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The use of slug test to describe vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity James J. Butler,Jr.*,Geoffrey C. Bohling, Zafar Hyder, Carl D. McElwee Journal of Hydrology 156(1994) 指導教授 : 陳家洵 老師 報告者 : 謝頤祥 報告日期 : 2010.12.23

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Purpose & Scope of Work Purpose: Using a multilayer model to evaluate the influence of vertical heterogeneity on the MLST (multilevel slug tests). Scope of Work: 1.To evaluate the effects of aspect ratio, partial penetration ratio, specific storage, anisotropy and packer length on the K(z) estimated from slug-test data. 2.To assess the nature of vertical averaging in slug tests in layered aquifers.

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The Multilayer Model p,packer length b,test interval length r c,radius of well r w,radius of test interval r sk,radius of skin LiLi

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Major Assumptions Confined aquifer, low-K i. (2x10 -5 m/s

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Data Analysis Procedures 1.Using the multilayer model to generate H(t); pressure response to the MLST 2.Analyzing H(t) to estimate K values at different depths 3.Data analysis uses the shape factor given by Hvorslev (1951); K HV

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Influence of Layering on K(z) b=1.25m

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Influence of the Aspect Ratio b/rw (b=0.156m) (b=5m) b=L K(z)

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Influence of the Partial Penetration Ratio L/b K(z)

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Specific storage has a considerable influence on K(z) estimated in layered systems, -in contrast to full screen slug tests in homogeneous conditions where S S has little influence (Cooper et al., 1967) Anisotropy (Kr > Kz) does not introduce significant different results. Influence of Specific Storage Effect and Anisotropy

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Influence of Low-K Well Skin L=b=0.312m A*: no skin A: skin L=b=0.156m B*: no skin B: skin K(z )

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Influence of High-K Well Skin b/r w =50 r sk =0.0m 50 0.11 25 0.11 6.25 0.11 3.12 0.11 6.25 0.22 1.overestimate K(z) 2.the smaller the aspect ratio: -the less accurate of K(z) -the smaller range of K(z) 3.influence of r sk >> influence of b/r w K(z)

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Full-Screen Tests in Three Different Layered Conditions Case 1Case 2Case 3 5 5 15 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 Time(s) H(t)/H 0

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Layer-Thickness Weighted Mean The possible vertical heterogeneity is averaged out in a full screen test. When b/r w >200, the estimate of K is K.

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Effect of Packer Length Percent difference case 3:homogeneous case 4:layered case 1:layered 0.75 case 2:homogeneous no skin skin

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Conclusions (I) (1)For accurate estimation of K(z), b should be kept small: b/r w >200 K~K; b~L inaccurate K(z). (2)Neglecting the low-K skin will underestimate K(z) with less vertical variation in comparison to the actual. (3) Neglecting the high-K skin will overestimate the K(z) with less vertical variation in comparison to the actual. (4) Packer length > 0.75m.

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Thanks you for your attention

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Alternating High- and Low-K Filter Pack B* with no skin.

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Permeameter analyses of cores from this same formation (Jiang, 1991; Butler and McElwee, 1992) have shown that repacked cores have considerably higher conductivities than the original sampled cores, indicating the collapsed zone would probably form a skin of higher conductivity than the formation as a whole. The success of the Melville et al. (1991) program appears to be largely due to the thin well skin coupled with unremoved drilling muds that are apparently preferentially impeding vertical flow. It is clear that well drilling and development procedures cannot be overemphasized in the planning of multilevel slug tests. Recent Field Experiences

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