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Historical Connections with: Holland, Italy, France, Hungary and Turkey Morcan Mihaela.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Connections with: Holland, Italy, France, Hungary and Turkey Morcan Mihaela."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Connections with: Holland, Italy, France, Hungary and Turkey Morcan Mihaela

2 Historical connections between Romania and Turkey: historical personalities. Michael the Brave (Romanian: Mihai Viteazu pronounced or Mihai Bravu, Hungarian: Vitéz Mihály; 1558 – August 9, 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593–1601), of Transylvania (1599– 1600), and of Moldavia (1600). He united the three principalities under a single rule for a short period of time. His rule over Wallachia began in the autumn of 1593. Two years later, war with the Ottomans began, a conflict in which the Prince fought the Battle of Călugăreni, considered one of the most important battles of his reign. Although the Wallachians emerged victorious from the battle, Michael was forced to retreat with his troops and wait for aid from his allies, Prince Sigismund Báthory of Transylvania and Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II. The war continued until a peace finally emerged in January 1597, but this lasted for only a year and a half. Peace was again reached in late 1599, when Michael was unable to continue the war due to lack of support from his allies. Suleiman I the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (6 November 1494 – 7 September 1566) known as “the Magnificent” in the West and “Kanuni”. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th- century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and through the Persian Gulf. At the helm of an expanding empire, Suleiman personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation, and criminal law. The "Golden" age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary and architectural development. Suleiman was well educated and spoke five languages. In a break with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married Roxelana, a former Christian girl converted to Islam from his harem, who became subsequently known and influential as Hürrem Sultan.

3 Turkey: events Lifestyle Events and Festivals Lifestyle Events and Festivals Lifestyle events in Turkey are a quirky mix. From international fairs to Turkish traditional festivals, Turkey hosts many events with global reach. Looking for new market trends or buying luxury products, unique and exclusive, the lifestyle Turkish events has it all. There are remarkable events stored for all ages and groups, leisure and business sectors. From home decor to fashion, sports to education, food to entertainment, lifestyle events in Turkey deliver an exceptional experience for the visitors. Lifestyle events in Turkey are a quirky mix. From international fairs to Turkish traditional festivals, Turkey hosts many events with global reach. Looking for new market trends or buying luxury products, unique and exclusive, the lifestyle Turkish events has it all. There are remarkable events stored for all ages and groups, leisure and business sectors. From home decor to fashion, sports to education, food to entertainment, lifestyle events in Turkey deliver an exceptional experience for the visitors. Classical Music Events Turkey is home to the world's most important classical music festivals and events. Plenty of classical music festivals are held in Turkey every year. Along with music festivals of local scale held in almost every city of the country, cultural events and other festivals of international reach are also organized in major metropolitan centers such as Istanbul, Izmir, Antalya and Ankara. Sport Events Connect to your sporting passion in Turkey, which hosts everything from international tennis matches, cycling tour and water sports to motor-racing events and Turkish Grand Prix. It is easy to go sports mad in Turkey, which hosts events for motor-race fans, tennis lovers and swimmers. Get a courtside view of the tennis greats at the Istanbul WTA Championschip or experience the excitement of the uniquely Kirkpinar Oil Wrestling Championships. See the Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey and smell the rubber at glamorous motor-racing events such as the Formula One Turkish Grand Prix.

4 The influences of Turkey in Romania Turkish political influence in Romania from the 16 th Century until 1881 is well documented. Historical records also provide numerous references to Turkish music in Romania which together with certain survivals in the form of instruments and musical forms serve to delineate the broader outlines of the potential area of influence of Turkish music on certain Romanian musical practices. Turkish political influence in Romania from the 16 th Century until 1881 is well documented. Historical records also provide numerous references to Turkish music in Romania which together with certain survivals in the form of instruments and musical forms serve to delineate the broader outlines of the potential area of influence of Turkish music on certain Romanian musical practices.

5 Historical connections between Romania and Holland: historical personalities. William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent (Dutch: Willem de Zwijger), or simply William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. A wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard (also written as "Gerardts") in Delft four years later (1584). Dimitrie Cantemir ( 1673–1723) was twice Prince of Moldavia (in March–April 1693 and in 1710–1711). He was also a prolific man of letters – philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. His name is Dmitriy Konstantinovich Kantemir in Russian, Dimitri Kantemiroğlu in Turkish, Dymitr Kantemir in Polish, and Dimitrios Kantimiris in Greek. In 1714 Cantemir became a member of the Royal Academy of Berlin. Between 1711 and 1719 he wrote his most important creations. Cantemir was known as one of the greatest linguists of his time, speaking and writing eleven languages, and being well versed in Oriental scholarship.

