2 Themes: Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp. 184-185) The Issue of Slavery; 1860 Election (pp )Secession; Republic of Louisiana; Preparing for War (pp )The Civil War Begins (pp )The Capture of New Orleans; “Beast” Butler (pp )
3 Themes:The Battle of Baton Rouge; The Vicksburg Campaign (pp )The Capture of Port Hudson (pp )African Americans and the Civil War (pp )The Home Front (pp )The Red River Campaign (pp )The End of the Civil War; Effects of the War (p. 214)Review (p. 215)
6 I. The Issue of SlaveryThe North and South had different political, economic, and social goals.The southern economy depended on slave labor to raise cotton and sugarcane.The northern economy depended on wage labor (paid workers) to run small family farms, private businesses, and industry.GLEs: 65, 67, 68, 73, 77, 79, 80
7 A. PoliticsNortherners grew concerned about the number of representatives each state had in the House of Representatives.Southern states were allowed to count 3/5th of their slaves as part of their population
8 B. EconomicsShould slavery be allowed in the western territories?Southerners saw great economic opportunities in the West.Northerners feared small farmers who settled in the West would not be able to compete with the large plantations and their many slaves.
9 C. States’ RightsMost southerners never owned slaves.Southerners did not like the central government interference in each state’s right to control laws related to property ownership, society, and its future.
10 D. AbolitionPeople began to question the morality of human bondage.Groups formed for the express purpose of ending slavery.They wanted to ABOLISH slavery.
11 II. The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln: did not get a single vote in Louisiana.did not appear on the election ballot.was not trusted to leave slavery alone.promised not to outlaw slavery in the South.said he would prevent slavery from spreading to the West.was hated by southerners, who did not believe his claims
13 Which U.S. president never received a single vote in Louisiana? Why? Abraham Lincoln; Louisiana and the other Deep south states refused to print his name on the ballot.
14 Southern states began seceding shortly after Lincoln was elected. III. SecessionSoutherners believed secession was the only way they could protect their rights.Secession was a political process through which a state declared independence and left the Union.Southern states began seceding shortly after Lincoln was elected.GLEs: 65, 66, 67, 70, 73, 76, 79
16 A. Governor Thomas O. Moore Used the militia to seize two federal forts on the Mississippi River without consulting the state legislature.Called a Secession Convention in Baton Rouge.
17 B. Louisiana SecedesAlthough the vote was not unanimous, Louisiana became the 6th state to leave the Union.Northern LA delegates, who owned very few slaves, voted not to secede.Several South LA delegates had valuable trading ties to the North.Some South LA delegates did not want to secede because it would cause economic problems.The delegates voted for secession.
18 List 2 reasons why Louisiana’s decision to secede was not unanimous. Some thought it was unconstitutional; some sugar planters enjoyed federal protection from foreign competition through federal tariffs; others had few slaves.
19 IV. The Republic of Louisiana The Flag of the Louisiana Republic
20 A. LA Seceded!Louisiana declared itself an independent nation: The Republic of Louisiana.Thomas O. Moore was president.
21 B. The Confederate States of America Louisiana’s independent nation status lasted about six weeks.Louisiana joined with other southern states to form a new nation, the Confederate States of America (CSA).Jefferson Davis, a Mississippi politician, became president of the CSA.
22 How long did Louisiana remain an independent nation? 6 weeks
25 V. Preparing for WarP.G.T Beauregard and Braxton Bragg were two full generals from Louisiana who served the Confederacy.Judah P. Benjamin served in Jefferson Davis’s cabinet as attorney general, as secretary of war, and as secretary of state.John Slidell became a Confederate diplomat.More than 24,000 blacks from LA served in the Union Army.Several white Union infantry regiments came out of New Orleans and fought for the Union.William T. Sherman left the state and became a major general in the Union army.
28 Pierre Gustave Toutant (P. G **Pierre Gustave Toutant (P.G.T) Beauregard (Read more about it on page 191)
29 VI. The Civil War BeginsThe Confederacy quickly seized all federal property within its borders.Troops commanded by LA General Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter in South Carolina and took control of the facility after a 33-hour siege.Lincoln declared the South in rebellion and called for 75,000 volunteers to crush it.Lincoln’s request compelled 4 more states into secession.GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 68, 75, 81
30 A. Signing UpA company was a group of about 100 men from the same town or neighborhood.Brothers, cousins, neighbors, and friends served in the same companyMany men from the same family or area could be killed in just one battle
31 B. Free Men of Color Offered services to the Confederacy Many were slave owners themselves and wanted to protect their assetsIf they didn’t offer some type of help, their neighbors might become suspicious that they were actually for the North.Confederacy did not want African Americans fighting for them and refused their help
32 Why did the Confederates refuse the services of free men of color at the beginning of the Civil War? They didn’t want to recognize African Americans as soldiers.
