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Hubble Science Briefing: 25 Years of Seeing Stars with the Hubble Space Telescope March 5, 2015 Dr. Rachel Osten Dr. Alex Fullerton Dr. Jay Anderson.

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Presentation on theme: "Hubble Science Briefing: 25 Years of Seeing Stars with the Hubble Space Telescope March 5, 2015 Dr. Rachel Osten Dr. Alex Fullerton Dr. Jay Anderson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hubble Science Briefing: 25 Years of Seeing Stars with the Hubble Space Telescope March 5, 2015 Dr. Rachel Osten Dr. Alex Fullerton Dr. Jay Anderson

2 Hubble’s Insight into the Lives of Stars Comes From:  Better image clarity: no atmosphere, no blurring means higher spatial resolution  Access to ultraviolet wavelengths: not possible from the ground 2

3 3

4 Outline Rachel Osten - cool stars Rachel Osten - cool stars Alex Fullerton - massive stars Jay Anderson – globular clusters 4

5 The UV spectrum of a Sun-like star Hot gas (>10,000 K) means that many elements are ionized Hotter than the visible surface of the star (Sun=5800 K) Linsky & Wood

6 The UV spectrum of a Sun-like star Pagano et al BrightnessBrightness Alpha Cen A at higher spectral resolution than UV spectra from the Sun! 6

7 The UV spectrum of a Sun-like star Linsky & Wood 1994 BrightnessBrightness Dynamics of the atmosphere 7

8 The UV spectrum of a Sun-like star BrightnessBrightness Time (seconds) The changing of a star’s intensity with time on these short timescales is due to heating from flares occurring in the atmosphere of the star Hawley et al. (2003)

9 Stars Blow Bubbles in Space 9

10 Wood et al

11 Stars Blow Bubbles in Space Wood et al

12 Stars Blow Bubbles in Space Linsky et al

13 Outline Rachel Osten - cool stars Alex Fullerton - massive stars Alex Fullerton - massive stars Jay Anderson – globular clusters 13

14 Massive Stars Image Source: kids.britannica.com 1 Solar Mass 1 Solar Radius 1 Solar Luminosity T = 5,800 Kelvin (?) Solar Masses 3,000,000 Solar Luminosities Temperature: 10,000 – 50,000 Kelvin Radius: 2 – 15 Solar Radii 30 Solar Radii T = 7,500 – 3, 600 Kelvin R = 80 – 8, 000 Solar Radii Massive stars can be luminous because they are hot and compact hot and large cool and very large Massive stars are also luminous stars. “Red” supergiants “Blue” supergiants 14

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16 R136 16

17 Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) From a poster paper by A. Bostroem, N. Walborn, et al. “P Cygni Profiles” tell us about mass loss via a “stellar wind” 17

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19 The Carinae Region: A Cauldron of Hot, Massive Stars This spectacular montage was created to celebrate the 17 th anniversary of Hubble’s deployment. It is composed of many separate exposures with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and ground-based images from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). For a fuller appreciation of its information content, explore the “zoomable” version: 19

20 The Carinae Region: A Cauldron of Hot, Massive Stars η Carinae This spectacular montage was created to celebrate the 17 th anniversary of Hubble’s deployment. It is composed of many separate exposures with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and ground-based images from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). For a fuller appreciation of its information content, explore the “zoomable” version: 20

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23 The Carinae Region: A Cauldron of Hot, Massive Stars η Carinae Trumpler 14 This spectacular montage was created to celebrate the 17 th anniversary of Hubble’s deployment. It is composed of many separate exposures with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and ground-based images from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). For a fuller appreciation of its information content, explore the “zoomable” version: 23

24 “S-Curve” from an FGS scan of a point source. From the FGS Instrument Handbook 24

