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U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 4

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1 U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 4
URBAN AMERICA U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 4

2 IMMIGRATION More than 25 million will come from Europe
Came for different reasons: Famine Escape poverty Avoid military service Land shortages Religious or political persecution Find a job SEE CHART PG. 115

3 IMMIGRATION Atlantic voyage Ellis Island Diverse Cities Chinatown
Little Italy Ellis Island

4 IMMIGRATION Asian Immigration Angel Island
Taiping Rebellion 1850 – influx of Chinese Worked as laborers, servants, skilled trades, or merchants Japanese looked for new economic opportunities Angel Island

5 NATIVISM RESURGES Nativism: outright favoritism toward native born Americans Debt peonage: system that bound laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer. Mostly used for Mexican & African Americans out west. U.S. Supreme Court will declare this a violation of 13th amendment in 1911 American Protective Association: Henry Bowers. Anti-Catholic

6 RESTRICTIONS ON ASIAN IMMIGRATION
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: Allowed for only students, teachers, merchants, tourists, & government officials to enter U.S. In 1892 it will be extended for 10 years. In 1902 it was extended indefinitely but repealed in 1943. Gentlemen’s Agreement : Theodore Roosevelt agreed to not segregate Japanese children in schools for a limit imposed by Japan on emigration to U.S. that put a limit on unskilled workers. NOT a formal treaty!

7 Chinese Exclusion Act

8 Chinese Exclusion Act

9 URBANIZATION Massive influx of immigrants caused rapid urbanization to cities & overcrowding New innovations in farming technology added to an internal migration of laborers into cities Skyscrapers: Elevators Internal steel skeleton

10 internal steel skeletons
URBANIZATION Wainwright Building – St. Louis Skyscrapers internal steel skeletons Flatiron bldg, NY

11 URBANIZATION Transportation:
Electric transit (“El” trains, subways, trolleys Bridges (Brooklyn Bridge) Airplane – Wilbur & Orville Wright Serenity to the environment of the city – PARKS Central Park by Frederick Law Olmstead White City, Chicago by Daniel Burnham Separation by class

12 Brooklyn Bridge Orville & Wilbur Wright Central Park

13 URBAN PROBLEMS Housing tenements Unsanitary conditions:
No safe drinking water Sanitation – Sewage Susceptibility to fires: Chicago 1871, Cincinnati – 1st fire dept.) Crime: NYPD 1845

14 Chicago Fire 1871

15 POLITICAL MACHINES Led by a political boss would govern & run entire cities & at times entire state Kept power by providing services in exchange for their votes in election for specific offices – SEE POLITICAL CARTOON PG. 121 Tammany Hall Would succumb to corruption Tweed Ring Scandal Tammany Hall

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17 Tweed Ring Scandal

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20 GILDED AGE Began in 1870, ended in Marked by new inventions leading to rapid industrial growth, increase in size of cities & populations, spectacular mansions, skyscrapers, & electrical lights Individualism: you can rise in society & go as far as YOUR talents & commitment would take you

21 SOCIAL DARWINISM Reinforces individualism
“Survival of the fittest”: Herbert Spencer – human society evolves through competition & natural selection where the fittest people survive Darwinism & the Church: reject the theory of evolution Gospel of Wealth: Andrew Carnegie’s philosophy that wealthy Americans should engage in philanthropy

22 CHALLENGING SOCIAL DARWINISM
Henry George: Progress & Poverty – claimed gap separating the wealthy from the poor was getting wider & laissez-faire economics was to blame Lester Frank Ward: Dynamic Sociology – humans had the ability to make plans to produce the future outcome they desired (Reformed Darwinism) Edward Bellamy: Looking Backward – promoted ideas of socialism Naturalism: people failed in life simply because they were caught up in circumstances they could not control

23 HELPING THE URBAN POOR Social Gospel movements Salvation Army
Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) Settlement Houses: Jane Addams’ Hull House

24 PUBLIC EDUCATION Americanization movement
Requirement for schools: weeks High Schools increased after 1900 to teach vocational training College enrollments will increase Black Colleges founded by Freedmen’s Bureau

25 PUBLIC EDUCATION FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS
Booker T. Washington: Tuskegee Normal & Industrial Institute – believed racism would end if blacks acquired useful labor skills & probed their economic value to society

26 PUBLIC EDUCATION FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS
W.E.B. Dubois: disagreed with Washington. Insisted on blacks obtaining a liberal arts degree so that the community would have well-educated leaders Founded Niagara Movement

27 REALISM Act of portraying something as it is seen or heard Painters
Writers Mark Twain (Samuel Clemons) – Huckleberry Finn. “dime” novels Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hearst will compete with each other using their newspapers using sensational headlines

28 Joseph Pulitzer

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31 William Randolph Hearst

32 William Jennings Bryan, Theodore Roosevelt, & Hearst

33 Mark Twain

34 POPULAR CULTURE Saloons Vaudeville Theaters
Amusement Parks – Coney Island Spectator sports: baseball, boxing, football Other sports that served as leisure activities as well: golf, bicycling, tennis, basketball Ragtime music Kodak camera – George Eastman

35 Coney Island

36 George Eastman & the Kodak camera

37 POPULAR CULTURE New snacks emerged to deal with hunger & thirst: Hershey chocolate (1900), Coca Cola (1886) Asa Griggs Chandler

38 CIVIL SERVICE REFORM Brought on due to patronage (spoils system)
President Rutherford B. Hayes tried to end patronage but split Republican Party: Stalwarts: supported patronage Half-breeds: wanted some reform

39 CIVIL SERVICE REFORM Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883: passed under Chester A. Arthur’s presidency which required some federal job appointments to pass an examination – SEE POLITICAL CARTOON PG. 129 Chester A. Arthur

