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Chapter 1.0 The Information Age & Digital Computers

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Programming Concepts Part 1 : Computers –1.0. Information age and Digital Computers –1.1. Digital Computers : Hardware organization –1.2. Digital Computers : Operating Systems –1.3. Computer Networks –1.4. Programming Languages and Programming –1.5. History of Computing Devices

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Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc - 1750 : Geometry »1750 - 1950 : Energy »1850 - now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

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Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc - 1750 : Geometry »1750 - 1950 : Energy »1850 - now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

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Geometry Initiated 3000 bc in Egypt for practical purposes Evolved into science in Middle East and Greece Considerable influence on art and architecture Many attempts to model universe by purely geometric constructs

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Geometry and Arab Art

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Geometry and Civil Engineering

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Geometry Initiated 3000 bc in Egypt for practical purposes Evolved into science in Middle East and Greece Considerable influence on art and architecture Many attempts to model universe by purely geometric constructs

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Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc - 1750 : Geometry »1750 - 1950 : Energy »1850 - now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

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Energy Laws of mechanics, with notions of Force and Energy discovered by Galileo, Newton et al.... Results in replacement of muscular force by machines : The industrial revolution. Industrial revolution results in social turmoil: –French revolution (1789) –US civil war (1865) Considerable influence on sciences –Conservation laws (Mass, Energy, Movement,....) –Understanding of electrical phenomena

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Energy : the first industrial revolution

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Energy Laws of mechanics, with notions of Force and Energy discovered by Galileo, Newton et al.... Results in replacement of muscular force by machines : The industrial revolution. Industrial revolution results in social turmoil: –French revolution (1789) –US civil war (1865) Considerable influence on sciences –Conservation laws (Mass, Energy, Movement,....) –Understanding of electrical phenomena

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Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc - 1750 : Geometry »1750 - 1950 : Energy »1850 - now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

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Information From 1837 on, energy is used to carry something even more precious: information – 1837 : Electric telegraph (Samuel Morse) – 1876 : Telephone Information acquires essential role in science : –Uncertainty principle introduced by Heisenberg and Quantum Mechanics –Discovery of role of DNA in Biology Information technology > Industrial Revolution – Repetitive intellectual tasks done by machines – Spectacular increases in productivity

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Information : Human voice carried by electricity

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Information From 1837 on, energy is used to carry something even more precious: information – 1837 : Electric telegraph (Samuel Morse) – 1876 : Telephone Information acquires essential role in science : –Uncertainty principle introduced by Heisenberg and Quantum Mechanics –Discovery of role of DNA in Biology Information technology > Industrial Revolution – Repetitive intellectual tasks done by machines – Spectacular increases in productivity

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Information : DNA : the key to modern biology

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Information From 1837 on, energy is used to carry something even more precious: information – 1837 : Electric telegraph (Samuel Morse) – 1876 : Telephone Information acquires essential role in science : –Uncertainty principle introduced by Heisenberg and Quantum Mechanics –Discovery of role of DNA in Biology Information technology > Industrial Revolution – Repetitive intellectual tasks done by machines – Spectacular increases in productivity

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Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc - 1750 : Geometry »1750 - 1950 : Energy »1850 - now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

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Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc - 1750 : Geometry »1750 - 1950 : Energy »1850 - now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

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Digital Techniques (Information encoded as digits) 6:12:08 Analog Digital

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Digital Techniques Representation of numbers in electronic devices ? Binary numbers (base 2) are used. A binary digit (bit) can be represented by a switch: –Value 0 : switch open –Value 1 : switch closed A number with n bits can take 2 n different values –2 bits : 4 combinations 00 01 10 11 –3 bits : 8 combinations 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 –8 bits (= 1 byte) 256 combinations –16 bits: 65 536 combinations –24 bits: 16 777 216 combinations –32 bits: 4 294 967 296 combinations

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Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: 44100 samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

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Music Records Analog Digital

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Music Records Analog Digital (CD) (44100 measurements/s) -096 +057 +164 +210 +219 +216 +165 -003 -117 -183 -138 -067

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Records with a scratch Analog Digital (CD) -096 +057 +164 +210 XXXX -117 -183 -138 -067 +210 +145 +079 +014 -052 -117

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Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: 44100 samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

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Graphical encoding Bit Maps (.bmp files in DOS) –Luminosity and color of each point of a regular raster is encoded –Very versatile but requires a lot of memory. Geometric coding : –Straight lines between two points –circle with given center, radius, color and intensity –Very efficient for computer generated images Geometric coding > bit maps : OK Bit maps > Geometric coding : Very Difficult: jpeg, mpeg,...

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A bit map Size = 10 MBytes

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An other bit map Size = 10 MBytes

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Graphical encoding Bit Maps (.bmp files in DOS) –Luminosity and color of each point of a regular raster is encoded –Very versatile but requires a lot of memory. Geometric coding : –Straight lines between two points –circle with given center, radius, color and intensity –Very efficient for computer generated images Geometric coding > bit maps : OK Bit maps > Geometric coding : Very Difficult, jpeg, mpeg,...

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A geometric construct Size = 13 KBytes

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Graphical encoding Bit Maps (.bmp files in DOS) –Luminosity and color of each point of a regular raster is encoded –Very versatile but requires a lot of memory. Geometric coding : –Straight lines between two points –circle with given center, radius, color and intensity –Very efficient for computer generated images Geometric coding > bit maps : OK Bit maps > Geometric coding : Very Difficult : jpeg, mpeg,

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Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: 44100 samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

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Extended ASCII Character Set (8 bit)

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Texts on PC's This is a text demo Aaé

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Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: 44100 samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

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Numbers ASCII Characters :8 bit / digit. BCD Characters : 4 bit / digit. Binary numbers : 2 n values Example: In a 32 bit word: Binary : BCD : ASCII : 0 <= x <= 4 294 967 296 100 000 000 10 000

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Floating Point Numbers R = (-1) S. M.base E 3 parts: Sign, Mantissa, Exponent base = predefined constant (2 or 16) majority of computer systems : IEEE754. Single precision (32 bit) “float” Smallest value: 10 -38 Largest value : 10 +38 Relative error: < 3 10 -8

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Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc - 1750 : Geometry »1750 - 1950 : Energy »1850 - now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

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