Competing Security Priorities User States: Japan Japan USA USA China China Coastal States: Indonesia Indonesia Singapore Singapore Malaysia Malaysia Other Stake-holders: Shippers Shippers IGO’s IGO’s Security Concerns: Piracy Piracy Poaching (IUU) Poaching (IUU) Pollution Pollution Safety Safety Terrorism Terrorism Trafficking Trafficking------------------------------ Burden-sharing ! Burden-sharing !
Strait of Malacca June 2005-August 2006 “War Risk Zone” Lloyds/Joint War Committee USA: Global War on Terrorism CSI - Container Security Initiative PSI – Proliferation Security Initiative RMSI – Regional Maritime Security Initiative JAPAN: Anti-Piracy Policies OPK - Ocean Peacekeeping
Piracy - Risk & Cost 2005: 9 “actual and attempted attacks”/ 2005: 9 “actual and attempted attacks”/ 63,000 ships =.00014 Low risk 63,000 ships =.00014 Low risk Average loss = < $5000 Low cost Average loss = < $5000 Low cost Little incentive for shippers to report attacks or take prevention measures Little incentive for shippers to report attacks or take prevention measures Indonesia’s estimated annual loss due to illegal fishing = $ 4 Billion Indonesia’s estimated annual loss due to illegal fishing = $ 4 Billion
Maritime Terrorist Attack? Disadvantages: Disadvantages: Less accessible targets Less accessible targets More complex More complex More expensive More expensive Less visible Less visible Advantages: Advantages: Could be spectacular Could be spectacular Devastating potential Devastating potential Summary: No terrorist attack or hijacking yet Risk is low, but consequences huge
Common Interests UNCLOS, Article 43: “User states & border states should cooperate i. to establish and maintain navigational and safety aids; and ii. to prevent, reduce, and control pollution from ships.”
Progress Report “Eyes in the Sky” + MALSINDO patrols “Eyes in the Sky” + MALSINDO patrols IMB Piracy Reporting Centre IMB Piracy Reporting Centre IMO ISPS - International Ship and Port Facility Security Code IMO ISPS - International Ship and Port Facility Security Code Malacca Strait Council Malacca Strait Council MEH - Marine Electronic Highway MEH - Marine Electronic Highway ReCAAP - Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia ReCAAP - Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia TTEG – Tripartite Technical Experts Group TTEG – Tripartite Technical Experts Group
Proposals Kuala Lumpur Meeting, 18-20 Sept. 2006 "Safety, Security & Environment in the Straits of Malacca & Singapore’ 1. TTEG Forum on Safety of Navigation + TTEG Forum on Maritime Security TTEG Forum on Maritime Security 2. Common interest projects: - Remove shipwrecks - Set up HNS Response Centre - AIS transponders for small ships - Tide, current, wind measurement system - Replace/maintain ATN's 3. Funding Burden-sharing - Voluntary contributions? - Pay-as-you-go user fees? - Funding mechanism?
Enclosure Movements Resource control movement Resource control movement Naval security movement Naval security movement Conservation movement Conservation movement For whosoever commands the sea commands the trade; whosoever commands the trade of the world commands the riches of the world, and consequently the world itself. Sir Walter Raleigh (1554?–1618)