2Building Word Awareness Context CluesDefinitionSynonymsRestatementContrastExplanationExamplesInference
3What is Context?Most Americans can speak only one ________. Europeans, however, ________ several. As a result, Europeans think ________ are unfriendly and unwilling to communicate with them. Try to figure out the missing words.
4What is Context?Most Americans can speak only one language. Europeans, however, speak several. As a result, Europeans think Americans are unfriendly and unwilling to communicate with them.How did you do? How did you figure out the missing words?
5What is Context?Use the words surrounding the unknown word to help determine the unknown word’s meaning. “Phobias, such as fear of heights, water, or confined spaces are difficult to eliminate.”
6Context Clues: Definition Unknown word is defined immediately following its usebrief definition, synonym, or restatement using punctuation-commas, parentheses or dashes.“Be” verb shows the two ideas are the same. X = YA chemical bond is a strong force that holds two or more atoms together.A dialect is a form of speech from a specific region.
7SynonymsA writer often choose a more familiar word or words with the same meaning to make the difficult word understandableBallet students appear so lithe; they are so limber and flexible.The cataract was spectacular; the steep waterfall dropped abruptly eighty feet.
8RestatementClose to a synonym, restatement differs in that a difficult word is usually restated in a simpler form—usually set of by commas.The poetry was sublime, lofty and moving, and brought tears to my eyes.The village was depopulated, most of the residents dead or moved, but the livestock remained untouched.
9Contrast Antonym, a word of opposite meaning (notice the restatement) Contrast clue words: but, however, in contrast to, on the other handThe gentleman was portly, but his wife was thin. The mayoral candidate praised the town council,but the mayor deprecated it.
10Explanation Similar to a definition clue Generally longer than a definitionUsually found in one or more different sentences
11Context Clues: Explanation The chrome is beginning to corrode. It shows signs of pitting and of being eaten away gradually. It was a martial parade: signs of the military were everywhere. Everyone was in uniform; guns, cannon and tanks were on display, and jets flew overhead.
12Context Clues: Explanation NOTE: Sometimes the explanation is presented first.The puppy was a complete bother and an annoyance to all the neighbors. It was a continual nuisance.
13ExampleExamples that the reader may know to help explain a new and unfamiliar concept or termNote the punctuation clues: commas or hyphensSignal words—such as, for example, for instance, to illustrate, specificallyLegumes, such as peas and beans, produce pods. Forest floors are frequently covered with fungi—molds, mushrooms, and mildews.
14Inference Use reasoning and prior knowledge Your experiences provide common-sense clues to the meaning of a wordThis context clue is often a little harder to spotSince Reginald was nervous, he brought his rabbit foot talisman with him to the exam. His alibi was upheld when John’s friends offered personal testimony, letters of documentation, and three videotapes showing that he was present at the party.
15Limitations of Context Clues Context clues only give the immediate definition for that particular context.Context clues seldom lead to a precise, complete definition.Sometimes the passage will not contain clues to the meaning of the unfamiliar word.
16Applying What You Have Learned Can you define the unfamiliar word?Name the context clue that helped you?What was the signal word that helped?He seemed quite free and easy with a few friends, but at large parties he was quite inhibited.
17Applying What You Have Learned The definition of the unfamiliar word is “controlled, restrained.”The context clue was contrast.The signal word was “but.”
18Applying What You Have Learned Can you define the unfamiliar word?Can you name the specific context clue that helped you?Embassies typically follow well-established protocols, or accepted procedures, for seating guests at a government dinner.
19Applying What You Have Learned The definition of protocol is a set of rules or procedures.The context clue is “definition,” with some help from the commas – restatement.
20Applying What You Have Learned Can you define the unfamiliar word?Can you name the specific context clue that helped you?Corona refers to the outermost part of the sun’s atmosphere.Facets-small flat surfaces at different angles- bring out the beauty of a diamond.
21Applying What You Have Learned First: context clue is a straight definition.Second: context clue is definition—restatement. Notice the punctuation helps.
22Applying What You Have Learned Can you define the unfamiliar word?Can you name the specific context clue that helped you?Most condiments, such as pepper, mustard and catsup, are used to improve the flavor of foods.
23Applying What You Have Learned A condiment is a flavor enhancer used to spice up foods.The context clue was an example clue. Notice the signal phrase—such as.
24Applying What You Have Learned Some city dwellers are affluent; others live in poverty.Can you define the unfamiliar word?Can you name the specific context clue that helped you?
25Applying What You Have Learned The definition of affluent is “rich, wealthy.”The context clue is contrast.
26Applying What You Have Learned Can you define the unfamiliar word?Can you name the specific context clue that helped you?The wallabies at the zoo looked like kangaroos.
27Applying What You Have Learned A wallaby is a small kangaroo.The context clue could be example or inference.