25 HD 93129A Trumpler 14 Palomar Digital Sky Survey Component A is also a binary! HD 93129A HD 93129B European Southern Observatory Science Release 0947 Very Large Telescope + Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator ESO VLT: Aperture Mask with Adaptive Optics Sana et al Astrophysical Journal Supplement 25

26 NGC 3603 HST/ACS 26

27 Outline Rachel Osten - cool stars Alex Fullerton - massive stars Jay Anderson – globular clusters Jay Anderson – globular clusters 27

28 Plan (1) Globular Clusters before HST (2) Globular Clusters with HST (3) Globular Clusters with 25 years of HST 28

29 Globular Clusters “Textbook” simple stellar populations – Formed stars early – Single cloud, single metallicity, single age – Not large enough to self-enrich – Continue orbiting in spheroid of Galaxy Perfect fossil laboratories to evaluate stellar evolution GC NGC4013(NOAO) 29

30 ω Centauri project-nightflight.net Central Field Early Release Field 30

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32 32 What Astronomers see…

33 33 What Astronomers see…

34 34 What Astronomers see…

35 35 What Astronomers see…

36 36 What Astronomers see…

37 37 What Astronomers see…

38 38 What Astronomers see…

39 39 What Astronomers see…

40 40 What Astronomers see…

41 41 What Astronomers see…

42 42 What Astronomers see…

43 43 What Astronomers see…

44 44 What Astronomers see…

45 1) Main Sequence 2) SubGiant Branch 3) Red Giant Branch 4) Horizontal Branch 5) White Dwarf Sequence 45 What Astronomers see…

46 Easy to identify stars… RGB WDs SGB HB MSTO Red Dwarfs BSs 46

47 More metals More Helium Age Red Giant Branch A B C One line means: same age same metallicity same distance  same small cloud Stellar Populations “Isochrone” “test of good photometry” 47

48 Omega N T Omega CenNGC Tuc Extra sequences 48

49 Plan (1) Globular Clusters before HST (2) Globular Clusters with HST (3) Globular Clusters with 25 years of HST 49

50 Globular Cluster or Dwarf Spheroidal? Cambridge, UK

51 Stellar Populations More metals More Helium Age Inversion! More metals metal poor intermediate metal rich Red Giant Branch Similar to galaxies… 51

52 Is Omega Cen a GC? Could the textbook globular cluster not be one? 47Tuc N2808 N6656 N6388OmCen ® 52

53 Is Omega Cen a globular? Are there any globular clusters? Questions to answer: 1)How does the enrichment happen? 2)Why are they all so different? 3)What connection is there between clusters and galaxies? 4) Any relevance for star formation going on today? NGC2808 NGC

54 Plan (1) Globular Clusters before HST (2) Globular Clusters with HST (3) Globular Clusters with 25 years of HST 54

55 GCs with Hubble Over Time Set up new experiments –Probe deeper –Probe more broadly Use new detectors –Better sensitivity, resolution –Better filter sets Things move! 55

56 Anderson et al 2002 Initial 2-seq Discovery on Main Sequence (WF/PC2) Bellini 2014 (WFC3/UVIS) Latest results all over the diagram! 10 Seqs! ω Centauri 56

57 D’Antona 2005 (ACS) Initial Discovery Bellini et al in prep (WFC3/UVIS) NGC

58 2002 ACS H-alpha Motions in ω Centauri 58

59 2015 WFC3/UVIS F606W Motions in ω Centauri 59

60 2015 WFC3/UVIS F606W MOTIONS OVER 13 YEARS Motions in ω Centauri 60

61 Proper Motions Important Qs Formation hints Are GCs just little galaxies? Do they have medium- sized BHs? How did the big BHs form in big galaxies? 61

62 Plan (1) Globular Clusters before HST (2) Globular Clusters with HST (3) Globular Clusters with 25 years of HST (4) Globular Clusters in the next 25 years… 62

63 View to the Future: the James Webb Space Telescope 63

64 View to the Future: the James Webb Space Telescope 64


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