Presentation on theme: "The Columbian Exchange. Before 1492 Two very different ecosystems Two different disease pools Two sets of flora and fauna Two sets of culturally diverse."— Presentation transcript:
The Columbian Exchange
Before 1492 Two very different ecosystems Two different disease pools Two sets of flora and fauna Two sets of culturally diverse peoples
“...all the trees were as different from ours as day from night, and so the fruits, the herbage, the rocks, and all things.” -- Christopher Columbus
Two biological ecosystems interchanged to create a new world ecology.
Columbian Exchange According to historian Alfred Crosby, the exchange of plants, animals and pathogens between the two hemispheres was biologically “the most spectacular thing that has ever happened to humans," and he coined the phenomenon the Columbian Exchange.
An Exchange of Pathogens The smallpox virus
A Demographic Collapse In Mexico alone, the native population fell from roughly 30 million in 1519 to only 3 million in 1568. Aztecs afflicted with Smallpox Modern-day victims of smallpox
A Plague of Sheep
Chickens and Eggs
The Cowboys of the Americas Gaucho Vaquero Cowboy Llanero
The greatest impact of the Columbian Exchange was the exchange of different food crops. Sweet Potatos Cassava Potatos
The Exchange of Plants and Animals Originally from the Western Hemisphere Potato Maize (corn) Manioc (cassava, tapioca) Sweet potato Tomato Cacao (chocolate) Squash Chili peppers Pumpkin Papaya Guava Tobacco Avocado Pineapple Beans (most varieties, including phaseolus vulgaris) Peanuts Certain cottons Rubber Turkeys Originally from the Eastern Hemisphere Sugar Olive oil Various grains (Wheat, rice, rye, barley, oats) Grapes Coffee Horses Cattle Pigs Goats Sheep Chickens Various fruit trees (pear, apple, peach, orange, lemon, pomegranate, fig, banana) Chick peas Melons Radishes A wide variety of weeds and grasses Cauliflower Cabbage
An Increase in Food Supply Helped Populations to Rise
Some Tropical Plants from the Old World Some Tropical Plants from the New World
Sugar, Tobacco and Slavery
Africans lament the loss of their fellow countrymen.
MAP 26.2 The Atlantic slave trade, 1500-1800.
The Poor Person’s Food The Potato The potato grows well in the temperate climate of northern Europe and produces three times as much food per unit of land as wheat or any other grain.
The Bank of England
Between 1781 and 1845, the Irish population doubled from four to eight million. Probably half of this population depended on the potato for survival.
The Great Irish Famine Over one million died of starvation and disease, and almost two million emigrated to the United States and Britain.
The Columbian Exchange
The effects of the columbian exchange are still with us today. Bit by bit, we are becoming more homogenized, and the world is becoming smaller.