6 Holland : events Amsterdam light festival Amsterdam light festival Centred on the theme of ‘Building with Light’, the second edition of the event features a canal cruise and walking route taking in this year’s selection of spectacular illuminated artworks. An extensive side programme will also see a host of activities and events take place at museums, theatres, restaurants, shops and other locations in Amsterdam. Tulips to admire in the Noordoostpolder Every year thousands of people come to see the tulip fields of the Noordoostpolder. The tulip bulbs that were planted a few months ago, have now transformed acres of land into a colorful spectacle. The Tulip Festival offers a special route which takes you along the most beautiful and panoramic tulip fields in this polder. You can choose between hiking, biking, horse carriage rides and covered wagon tours. You can also combine your tulip tour with cultural attractions and culinary experiences. You can stay overnight at numerous campsites and farms.

7 Historical connections between Romania and Hungary: historical personalities. Stefan the Great (1433 – July 2, 1504 ) Stefan the Great (1433 – July 2, 1504 ) was Prince of Moldavia between 1457 and 1504 and the most prominent representative of the House of Muat. was Prince of Moldavia between 1457 and 1504 and the most prominent representative of the House of Muat. Stephen achieved fame in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottomans. He was victorious in 46 of his 48 battles, and was one of the first to gain a decisive victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui, after which Pope Sixtus IV deemed him (true Champion of Christian Faith). Stephen achieved fame in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottomans. He was victorious in 46 of his 48 battles, and was one of the first to gain a decisive victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui, after which Pope Sixtus IV deemed him (true Champion of Christian Faith). Vlad III Dracula was Stephen’s the Great first cousin and he helped him to win many battles in those times. Vlad III Dracula was Stephen’s the Great first cousin and he helped him to win many battles in those times. Stefan the Great was canonized by Romanian Orthodox Church and was buried at Putna Monastery. Stefan the Great was canonized by Romanian Orthodox Church and was buried at Putna Monastery. Stephen I, also Saint Stephen, was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038. He was born as Vajk in Esztergom. The year of his birth is uncertain, but many details of his life suggest that he was born in or after 975. He was the only son of Grand Prince Géza and his wife, Sarolt, who was descended from the prominent family of the gyulas. Although both of his parents were baptized, Stephen was the first member of his family to become a devout Christian. He married Gisela of Bavaria, a scion of the imperial Ottonian dynasty.

8 Hungary: events Budapest Spring Festival Budapest Spring Festival Pulling together the best in classical music, opera, jazz and folk music, this annual festival is the largest cultural event in Hungary. A multitude of venues throughout the city welcome both, Hungarian and international performers. Budapest celebrates its 34th Spring Festival. Pulling together the best in classical music, opera, jazz and folk music, this annual festival is the largest cultural event in Hungary. A multitude of venues throughout the city welcome both, Hungarian and international performers. Budapest celebrates its 34th Spring Festival. Sziget Festival Sziget Festival is one of the largest music festivals in the world and certainly the best party-filled week of the year in Hungary. Around 400,000 people come every August to the 'Sziget' for a week of music and entertainment. The organizers teamed up to present the hottest concerts of the day featuring well known international artists, the cream of Hungarian bands and rising stars. The Budapest International Wine Festival Over the past years The Budapest International Wine Festival has truly come of age and is now one of the most prestigious events of its kind in Hungary. Enjoy many popular events, including a Wine University, a wine auction, an arts festival and several live performances. Last year the festival attracted tens of thousands of visitors making it one of the largest wine festivals in the country. The International Wine Festival in Buda Castle Hill is an experience for everyone who wants to learn about the art of wine making, sample some of the best Hungarian wines, meet notable wine makers and enjoy Hungarian gastronomy and folk music all in a breathtaking setting.

9 The Influence of Trade Unions on Pension Reform in Romania and Hungary: The Role of Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Policy- Making. Although both Romania and Hungary have inherited pay- as-you-go defined benefit pensions systems, they have both moved towards a three-pillar pensions system, in which PAYG-DB becomes just one of three pillars together with the mandatory and the voluntary private pension funds. Trade unions have had an important influence on pension reform in both countries. The analysis of pension reform in Hungary and Romania brings evidence that trade unions’ influence on policy- making is not uniform, but it is shaped by the international policy discourse, by the institutional setting, by their relationship with other policy actors, by their organisational culture and even material inheritance. The Influence of Trade Unions on Pension Reform in Romania and Hungary: The Role of Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Policy- Making. Although both Romania and Hungary have inherited pay- as-you-go defined benefit pensions systems, they have both moved towards a three-pillar pensions system, in which PAYG-DB becomes just one of three pillars together with the mandatory and the voluntary private pension funds. Trade unions have had an important influence on pension reform in both countries. The analysis of pension reform in Hungary and Romania brings evidence that trade unions’ influence on policy- making is not uniform, but it is shaped by the international policy discourse, by the institutional setting, by their relationship with other policy actors, by their organisational culture and even material inheritance.

