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Tips in Writing and Presenting Information Kanda Runapongsa Dept. of Computer Engineering Khon Kaen University.

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Presentation on theme: "Tips in Writing and Presenting Information Kanda Runapongsa Dept. of Computer Engineering Khon Kaen University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tips in Writing and Presenting Information Kanda Runapongsa Dept. of Computer Engineering Khon Kaen University

2 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 2 Suggestions in Writing Do not use the word “Data”, “Basic Knowledge”, “Acknowledge” to represent background information Use “Background” for the section that includes the background information of the work Make a reference to the theory that is belong to others

3 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 3 Suggestions in Writing (Cont.) Do not forget articles: ‘a’, ‘an’, ‘the’ Wrong: Design and querying database Right: Design and querying a database Avoid needless words Redundant: There is a car coming to the Computer engineering department Improved: A car is coming to the Computer engineering department

4 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 4 Guides for Effective Sentences Avoid the overuse of short, choppy sentences Avoid needless separation of related parts of a sentence Avoid dangling modifiers Use parallel structure to express ideas of equal importance Avoid needless shift

5 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 5 Avoid Short & Choppy Sentences A short, simple sentence can be forceful Thailand won the Sea games. But a long string of short sentences usually produces a childish effect I walked through the wood. I saw a squirrel. It darted up a tree.

6 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 6 Avoid Short & Choppy Sentences The ideas that would otherwise appear in separated sentences can usually be effectively combined The combination can be used to Show their relative importance Show their relationship to each other

7 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 7 Coordination The simple sentences can be regarded as independent clauses They can be joined by a coordinate conjunction to form a compound sentence Examples of conjunctions But, and, so, thus, or, nor, yet

8 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 8 Example1: Coordination Sentences: The princess had many dresses. She cared for none of them. Result: The princess had many dresses, but she cared for none of them.

9 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 9 Example2: Coordination Sentences: Mullins had been tricked once. He didn’t want to be tricked again. Result: Mullins had been tricked once, and he didn’t want to be tricked again.

10 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 10 Example3: Coordination Sentences: Jack had nothing to do. He went to the movies. Result: Jack had nothing to do, so he went to the movies.

11 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 11 Compounding Simple sentences in which the same word or group of words is used in the same way can be combined The combination can be done by eliminating the repetition through compounding the verb or the subject

12 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 12 Examples: Compounding Sentences: We put up the tent. We fell asleep at once. Result: We put up the tent and fell asleep at once. Sentences: Carol is learning to play bridge. I am learning to play bridge. Result: Carol and I are learning to play bridge.

13 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 13 Subordination One idea or the other can be given less emphasis by making it into a dependent clause This method usually expresses the relationship between the ideas more clearly than coordination or compounding

14 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 14 Examples: Subordination Sentences: He heard the news. He was elated. Result: When he heard the news, he was elated. Sentences: He had failed twice before. He was not discouraged Result: Although he had failed twice before, he was not discouraged.

15 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 15 Examples: Subordination Weak: He jumped seven feet, breaking the world’s record Improved: Jumping seven feet, he broke the world’s record Sentences: The car wouldn’t start The engine was flooded. Improved: The car wouldn’t start because the engine was flooded.

16 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 16 Reduction Whenever possible, eliminate unnecessary words by Reducing clauses to phrases Reducing phrases to single words

17 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 17 Examples: Reduction Clause: Because he was discouraged about writing stories, Eric decided to try nonfiction. Phrase: Discouraged about writing stories, Eric decided to try nonfiction.

18 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 18 Examples: Reduction Clause: The man who is holding the pistol is the starter. Phrase: The man with the pistol is the starter. Clause: The fans booed the decision of the umpire. Word: The fans booed the umpire’s decision.

19 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 19 Avoid Needless Separation Subject and verb should not be separated unnecessarily Example: Wrong: I, hoping very much to see him, hurried. Right: Hoping very much to see him, I hurried.

20 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 20 Avoid Needless Separation Adverbs should be place near the word they modify Example: Wrong: We only worked for two hours. Right: We worked only two hours.

21 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 21 Avoid Needless Separation Phrases should be near the word they modify Wrong: Notify us if you can come on the enclosed card. Right: Notify us on the enclosed card if you can come.

22 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 22 Avoid Needless Separation Phrases should be near the word they modify Wrong: The little girl stood beside the horse in a blue dress. Right: The little girl in a blue dress stood beside the horse.

23 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 23 Avoid Needless Separation Clauses should be near the words they modify Wrong: She put a hat on her head which she had just bought. Right: She put on her head a hat which she had just bought.

24 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 24 Avoid Needless Separation Clauses should be near the words they modify Wrong: He bought a car from his friend that had a defective motor. Right: He bought from his friend a car that had a defective motor.

25 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 25 Avoid Splitting of Infinitives Infinitives: to + Verb Wrong: I asked her to occasionally visit me. Right: I asked her to visit me occasionally.

