Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byAlex Wicks Modified about 1 year ago

1
Chapter 1.0 The Information Age & Digital Computers

2
Programming Concepts Part 1 : Computers –1.0. Information age and Digital Computers –1.1. Digital Computers : Hardware organization –1.2. Digital Computers : Operating Systems –1.3. Computer Networks –1.4. Programming Languages and Programming –1.5. History of Computing Devices

3
Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc : Geometry » : Energy » now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

4
Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc : Geometry » : Energy » now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

5
Geometry Initiated 3000 bc in Egypt for practical purposes Evolved into science in Middle East and Greece Considerable influence on art and architecture Many attempts to model universe by purely geometric constructs

6
Geometry and Arab Art

7
Geometry and Civil Engineering

8
Geometry Initiated 3000 bc in Egypt for practical purposes Evolved into science in Middle East and Greece Considerable influence on art and architecture Many attempts to model universe by purely geometric constructs

9
Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc : Geometry » : Energy » now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

10
Energy Laws of mechanics, with notions of Force and Energy discovered by Galileo, Newton et al.... Results in replacement of muscular force by machines : The industrial revolution. Industrial revolution results in social turmoil: –French revolution (1789) –US civil war (1865) Considerable influence on sciences –Conservation laws (Mass, Energy, Movement,....) –Understanding of electrical phenomena

11
Energy : the first industrial revolution

12
Energy Laws of mechanics, with notions of Force and Energy discovered by Galileo, Newton et al.... Results in replacement of muscular force by machines : The industrial revolution. Industrial revolution results in social turmoil: –French revolution (1789) –US civil war (1865) Considerable influence on sciences –Conservation laws (Mass, Energy, Movement,....) –Understanding of electrical phenomena

13
Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc : Geometry » : Energy » now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

14
Information From 1837 on, energy is used to carry something even more precious: information – 1837 : Electric telegraph (Samuel Morse) – 1876 : Telephone Information acquires essential role in science : –Uncertainty principle introduced by Heisenberg and Quantum Mechanics –Discovery of role of DNA in Biology Information technology > Industrial Revolution – Repetitive intellectual tasks done by machines – Spectacular increases in productivity

15
Information : Human voice carried by electricity

16
Information From 1837 on, energy is used to carry something even more precious: information – 1837 : Electric telegraph (Samuel Morse) – 1876 : Telephone Information acquires essential role in science : –Uncertainty principle introduced by Heisenberg and Quantum Mechanics –Discovery of role of DNA in Biology Information technology > Industrial Revolution – Repetitive intellectual tasks done by machines – Spectacular increases in productivity

17
Information : DNA : the key to modern biology

18
Information From 1837 on, energy is used to carry something even more precious: information – 1837 : Electric telegraph (Samuel Morse) – 1876 : Telephone Information acquires essential role in science : –Uncertainty principle introduced by Heisenberg and Quantum Mechanics –Discovery of role of DNA in Biology Information technology > Industrial Revolution – Repetitive intellectual tasks done by machines – Spectacular increases in productivity

19
Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc : Geometry » : Energy » now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

20
Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc : Geometry » : Energy » now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

21
Digital Techniques (Information encoded as digits) 6:12:08 Analog Digital

22
Digital Techniques Representation of numbers in electronic devices ? Binary numbers (base 2) are used. A binary digit (bit) can be represented by a switch: –Value 0 : switch open –Value 1 : switch closed A number with n bits can take 2 n different values –2 bits : 4 combinations –3 bits : 8 combinations –8 bits (= 1 byte) 256 combinations –16 bits: combinations –24 bits: combinations –32 bits: combinations

23
Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

24
Music Records Analog Digital

25
Music Records Analog Digital (CD) (44100 measurements/s)

26
Records with a scratch Analog Digital (CD) XXXX

27
Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

28
Graphical encoding Bit Maps (.bmp files in DOS) –Luminosity and color of each point of a regular raster is encoded –Very versatile but requires a lot of memory. Geometric coding : –Straight lines between two points –circle with given center, radius, color and intensity –Very efficient for computer generated images Geometric coding > bit maps : OK Bit maps > Geometric coding : Very Difficult: jpeg, mpeg,...

29
A bit map Size = 10 MBytes

30
An other bit map Size = 10 MBytes

31
Graphical encoding Bit Maps (.bmp files in DOS) –Luminosity and color of each point of a regular raster is encoded –Very versatile but requires a lot of memory. Geometric coding : –Straight lines between two points –circle with given center, radius, color and intensity –Very efficient for computer generated images Geometric coding > bit maps : OK Bit maps > Geometric coding : Very Difficult, jpeg, mpeg,...

32
A geometric construct Size = 13 KBytes

33
Graphical encoding Bit Maps (.bmp files in DOS) –Luminosity and color of each point of a regular raster is encoded –Very versatile but requires a lot of memory. Geometric coding : –Straight lines between two points –circle with given center, radius, color and intensity –Very efficient for computer generated images Geometric coding > bit maps : OK Bit maps > Geometric coding : Very Difficult : jpeg, mpeg,

34
Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

35
Extended ASCII Character Set (8 bit)

36
Texts on PC's This is a text demo Aaé

37
Digital Data Representations Information is encoded by numbers Sound: samples per second for CD’s Images: –Bit maps: regular raster of points. –Geometric patterns. Texts: each character encoded by a number Numbers: integers and floating point numbers

38
Numbers ASCII Characters :8 bit / digit. BCD Characters : 4 bit / digit. Binary numbers : 2 n values Example: In a 32 bit word: Binary : BCD : ASCII : 0 <= x <=

39
Floating Point Numbers R = (-1) S. M.base E 3 parts: Sign, Mantissa, Exponent base = predefined constant (2 or 16) majority of computer systems : IEEE754. Single precision (32 bit) “float” Smallest value: Largest value : Relative error: <

40
Summary The Information Age Underlying paradigms »3000 bc : Geometry » : Energy » now : Information Digital Computers : Programmable devices to process information – Digital : information encoded by digits – Programmable : »Universal hardware »Specific capabilities defined by Software

Similar presentations

© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google