33 Largest training camp was Camp Moore in St. Helena Parish C. TrainingLargest training camp was Camp Moore in St. Helena ParishSt. Helena Parish
36 **A Romantic War? (Read more about it on page 193)
37 Many gave LA a bad name because of their savage dress and rude conduct D. The Louisiana TigersMany gave LA a bad name because of their savage dress and rude conductThe Zouave company called the Tiger Rifles from New Orleans were one of the worst groupsThey were important to the Battles of Bull Run and were admired soldiers despite their conduct
38 Harpers Weekly Newsprint These Southern bravoes, who call themselves "Tigers," and "Lions," and "Grave-diggers," and "Yankee-slayers;" who carry black flags, and refuse quarter to unarmed men; who dig up the corpses of our dead soldiers, and send their bones home to their lady loves as trophies—these creatures, who are a speaking illustration of the brutalizing effect of the institutions among which they have been reared, and whose savage instincts would appall the most ferocious native of Dahomey or Patagonia— Harpers Weekly June 7, 1862
39 **Zouave Companies (Read more about it on page 194) Mostly French-speaking Catholic Creoles along with other immigrants who spoke various foreign languagesThey dressed in colorful uniforms and used French drill commandsThe Tiger Rifles were excellent fighters, but wild and unsavory characters who brawled, stole, drank, and generally misbehaved.
40 Lincoln initiated the Plan E. The Anaconda PlanLincoln initiated the PlanThe U.S. Navy was to prevent trade by blocking the Confederate coastlineThe next step was to gain control of the Mississippi River and split the ConfederacyGeneral-in-Chief Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan was a strategy to blockade the South by sea, and gain control of the Mississippi River. This would split the South, and eventually deprive it economically.
42 What was the Anaconda Plan, and what were its two main objectives? A plan initiated by Abraham Lincoln that sought to prevent trade by blocking the Confederate coastline and taking control of the Mississippi River.
43 VII. The Capture of New Orleans A large Union fleet arrived in the Gulf of MexicoCommanded by Captain David FarragutForts Jackson and St. Philip were the only two forts preventing Farragut from sailing up the river to New OrleansUnion ships headed upstream and were spotted by the ConfederacyThe battle startedSeveral Confederate ships had been destroyedAll but 3 of Farragut’s ships had passed the fortsGLEs: 65, 66, 67, 68, 72, 76, 77, 78
44 A. Chaos in New Orleansto prevent the Yankees from capturing valuable supplies, the Confederates set fire to ships, docks, cotton bales, and warehouse along the riverfrontCanal Street was awash in sticky pungent molasses that had been dumped in the gutterDrunken men placed cocked pistols against sailors’ head and threatened to pull the trigger
45 B. The U.S. Flag Flies over New Orleans New Orleans Mayor John T. Monroe refused to surrender officiallyConfederate General Mansfield Lovell agreed to withdraw soldiers from the cityUnion sailors raised the U.S. flag over the mint buildingForts Jackson and St. Philip surrendered to Union forcesGeneral Benjamin F. Butler—and thousands of Union reinforcements—arrived in New Orleans
46 C. Taking Baton Rougethe navy captured Baton Rouge and forced Governor Moore and the state government to fleeCapital moved to Opelousas and then to Shreveport
47 VIII. Benjamin F. “Beast Butler” Butler became military governor of New OrleansLarge arrogant man who became hatedHe arrested William Mumford for removing the US flag from the mint building and ripping it into piecesMumford was hanged
50 A. “Spoons”Butler was accused of corruptionAccused of stealing people’s silverwarenickname “Spoons” ButlerHe put people in jail if they spoke out against the UnionHe confiscated the property of Confederate supporters and censored or closed newspapers that were pro-Confederate
51 What two nicknames were earned by General Benjamin Butler? “Beast” and “Spoons”
52 B. Butler’s Woman’s Order Most hated for how he treated womenWomen cursed and spat at YankeesThey filled sidewalks, forcing soldiers to walk in the mudThey emptied chamber pots onto the heads of soldiers from windows aboveThey applauded loudly when the casket of a fallen Union solder passed byButler issued Order No. 28—Women’s OrderIf a women insulted a soldier, she would no longer be treated as a ladyHe became the “Beast”
53 C. Butler LeavesHe gave people foodHe put people to work cleaning up the city to make it healthierShips were quarantined to curb yellow feverHe transformed New Orleans into one of the cleanest cities in the countryThe people still despised himLincoln removed him and replaced him with General Nathaniel P. Banks
55 IX. Battle of Baton Rouge Farragut was furious that Confederates hid in the town’s buildings and fired at Union soldiers.He bombed Baton Rouge, destroying much of the cityGeneral Thomas Williams then landed 2,600 soldiers, occupied the city, and successfully defeated Confederates who tried to recapture Baton RougeThe Union soldiers looted, burned, and destroyed even more of the former capitalGLEs: 65, 66, 77, 78
56 **Burning Baton Rouge (Read more about it on page 200)
58 X. The Vicksburg Campaign of 1863 As long as Confederate forces held the river between Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the eastern and western Confederacy remained connected and troops and supplies could be shifted across the river.