26 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 26 Avoid Dangling Modifiers A modifier is said to dangle when there is no word in the sentence that it can sensibly modify. The error can be corrected (1) by adding a word that the modifier can modify (2) by expanding the modifying into a subordinate clause

27 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 27 Avoid Dangling Modifiers Dangling Participle Wrong: Flying over the Alps, the views were spectacular. Right: Flying over the Alps, we saw spectacular views. Right: When we flew over the Alps, the views were spectacular.

28 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 28 Avoid Dangling Modifiers Dangling Gerund Phrases Wrong: After walking for hours, the cabin was found by the hikers. Right: After walking for hours, the hikers found the cabin.

29 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 29 Avoid Dangling Modifiers Dangling Infinitive Wrong: To be well cooked, you must boil beefs a half hour. Right: To be well cooked, beefs must be boiled a half hour.

30 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 30 Avoid Dangling Modifiers Dangling Elliptical Clause Wrong: When a little girl, my uncle took me to a circus. Right: When a little girl, I was taken by my uncle to a circus.

31 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 31 Use Parallel Structure Use parallel structure to express ideas of equal importance Wrong: She is slender, with blue eyes, and has a friendly manner. Right: She is slender, blue-eyed, and friendly.

32 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 32 Use Parallel Structure Wrong: He likes hiking and to fish Right: He likes hiking and fishing Right: He likes to hike and to fish Wrong: I like to go jogging and shop Right: I like jogging and shopping Right: I like to go jogging and then go shopping

33 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 33 Avoid Omitting Unnecessary Words In comparison or degree, avoid omitting unnecessary words Wrong: I was so tired. Right: I was so tired that I fell asleep Wrong: Salaries of supervisors are higher than workmen Right: Salaries of supervisors are higher than those of workmen

34 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 34 Avoid Needless Shift Shift in person Wrong: When you are healthy, one should be thankful Right: When you are healthy, you should be thankful Right: When one is healthy, he should be thankful

35 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 35 Avoid Needless Shift Shift in Number Wrong: If a person works hard, they will succeed Right: If a person works hard, he will succeed Right: If people work hard, they will succeed

36 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 36 Avoid Needless Shift Avoid needless shift in subject or voice of verb Wrong: Laughter could be heard as we approached the house Right: We heard laughter as we approached the house

37 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 37 Avoid Needless Shift Avoid needless shift in subject or voice of verb Wrong: Marilyn lived by the lake, and many hours were spent in the swimming Right: Marilyn lived by the lake and spent many hours in swimming

38 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 38 Avoid Needless Shift Shift in Tense Wrong: She sat down by the fire and begins to knit Right: She sat down by the fire and began to knit

39 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 39 Avoid Needless Shift Shift in Mood Wrong: Finish your work, and then you should rest Right: Finish your work and then rest Right: You should finish your work, and then you should rest

40 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 40 Avoid the Double Negative The word hardly and scarcely are negative in meaning: they should be used with not: Wrong: I can’t scarcely hear him Right: I can scarcely hear him Right: I can’t hear him

41 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 41 Use the Active Voice The active voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive voice: Weak: My first visit to Boston will always be remembered by me Improved: I shall always remember my first visit to Boston

42 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 42 Use the Active Voice Weak: The reason that he left college was that his health became impaired Improved: Failing health compelled him to leave college Weak: There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground. Improved: Dead leaves covered the ground

43 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 43 Use the Positive Form Make definite assertions Avoid tame, colorless, hesitating, non-committal language The reader is dissatisfied with being told only what is not; he wishes to be told what is Weak: he was not very often on time Improved: He usually came late

44 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 44 Use the Positive Form Weak: he did not think that studying Latin was much use Improved: He thought that the study of Latin useless Not honest  dishonest Not important  unimportant Did not remember  forget Did not pay attention to  ignore

45 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 45 Organizing a Paragraph Make the paragraph the unit of composition: one paragraph to each topic Each paragraph should begin with topic sentence (the sentence that tells the main idea of the paragraph) The final sentence either emphasizes the thought of the topic sentence or states some important consequence

46 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 46 Suggestions in Presenting Use the font size large enough to be seen by the audience Do not use too small font sizes Use a well-contrasted text and background colors Use a dark text on a light background Use a light text on a dark background Avoid distracting animation

47 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 47 Organizing a Presentation You must do four things Make it short Make the organization obvious Make the ideas simple and vivid Summarize and be prepared for questions

48 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 48 Make it Short It takes twice as long as to speak as to read Stick to a few main points Practice it aloud

49 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 49 Make the Organization Obvious Acknowledge the Introduction and the Audience Then tell them what you’re going to tell them Then tell them Then tell them what you told them

50 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 50 Make the Ideas Simple & Vivid Put your ideas in verbal pictures Explain your strategy (where you are trying to go) before you tactics (the details of your route) Use questions to keep the audience’s attention

51 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 51 Summarize Repeat the main points in conclusions Repeat each question for the benefit of the audience Reword clumsy questions

52 168493: XML and Web Services (II/2546) 52 References “English Simplified” by Blanche Ellsworth “The Elements of Style” by William Strunk, Jr.


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