10 Historical connections between Romania and France: historical personalities. Alexandru Ioan Cuza, or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873 was Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Domnitor (ruler) of the Romanian Principalities. He was a prominent figure of the Revolution of 1848 in Moldavia. He initiated a series of reforms that contributed to the modernization of Romanian society and of state structures. In 1848, known as the year of European revolutions, Moldavia and Wallachia fell into revolt. The Moldavian unrest was quickly suppressed, but in Wallachia the revolutionaries took power and governed during the summer (see 1848 Wallachian revolution). Young Cuza played a prominent enough part so as to establish his liberal credentials during the Moldavian episode and to be shipped to Vienna as a prisoner, where he made his escape with British support. Alexandru Ioan Cuza, or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873 was Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Domnitor (ruler) of the Romanian Principalities. He was a prominent figure of the Revolution of 1848 in Moldavia. He initiated a series of reforms that contributed to the modernization of Romanian society and of state structures. In 1848, known as the year of European revolutions, Moldavia and Wallachia fell into revolt. The Moldavian unrest was quickly suppressed, but in Wallachia the revolutionaries took power and governed during the summer (see 1848 Wallachian revolution). Young Cuza played a prominent enough part so as to establish his liberal credentials during the Moldavian episode and to be shipped to Vienna as a prisoner, where he made his escape with British support. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814. He undertook many reforms across Europe, ending feudalism for example. His legal reform in France, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide. Napoleon is best remembered for his role leading France against a series of coalitions, in the Napoleonic Wars. He won the great majority of his battles and seized control of most of continental Europe

11 France: events Tour de France - This world famous annual cycling race is the biggest and most prestigious event on the annual cycling calendar, attracting entrants from around the world. It usually takes place in July and the various stages in the 3 week long race, cover virtually the whole of France. The grand finish on the Champs-Elysees is a spectacular event attracting massive crowds of spectators. Tour de France - This world famous annual cycling race is the biggest and most prestigious event on the annual cycling calendar, attracting entrants from around the world. It usually takes place in July and the various stages in the 3 week long race, cover virtually the whole of France. The grand finish on the Champs-Elysees is a spectacular event attracting massive crowds of spectators. Cannes Film Festival - Held at the town of Cannes in the South of France, this is one of the oldest and arguably one of the most prestigious film festivals in the world. It generally attracts a huge following with the who’s who of the film world descending on the glamorous Cote d’Azure. The one award valued above all others by the contenders for the best film, is the coveted Palm d’Or. This event has a festive atmosphere and there are countless parties, both in Cannes and on the spectacular yachts anchored in the harbour. Le Mans - This 24 hour endurance race is one of the most famous and most popular motor racing event in the world. It is the oldest motorsport endurance race in the world, initially founded in 1923 as an alternative to the Grand Prix, with the focus on speed and endurance. This annual event usually takes place every June and motorsport enthusiasts from around the world descend on the town of Le Mans, Sarthe to enjoy this 24 hour spectacle.

12 The influences of France in Romania Romania's history has been full of rebounds: the culturally productive epochs were those of stability, when the people proved quite an impressive resourcefulness in making up for less propitious periods and were able to rejoin the mainstream of European culture. This stands true for the years after the Phanariote-Ottoman period, at the beginning of the 19th century, when Romanians had a favourable historical context and Romania started to become westernized, mainly with French influences, which they pursued steadily and at a very fast pace. From the end of the 18th century, the sons of the upper classes started having their education in Paris, and French became (and was until the communist years) a genuine second language of culture for Romanians. The modeling role of France especially in the fields of political ideas, administration and law, as well as in literature was paralleled, from the mid-19th century down to World War I, by German culture as well, which also triggered constant relationships with the German world not only at a cultural level but in daily life as well. With the arrival of Soviet Communism in the area, Romania quickly adopted many Slavic influences, and Russian was also a widely taught in the country during Romania's "socialist" years. Romania's history has been full of rebounds: the culturally productive epochs were those of stability, when the people proved quite an impressive resourcefulness in making up for less propitious periods and were able to rejoin the mainstream of European culture. This stands true for the years after the Phanariote-Ottoman period, at the beginning of the 19th century, when Romanians had a favourable historical context and Romania started to become westernized, mainly with French influences, which they pursued steadily and at a very fast pace. From the end of the 18th century, the sons of the upper classes started having their education in Paris, and French became (and was until the communist years) a genuine second language of culture for Romanians. The modeling role of France especially in the fields of political ideas, administration and law, as well as in literature was paralleled, from the mid-19th century down to World War I, by German culture as well, which also triggered constant relationships with the German world not only at a cultural level but in daily life as well. With the arrival of Soviet Communism in the area, Romania quickly adopted many Slavic influences, and Russian was also a widely taught in the country during Romania's "socialist" years.