61 A. General Grant Arrives Vicksburg was defended by 30,000 soldiers under the command of Confederate General John C. PembertonIts position on high bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River offered great protectionGeneral Grant came down the river with a huge army and dozens of ships
63 B. Grant’s Canalwas supposed to give the Mississippi River a new channel that would bypass VicksburgOther canals would allow Grant’s army to move through inland rivers and eventually to the MississippiNone of the canals worked as plannedThick cypress swamps blocked some, while others were left dry when floodwaters receded
68 E. Grant defeated the Confederates After 47 days, the Rebels ran out of food and surrendered on July 4, 1863 and refused to celebrate Independence Day for 82 years.
69 What happened on July 4th, 1863, that affected Vicksburg for the next 82 years? Vicksburg, Mississippi was captured by Union troops, and the people were so humiliated they refused to celebrate Independence Day for the next 82 years.
70 F. Destruction in the Northeast Grant’s stay destroyed the entire regionLake Providence was floodedYankee soldiers often robbed, looted, and burned the homes of planters and slavesInvaders burned the town of RichmondFirefights broke out
71 The Siege of Vicksburg Mississippi July 4, 1863
72 **General Richard Taylor (Read more about it on page 203)
74 Directions for Map:number all locations. Maps on pages 22, 30 and 351 are helpfulDraw MS River and number with a # 13for number 8 name the state in which it can be found.# 12 is located near Tallulah, La in Madison Parish# 15 is in MS ( use atlas)Page 202 is helpful for locating specifics for 4,5,6
75 XI. The Capture of Port Hudson Union General Nathaniel P. Banks prepared to move against Port HudsonHe was aMassachusettspolitical butmuch more of a gentlemanGLEs: 65, 70, 77
76 A. The Bayou Teche Campaign General Richard Taylor commanded a 5,000-man Confederate army in the Bayou Teche regionhe engaged Taylor in small battlesBanks succeeded in clearing the BayouCost him 500 casualties and Taylor escapedMuch of the region was destroyed
77 Location of Port Hudson Attack on Port HudsonPort Hudson
78 B. Attack on Port HudsonBanks led his 30,000 men to Port HudsonIt was defended by 7,500 Confederates under General Franklin GardnerPort Hudson was surroundedConfederates were well protected by forts and trenches and maintained their position
79 Union General Nathaniel P. Banks 1st eliminates Bayou Teche Rebel Army2nd surrounded Port Hudson and overtook this location in early JulyFirst part of Anaconda Plan completeConfederate General Franklin GardnerPort HudsonBayou TecheConfederate General Richard Taylor
80 Port Hudson National Military Park Port Hudson was the site of the longest siege in American history, lasting 48 days, when 7,500 Confederates resisted some 40,000 Union soldiers for almost two months during 1863.
81 Which two cities along the Mississippi River became the scenes of long seiges? Vicksburg, Mississippi and Port Hudson, Louisiana
82 **General Franklin Gardner (Read more about it on page 204)
84 C. Surrender the Confederates were starving to death They then learned Vicksburg had surrenderedIt was pointless to fight any longer, Gardner surrendered on July 9Banks lost about 10,000 Union troops to battle and disease1,000 Confederates were killed and 6,500 were capturedthe Union had accomplished the first part of the Anaconda Plan
85 XII. African Americans and the Civil War At first neither the North or South wanted African Americans fightingLeaders thought blacks were intellectually inferiorConfederacy could not used slaves as soldiers because it was one of the things they were fighting forUnion became desperate for soldiers so Congress authorized the recruitment of African AmericansGLEs: 65, 73, 75, 77, 81
86 Initially, neither the Union nor the Confederacy allowed African American soldiers to enlist. After a year of fighting, one side changed its mind. Which side, and why?The Union army began accepting African American soldiers first because they were desperate for soldiers.
