Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Yom Kippur War October 1973. Détente Cold War Politics Inter Arab Arab rivalries and tensions Palestinian Problem Tensions caused by Fatah and its.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Yom Kippur War October 1973. Détente Cold War Politics Inter Arab Arab rivalries and tensions Palestinian Problem Tensions caused by Fatah and its."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Yom Kippur War October 1973

2 Détente Cold War Politics Inter Arab Arab rivalries and tensions Palestinian Problem Tensions caused by Fatah and its expulsion from Jordan Israel security

3 Background to the Yom Kippur War War of AttritionWar of Attrition Khartoum Summit : 3 No’sKhartoum Summit : 3 No’s Premier Golda Meir’s policiesPremier Golda Meir’s policies UN resolution 242 : ‘occupied territories’UN resolution 242 : ‘occupied territories’ Sadat’s Foreign PolicySadat’s Foreign Policy US role in the Middle EastUS role in the Middle East

4 G_v1b4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BumWL G_v1b4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BumWL G_v1b4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BumWL G_v1b4

5 War of Attrition 1968= =1970 Low level conflict with the aim to get back the Suez and Israel not willing to negotiate w/o guarantees of peace.Low level conflict with the aim to get back the Suez and Israel not willing to negotiate w/o guarantees of peace. Undeclared war of attrition between both sides amidst tensions caused by Fatah and PFLPUndeclared war of attrition between both sides amidst tensions caused by Fatah and PFLP

6 Conflict with PLO Jordan who was increasingly frustrated by PLO and PFLP actions decided to evict PLOJordan who was increasingly frustrated by PLO and PFLP actions decided to evict PLO 17 th September, PLO supported by Syrian army17 th September, PLO supported by Syrian army US and Israel intervened in Jordan’s supportUS and Israel intervened in Jordan’s support Egypt stepped into make peace between Jordan and ArafatEgypt stepped into make peace between Jordan and Arafat

7 Black September Fatah group re-group and name themselves Black September in memory of the pitched battles with Jordanian forcesFatah group re-group and name themselves Black September in memory of the pitched battles with Jordanian forces Face –saving formula worked out with Arafat and King HusseinFace –saving formula worked out with Arafat and King Hussein Nasser dies on the 28 th of September.Nasser dies on the 28 th of September. To the end, he created contradictions: privately wanted to work with Israel yet belligerent public policy!To the end, he created contradictions: privately wanted to work with Israel yet belligerent public policy!

8 Anwar Sadat: Nasser’s successor Former Speaker of the Parliament and then Vice-President of EgyptFormer Speaker of the Parliament and then Vice-President of Egypt Not taken seriously: “gray donkey”Not taken seriously: “gray donkey” He was alternately belligerent and conciliatory and sent confusing messages to the USHe was alternately belligerent and conciliatory and sent confusing messages to the US Wasn’t taken seriously as he was depending on USSR for arms but USA to have UN 242 implemented to regain SuezWasn’t taken seriously as he was depending on USSR for arms but USA to have UN 242 implemented to regain Suez

9 US role in the Middle East As early as June 1967, President Johnson set out his 5 goalsAs early as June 1967, President Johnson set out his 5 goals The removal of threats against any nation in the regionThe removal of threats against any nation in the region Justice for the ‘refugees’Justice for the ‘refugees’ Freedom of navigationFreedom of navigation End to the Arms RaceEnd to the Arms Race Respect for politcal independence and territorial integrity of all states in the area.Respect for politcal independence and territorial integrity of all states in the area.

10 UN Resolution 242 Came in the background of 3 NO’s of Khartoum SummitCame in the background of 3 NO’s of Khartoum Summit Belligerence of Arab nations but Egypt and Jordan were willing to negotiate to a return to pre- war bordersBelligerence of Arab nations but Egypt and Jordan were willing to negotiate to a return to pre- war borders Arab bargaining position was weakArab bargaining position was weak Israelis not willing to negotiate: talk of Eretz IsraelIsraelis not willing to negotiate: talk of Eretz Israel 242 Introduced by GB, was watered down to its present form242 Introduced by GB, was watered down to its present form Therefore 242 a compromise in every wayTherefore 242 a compromise in every way

11 Failure of Gunnar Jarring mission A UN sponsored mission led by Swede Gunnar Jarring to negotiate return of territories.A UN sponsored mission led by Swede Gunnar Jarring to negotiate return of territories. Negotiated peace to be based on 242Negotiated peace to be based on 242 Lasted till 1971, achieved no tangible gainsLasted till 1971, achieved no tangible gains UN had lost credibility over withdrawal of UNEFUN had lost credibility over withdrawal of UNEF Significance of 242: basis of all subsequent peace movesSignificance of 242: basis of all subsequent peace moves