40 ELECTION OF 1884 Big business will now be seen as a source of campaign contributions Grover Cleveland, Democrat, will get support from Republicans (“Mugwumps”) . They expected him to increase number of jobs that would fall under civil service system. He chose a middle ground causing him to lose support Grover Cleveland

41 POWER OF LARGE CORPORATIONS
Large corporations will use their “power” to control economy that will force many small business, farmers, & some railroads to go under. States attempt to regulate railroad rates only for those laws to be found unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court – Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway v. Illinois 1886

42 REGULATING BUSINESS Interstate Commerce Act 1887: forms the Interstate Commerce Commission. Attempted to regulate rates from railroad companies on goods that were traveling from one state to another. Does not become effective until Theodore Roosevelt becomes president Sherman Antitrust Act 1890: to prevent trusts & corporations from having a monopoly & not allowing free competition between states & countries. Difficult to enforce as it did not clearly define a trust or a monopoly

43 Interstate Commerce Act

44 Sherman Antitrust Act

45 Grover Cleveland TARIFF RATES President Grover Cleveland attempts to lower tariffs, only to be defeated 1888 presidential candidates: Benjamin Harrison = high tariff, Cleveland = against high tariff. Harrison wins Benjamin Harrison

46 TARIFF RATES McKinley Tariff Act 1890: raises tariff rates to their highest left. Instead of protecting American industry it caused a sharp rise in price of all goods. William McKinley

47 ECONOMIC DISTRESSES Economic distresses:
Money supply: greenbacks, gold & silver coins, & bonds Inflation Panic of 1893: corporate abuses, mismanagements, overbuilding, & competition led railroad companies to bankruptcy banks & 15k businesses closed, 4 million unemployed

48 PLIGHT OF FARMERS Farmers are hit hard by: Falling prices on crops
High tariffs Railroad rates Mortgages

49 THE GRANGE Grange founded by Oliver Kelley 1867.
Pressured states to regulate railroad & warehouse rates Granger laws passed in several states stating the maximum rate railroads could charge for freight

50 GRANGE LAWS & U.S. SUPREME COURT
Munn v. Illinois 1877: U.S. Supreme ruled in favor of Granger laws, giving states & federal government the power to regulate private business to serve the public interest

51 FARMERS’ ALLIANCE Formed in 1890
Organized into very large cooperatives called exchanges. Failed as wholesalers, railroad owners, & bankers made it difficult for them to stay in business

52 POPULISM Movement of the people. Appealed to farmers as they work for legislation to assist them. Form the Populist Party – SEE POLITICAL CARTOON PG. 131 Platform: Increase money supply (more coinage of silver) Federal ownership of railroads Graduated income tax Federal loan program

53 POPULISM Reforms: Election of U.S. Senators to be by popular vote Single terms for the president & vice president Secret ballot to end vote fraud (Australian ballot) 8-hour workday Restrictions on immigration Ideals are kept alive by become the platform for the Democratic Party

54 Panic of 1896 Still feeling effects of Panic of 1893
William McKinley Panic of 1896 Still feeling effects of Panic of 1893 Central issue: Which metal should be the basis of the nation’s monetary system “Silverites” favored bimetalism “Gold bugs” favored gold William McKinley – Republican, vs. William Jennings Bryan – Democratic William Jennings Bryan

55 COLLAPSE OF POPULISM Populism collapsed but left two legacies:
Down-trodden could organize & have a political impact Agenda of reforms that will be enacted in the 20th century

56 RESISTANCE & REPRESSION
Majority of African Americans were sharecroppers in the South or were heading west to claim homesteads Exodusters Many joined the Farmers’ Alliances & Populist Party Democratic party appeal to poor white farmers through racism & would begin hindering the African American vote

57 TAKING AWAY THE VOTE 15th Amendment: prohibits the states from denying citizens the right to vote on the basis of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. States will impose voting restrictions: Literacy test Poll tax Grandfather clause to protect poor white farmers/sharecroppers

58 LEGALIZING SEGREGATION
Discrimination was strictly enforced in South through Jim Crow Laws – racial segregation laws that separated white from blacks in private & public facilities of all kinds

59 LEGALIZING SEGREGATION
U.S. Supreme Court overturned Civil Rights Act that prohibited keeping people out of public places on the basis of race & barred racial segregation in selecting juror. This opened the door for segregation. Ruling issued: 14th Amendment provided only that “no state” could deny citizens equal protection under the law. This allowed for private organizations to be free to practice segregation

60 PLESSY V. FERGUSON 1896 Homer Plessy took a seat in the “whites only” car of a train, refused to move. Convicted in New Orleans of violating LA’s segregation law. U.S. Supreme Court ruled: separation of races in public areas (including schools) could exist as long as the service provided was equal DOCTRINE: “Separate but equal” SEE ANALYZING SUPREME COURT CASES PG. 135

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62 AFRICAN AMERICAN RESPONSE
Ida V. Wells Ida V. Wells: led crusade from Chicago against lynching through her writings Mary Church Terrell: denounced anti-lynching, racism, & sexism. Worked with Jane Addams & Susan B. Anthony for woman’s suffrage. Help found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People & the Women Wage Earner’s Association for African American. Mary Church Terrell

63 AFRICAN AMERICAN RESPONSE
Booker T. Washington: proposed Atlanta Compromise: that African Americans achieve economic goals rather than political ones. Could achieve equality by demonstrating economic value. W.E.B. Dubois rejected compromise. Saw no advantage in giving up on civil rights & wanted to protect the right to vote. African Americans needed to educate themselves


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