Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution. Americans Divided: 20-30% Loyalists40-45% Patriots More patriots lived in the NE Area and the North. --More Loyalists in the."— Presentation transcript:
The American Revolution
Americans Divided: 20-30% Loyalists40-45% Patriots More patriots lived in the NE Area and the North. --More Loyalists in the south and the big cities (New York City).
Creating an Army Boston = Spectacular Victory. New York= Spectacular Retreat. -- Because not everyone supported the war, creating an army was difficult. --George Washington chosen as commander. --Originally made up of untrained and undisciplined volunteers (Farmers, Fisherman, Merchants) --Never more than 17,000 men, not well supplied (Women helped)(Short-term).
--Britain wanted control of the port cities to land their Navy at. --Washington heads army to New Jersey (battered up army) -- The army is very demoralized and many are about to quit, also they are running out of supplies.
Mercenary- Professional Soldiers hired to fight for another Country. --The British pay these (German) men to come fight for them. --Americans were scared to death of the Hessians.
--Washington knows he needed a big victory to raise moral of his men and it had to come quickly. --X-mas battle row across the Delaware River, Defeated the Hessians, gained much needed supplies and attracted new recruits.
1.How does this Portrait Portray George Washington? 2.Are there any inaccuracies within the Portrait? 3. What Obstacles do the men have to overcome before they ever get to the other side?
-Seize the Hudson River Valley. -Cut Off New England From the Rest of the Colonies. -Fight battles near the coast.
--Hero: General Horatio Gates!!!! -- Guy Who should have been given more Credit: General Benedict Arnold --The Victory helps convince the French to provide America with supplies, Money, Military Aid, and more importantly a NAVY
Benedict Arnold Traitor Spy Eggs Benedict
France signed 2 treaties of Alliance with USA after the Victory of Saratoga. Sending Funds, Supplies, and Military Troops.
19 year old French noblemen who volunteered to serve in Washington’s Army. Believed in “The Cause”. --Known as the “Soldiers Friend” won many battles as leader of a division. --Trained many troops and convinced France to send 6,000 soldiers.
Von Steuben was born in Magdeburg, Germany. He attended Jesuit schools in Breslau, entered the Prussian army's officer corps, and served in the Seven Years War. He then joined Frederick the Great's military staff. Later, he was appointed chamberlain to the Prussian court of Hohenzollern Hechingen. In 1777, Von Steuben went to Paris to meet America's foreign commissioners, Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane, and offer them his military services. The Continental Congress, much impressed by Von Steuben's title and his refusal to accept any salary while in service, immediately sent him to George Washington at Valley Forge. Though he spoke no English, Von Steuben systematically trained the amateur American troops in military discipline and battle-readiness. This rigorous training saved the troops from complete defeat during the Battle of Monmouth. In 1779, Von Steuben prepared his Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, which remained America's official military manual for over three decades.Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States
“Freezing All of the Time, Nothing to Eat but Bark off the Trees and the occasional piece of Horse Meat.” --In late 1777 Washington was forced to retreat from Philadelphia, army camped at Valley Forge (Winter) Not enough supplies. --Soldiers grew weak over the winter. Roughly ¼ of them died from malnutrition, Cold or disease. --Amazing endurance and heart of the men in such a rough situation “Love of Country”.
--George Rogers Clark wanted to raise an army to protect the frontier (Indiana, Illinois, ect.) --Went to the governor of Virginia and asked to raise an army for the frontier, he was approved (soon had 175-200 men).
Privateer- Attacked British Ships. A privately owned ship that a wartime government gives permission to attack an enemy’s merchant ships. --Britain had about 100 warships off of the American coast. --This allowed Britain to control the Atlantic Trade Routes. --There was no way the Americans could defeat the Powerful British Navy.
The British believed that most southerners were loyalists, so they decided to move the war into the south. -- They couldn’t hold the territory in the North (believed that the loyalists would hold it for them in the south). --Expected large numbers of slaves to support them (freedom promised) -- Ports in the West Indies.
British Capture Charles Town 5,000 American Soldiers Captured!!! --most of southern force. -- The British had captured the port of Savannah and had taken most of Georgia.
CAMDEN --After the loss of Charlestown congress assigned General Horatio Gates (Saratoga Hero) to form a new southern army. --Gates wanted to challenge Cornwallis near Camden. --However he put the inexperienced militia in the middle, they were crushed.
--Gates Ran away. --American Spirits were at an all-time low .
Francis Marion (1732-1795) Guerrilla Warfare- Small bands of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit and run attacks. Carried out vicious raids. -- In charge of a small force that was sent out to raise havoc on the British Supply lines. Fought from a base in the swamps on lake santee.
Under Green’s Command The American Army Avoided Full-Scale Battles. They Let the British Chase them Around the Countryside Wearing themselves out.
-As the war dragged on to its 6 th year opposition to it in Britain increased. -In 1781 most of the war took place in Virginia, Cornwallis set up his base at Yorktown.
--Cornwallis heads for the sea to get re-supplied after the battle of CowPens. -- Washington sneaks away from NYC, and French General Rochambeau brings his army to help trap Cornwallis with Green’s Army. --The French Navy led by General De Grasse finally shows up and traps Cornwallis in by the sea.
--French ships kept the British Navy from getting to Cornwallis. --American and French Forces bombarded Yorktown w/ Canon Fire. --On October 19,1781, Cornwallis surrendered his force of 8,000 Men. --Last Major Battle of the war.
Why The Americans Won 1. Better Leadership: British Generals were overconfident and made bad decisions. --Washington never gave up Smart Leader.
Why The Americans Won 2. Foreign Aid: Britain’s rivals, especially France helped America. Foreign Loans & Military Aid were Essential to Victory. ”Humanity has won its battle. Liberty now has a country.” —Lafayette
3. Knowledge of the Land: Americans knew the land and used it to their advantage. --Britain could control the port cities, but could not extend in land. Why The Americans Won
4. Motivation: Americans had more reason to fight Much at Stake (Lives, Property, Liberty). Why The Americans Won
1.The U.S.A Was Independent. 2. Its boundaries would be the Mississippi River on the west, Canada on the North, Florida on the South. 3. Right to fish off of Canada’s Atlantic Coast. 4. Each side would repay debts owed to the other. 5. British would return any enslaved persons it had captured. 6. Congress would recommend that the states return any property they had seized from loyalists.
Estimated: 25,700 died (Americans) 14,000 American’s missing 8,200 Wounded. 10,000 British Casualties. Soldiers Were not Paid. 27 Million Dollar Debt for the USA.
Issues After the War How To Shape a National Government?