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Jerry Hsiung. Complete description of the structural connectivity of an organism’s nervous system What is a connectome.

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Presentation on theme: "Jerry Hsiung. Complete description of the structural connectivity of an organism’s nervous system What is a connectome."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jerry Hsiung

2 Complete description of the structural connectivity of an organism’s nervous system What is a connectome

3 Open source data bank Understanding brain connectivity Goal

4 UCLA, Wash U, Harvard, U of Minnesota. National Institutes of Health Participants

5 450BC The Greek physician Alcmaeon concludes that the brain is the central organ for sensation and not the heart as previously believed by Pythagorian thinkers. 300BC The first detailed account of the structure of the brain is completed by the Alexandrian biologists Herophilus and Erasistratus. They back Alcmaeon's theory that the brain is the centre of human intelligence The oldest drawing of the nervous system is traced to Cairo. Ibn al-Haytham sketched a nose and two eyes and ran hollow nerves from the latter to the brain. 1400s Leonardo da Vinci set out to discover the link between the senses and the soul by studying, and sketching, the brain of a dead ox Italian physician Camillo Golgi develops the reazione nera, the "black reaction". The simple mixture of potassium dichromate and silver nitrate gave scientists the ability to stain, and highlight, individual brain cells. 1890s The Spaniard Santiago Rámon y Cajal adopts Golgi's method and proves the brain is a collection of individual but interconnected neurons The EEG, electroencephalogram, is created by the Swiss inventor Hans Berger. The technique is still used diagnostically in neurology and psychiatry. 1970s Invention of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), now used commonly for brain scans. 1970s Neuroscientists use an enzyme called horseradish peroxidase to trace neural tracts in animal brains US scientists Edward J Hoffman and Michael E Phelps invent the positron emission tomography, whole-body scanner Functional MRI is invented by Seiji Ogawa at Bell Laboratories in the US. The images reveal changes in blood flow in the brain over time Jeff Lichtman at Harvard University adds fluorescence genes into growing neurons to produce spectacular multicoloured "brainbows". Timeline of brain research

6 1986  worm C. elegans (300 neurons = 7000 connections) Electron Microscope History

7 Diffusion MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Spectrum Imaging. New ways to scan the brain

8 One Petabyte (1024 terabytes) of computer memory stores the image of 1mm cube of mouse rain. Technical Challenges

9 UCLA  The famous railroad worker, Phineas Gage. Connectome looks at his brain damage. Case study before after

10 Ted Talk  Brain Science interview  Seung.mp3?d13a76d516d9dec20c3d276ce028ed5089ab1ce3dae902ea1d01c b8f35d2c05cd7c8&c_id= Seung.mp3?d13a76d516d9dec20c3d276ce028ed5089ab1ce3dae902ea1d01c b8f35d2c05cd7c8&c_id= IdeaLab at MIT  Videos

11 Good image  diffusion-spectrum-imaging/http://neurosciencenews.com/brain-wiring-a-no-brainer- diffusion-spectrum-imaging/ nce-psychology#_ Sources


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