deny terrorists the support and sanctuary of rogue states; Deny terrorists control of any nation they would use as a base and launching pad for terror; and Lay the foundations and build the institutions and structures we need to carry the fight forward against terror and help ensure our ultimate success. National Strategy for Combating Terrorism

27 Dept. of Homeland Security established: Third largest cabinet department after DOD and VA Incorporates existing agencies, including US Coast Guard, Secret Service, and Citizenship and Immigration Service (CIS) Coordinates capabilities of 22+ agencies to: – Secure borders, transportation, critical infrastructure – Synthesize/analyze homeland security intelligence – Spearheads domestic counter-terrorism efforts US Policy Post 9/11

28 Guiding principles: – US forces will continue to engage – Force protection will be a major consideration DOD addresses terrorism from two distinct perspectives: – Counterterrorism (offensive) – Anti-terrorism (defensive) Intelligence critical component for success US Military Policy

29 Counterterrorism – Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism include Operation El Dorado Canyon and the GWOT Antiterrorism – Defensive measures to reduce vulnerability include facility hardening, setting buildings back from roads/parking lots, and limiting access to military posts US Military Policy

30 Force Protection—An integrated application of offensive/defensive actions that deter, detect, preempt, mitigate, or negate threats against or hazards to Air Force air and space operations and assets, based on an acceptable level of risk (JP 1-02) – Relocation of deployed forces out of heavily populated areas to an isolated base – Deployment of floating barriers around warships in high-risk areas Force Protection “Asymmetric challenges can arise across the spectrum of conflict that will confront US forces in a theater of operations or on US soil.” (National Intelligence Council)

31 Terrorists are a dynamic enemy…and are adapting to the challenges posed by developing societies Groups like Al Qaeda and Hezbollah benefit from and are exploiting globalization, even as they fight against it Terrorist groups are becoming more network based, encouraging loosely organized, self- financed organizational structure Future of Terrorism

32 International or transnational cooperation among terrorist groups is becoming the norm WMD proliferation amplifies the danger of broad, network-based terrorism. Terrorists increasingly display a willingness to use catastrophic violence to cause mass casualties and destruction Future of Terrorism

33 Other trends: – Intense motivational extremism – Flexible organization structure – Aggressive training to improve operational capability – Increasing exploitation of media – Increasing mass casualties and chaos through use of more advanced weapons Future of Terrorism “States with poor governance; ethnic, cultural, or religious tensions; weak economies; and porous borders will be prime breeding grounds for terrorism.” (National Intelligence Council)

34 History Definitions Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics US National Policy and Military Policy Future of TerrorismSummary

35 Questions? “We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.” —President Bush, 20 Sep 2001

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