12 Palestinian Revival Role of Fatah and PFLPRole of Fatah and PFLP Munich, Dawson’s Field, Plane blown up in mid-airMunich, Dawson’s Field, Plane blown up in mid-air Israel’s retaliation equally spectacular….Raid on Beirut International AirportIsrael’s retaliation equally spectacular….Raid on Beirut International Airport Bombings and hijackings did much to highlight the attention of the Palestinian cause but did not achieve its aimsBombings and hijackings did much to highlight the attention of the Palestinian cause but did not achieve its aims

13 US role in the region In the aftermath of 6 Day war, US –Israel ties closerIn the aftermath of 6 Day war, US –Israel ties closer For both Cold War leaders, key to success in the wars would be air power and so both hastily tried to rebuild air force of their client statesFor both Cold War leaders, key to success in the wars would be air power and so both hastily tried to rebuild air force of their client states US policy actively supported by the very powerful AIPAC lobbyUS policy actively supported by the very powerful AIPAC lobby AIPAC?AIPAC?

14 AIPAC Powerful lobby that would donate money for Presidential campaigns.Powerful lobby that would donate money for Presidential campaigns. This group would make resources available to Presidential candidates based on their stance on IsraelThis group would make resources available to Presidential candidates based on their stance on Israel By 1969, the AIPAC had supported the candidate opposing the new President NixonBy 1969, the AIPAC had supported the candidate opposing the new President Nixon Nixon wanted to move away from VietnamNixon wanted to move away from Vietnam

15 US: Role of Nixon Wanted to deal with Middle East problem as Jarring mission was not workingWanted to deal with Middle East problem as Jarring mission was not working Golda Meir refused to make compromises while Egypt and Syria were being re-armedGolda Meir refused to make compromises while Egypt and Syria were being re-armed Golda Meir the last of the uncompromising group of Zionists who had played a pivotal role in the creation of IsraelGolda Meir the last of the uncompromising group of Zionists who had played a pivotal role in the creation of Israel

16 US: Roger’s Plan Background: Jordan willing to negotiate for peaceBackground: Jordan willing to negotiate for peace Sec. of State William Rogers began to work on a peace deal based on 1967 pre- war bordersSec. of State William Rogers began to work on a peace deal based on 1967 pre- war borders USSR convinced of this dealUSSR convinced of this deal Announced in Dec 1969Announced in Dec 1969 Almost total withdrawal from all territories except Latrun SalientAlmost total withdrawal from all territories except Latrun Salient

17 Roger’s Plan Worrying to the IsraelisWorrying to the Israelis Reference to Palestinians rather than refugeesReference to Palestinians rather than refugees Jerusalem should be a divided city accessible to both Israel and JordanJerusalem should be a divided city accessible to both Israel and Jordan Israelis found it unacceptable and with AIPAC support began to ‘change the situation on the ground’Israelis found it unacceptable and with AIPAC support began to ‘change the situation on the ground’

18 Failure of Roger’s Plan Never repudiatedNever repudiated US policy statement about how to interpret UN 242US policy statement about how to interpret UN 242 Kissinger, the US National Security advisor was concerned about such a divisive plan could workKissinger, the US National Security advisor was concerned about such a divisive plan could work

19

20 HW: PPT’s 6-8 minutes long. Work in pairs to create power points( 4-5 slides) :Work in pairs to create power points( 4-5 slides) : Joint Egypt Syria plans of attack. How was it done? How was it carried out?Joint Egypt Syria plans of attack. How was it done? How was it carried out? Success or failure: the situation on the ground: Actual attack on Israel. What happened?Success or failure: the situation on the ground: Actual attack on Israel. What happened? Role of other Arab states in the Yom Kippur War?Role of other Arab states in the Yom Kippur War? Role of the USSR and USA in the Yom Kippur WarRole of the USSR and USA in the Yom Kippur War Kissinger’s ‘step by step’ diplomacyKissinger’s ‘step by step’ diplomacy Overall results of the WarOverall results of the War

21 PPTS All power points to be uploaded to Wikispaces by Thursday night(11 th Nov.) so that Mrs Saha can edit and create for you lot a comprehensive PPT of the Yom Kippur War.All power points to be uploaded to Wikispaces by Thursday night(11 th Nov.) so that Mrs Saha can edit and create for you lot a comprehensive PPT of the Yom Kippur War. Monday 15 th : Paper 1 style testMonday 15 th : Paper 1 style test Suez WarSuez War 6 Day War6 Day War Palestinian RevivalPalestinian Revival Yom Kippur WarYom Kippur War


Download ppt "The Yom Kippur War October 1973. Détente Cold War Politics Inter Arab Arab rivalries and tensions Palestinian Problem Tensions caused by Fatah and its."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google