13 Historical connections between Romania and Italy: historical personalities. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, of Isolabella and of Leri (August 10, 1810 – June 6, 1861), generally known as Cavour was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was the founder of the original Liberal Party and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained (except for a six-month resignation) throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as Italy's first Prime Minister; he died after only three months in office, and thus did not live to see Venetia or Rome as part of the new Italian nation. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, of Isolabella and of Leri (August 10, 1810 – June 6, 1861), generally known as Cavour was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was the founder of the original Liberal Party and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained (except for a six-month resignation) throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as Italy's first Prime Minister; he died after only three months in office, and thus did not live to see Venetia or Rome as part of the new Italian nation. Mihail Kogălniceanu also known as Mihail Cogâlniceanu, Michel de Kogalnitchan; September 6, 1817 – July 1, 1891) was a Moldavian-born Romanian liberal statesman, lawyer, historian and publicist; he became Prime Minister of Romania on October 11, 1863, after the 1859 union of the Danubian Principalities under Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza, and later served as Foreign Minister under Carol I. He was several times Interior Minister under Cuza and Carol. A polymath, Kogălniceanu was one of the most influential Romanian intellectuals of his generation.

14 Italy: events Opera Season in Verona Seeing the opera in Verona is one of Italy's great travel experiences. Every summer the city's Roman Arena is taken over by grandiose opera productions on an epic scale. Many music-loving travellers visit Verona just to attend the opera; the town's charms are an attractive extra. If you are staying in or around Verona during the summer, it is well worth planning an evening at the opera to appreciate the music, the spectacle, and the experience of spectating at an event in this ancient Roman venue. Venice Film Festival Venice Film Festival is an annual event which takes place at the end of August / beginning of September. It's one of the events organised by the Venice Biennale organisation, and is an important public relations event for the city. Although there are art- house films and prizes, each year there is a Hollywood element which attracts the paparazzi and gives the city a bit of glitz. Carnival in Venice However much the modern Carnival may be contrived for tourists, it's undeniably atmospheric to walk down a lane in Venice and pass cloaked and masked figures. The tourist board and hotels urge their guests to participate by wearing at least a mask as they tour the town. It can be an exciting time for children, as long as the dehumanising masks don't scare them, and there are plenty of opportunities for fun. Young and old can admire the spectacle and select their favourite costumed characters, and there are plenty of opportunities to photograph your loved ones alongside dramatically-costumed carnival-goers. The city is very busy, particularly during the two Carnival weekends, and there is a genuinely festive atmosphere.

15 The Slavic influence on Romanian is noticeable on all linguistic levels: lexis, phonetics, morphology and syntax. This situation is due to the migration of Slavic tribes who traversed the territory of present-day Romania during the sixth century AD, corresponding with the formative stage of Eastern Romance. The Slavic influence on Romanian is noticeable on all linguistic levels: lexis, phonetics, morphology and syntax. This situation is due to the migration of Slavic tribes who traversed the territory of present-day Romania during the sixth century AD, corresponding with the formative stage of Eastern Romance.

16 Events in Romania Romania's Folk Art Festival — Initiation in folk art creation (pottery molding, textile embroidering, woodcarving and more) offered, for free, by preeminent folk artists to those interested in traditional crafts. Romania's Folk Art Festival — Initiation in folk art creation (pottery molding, textile embroidering, woodcarving and more) offered, for free, by preeminent folk artists to those interested in traditional crafts. The Traditional Crafts Fair — Crafts enthusiasts from all over Romania gather at the Village Museum in Bucharest to offer free demonstrations of traditional woodcarving, rug weaving, textile weaving and embrodering, pottery molding, glass blowing, egg painting and more. The Traditional Crafts Fair — Crafts enthusiasts from all over Romania gather at the Village Museum in Bucharest to offer free demonstrations of traditional woodcarving, rug weaving, textile weaving and embrodering, pottery molding, glass blowing, egg painting and more. Halloween in Transylvania — Tours, shows and celebrations following the footsteps of Bram Stoker's novel character, Count Dracula. Halloween in Transylvania — Tours, shows and celebrations following the footsteps of Bram Stoker's novel character, Count Dracula. Christmas Markets Christmas Markets Of all the events enjoyed during the year, folk festivals are without a doubt the most spectacular. While some festival dates remain fixed, others change year by year so it's wise to check before your trip. Of all the events enjoyed during the year, folk festivals are without a doubt the most spectacular. While some festival dates remain fixed, others change year by year so it's wise to check before your trip.


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