87 A. The Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863stated that all slaves held in Rebel-controlled territories were freeMore symbolic than effectiveEncouraged slaves to escape to Union-controlled regions
89 B. The Louisiana Native Guards Free men of color began offering their military services to the UnionButler recruited the first African Americans accepted into the Union army, the Louisiana Native GuardsMany of the officers were black
92 C. Discrimination in the Ranks They suffered great discriminationWhite soldiers refused to obey ordersSuffered from harassmentGeneral Banks was planning a large attack against the Rebels, and he needed every man availableHe put Native Guards into the line and told them to attackFirst use of black troops in combat on a regimental level
94 D. Milliken’s Bend African American soldiers involved 900 of these soldiers were stationed at Milliken’s BendGeneral Richard Taylor led 1,200 Texas Confederates in an attack on Milliken’s BendMany of the black soldiers did not even know how to load and fire their rifflesWhite troops broke and ran, leaving the African Brigade to face the Rebels aloneHand-to-hand combat eruptedAfrican Brigade finally won the battle
97 African Americans in the Civil War for the Union side African Americans in the Civil War for the Union side. 1st few Battles fought in Louisiana: Port Hudson, Louisiana Native Guard Port Hudson Milliken’s Bend, African BrigadeMilliken’s BendPort Hudson
98 E. Black Soldiers and Officers More and more African Americans were used in combat as the war progressed180,000 blacks had served in the Union army24,000 were Louisianians
100 A. The Conscription ActForced men between the ages of 17 and 50 to fight for the ConfederacyWealthy men were exempt or could pay someone to serve in their place.This placed a tremendous burden on the wives, children, and servants left behind to operate farms and businesses
101 B. Other Confederate Acts The Tax-in-Kind Act forced farmers to give a percentage of their produce and meat to government agents to help the war effortSometimes the agents took more than was required or legalSome agents didn’t pay for what they tookThis made survival even harder for citizens, many of whom lost their enthusiasm for the warLed to many deserting the army
102 What were the Tax In Kind Act and Impressment Acts? The Tax In Kind Act forced farmers to give a percentage of their produce and meat to the government. The Impressment Act allowed Confederate government agents to seize goods needed by the army.
103 C. Jayhawkers included deserters from both armies robbed and plundered blacks and whites alike and were often a greater threat to civilians than YankeesActive around Catahoula Lake and in Union, Winn, and Jackson ParishesThe Confederate army had to send soldiers to drive them out
104 XIV. The Red River Campaign of 1864 GLEs: 65, 72, 77, 78
105 A. The ObjectivesTo capture as much Confederate cotton as possibleTo capture Shreveport where the Trans-Mississippi Department was housed and they produced war-related goods, including iron-clad gunboats and submarinesTo invade Texas because it supplied Confederacy with men, horses, and food.
108 B. The StrategyTwo partsPart 1: General Banks was to make the major thrust up the Red RiverPart 2: A second Union army was to leave Little Rock, Arkansas, and move south toward Shreveport
109 C. It BeginsIn March, Banks sent 20,000 men up Bayou TecheUnion Admiral David Porter left Vicksburg with large fleet of ships and 10,000 soldiersPorter reached Alexandria before BanksUnion sailors stripped the countryside of cotton
111 D. The Battle of Mansfield Confederate General Taylor launched attack just outside MansfieldOne of the largest Civil War battles west of the Mississippi RiverOne of the last Confederate victories in the warIt saved Shreveport
112 General Banks’ Army on the Way to Natchitoches
114 E. The Battle of Pleasant Hill General Banks retreated back to Pleasant Hill but was attacked againBattle occurred in thick woods as the Rebels tried time and time to break through Banks’s defensesthe Yankees won the battle
115 F. Union Troops RetreatAdmiral Porter reached the mouth of Loggy Bayou and found the river blocked by a steamboat the Rebels had sunk in the channelLarge letters on the side of the ship was a Rebel invitation for the Yankees to attend a dance in Shreveport—if they could get therePorter was forced to retreat and began burning and lootingBank’s men set fire to Natchitoches, but Confederates rushed in to save the city
116 G. Bailey’s DamUnion forces reached Alexandria, but Porter’s ships could not get across the rapids because of low waterhe prepared to destroy the fleet rather then leave it for the RebelsUnion officer Joseph Bailey believed he could dam the Red River and rescue the stranded shipsHe built a series of wing dams, dams that did not completely close off the river
118 H. Burning AlexandriaBank’s army left Alexandria, soldiers burned the city to the groundSingle greatest act of destruction of the war in La.22 city blocks destroyed
119 I. The Campaign FailsIt was a complete disaster because none of the goals were achievedNumerous ships were lost and thousands of soldiers were dead, wounded, or captured.It was the most destructive campaign of the entire warIt furthered the hardships and suffering of the people in LA
120 Which military campaign was the last major operation in Louisiana during the Civil War? The Red River Campaign
121 XV. The End of the Civil War in Louisiana Red River Campaign was the last major military operation in La. During the Civil War1865, the Confederacy was on its last legsApril, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army in Virginia at Appomattox CourthouseGLEs: 65, 73, 77
124 Describe how the African American celebration of Juneteenth first began. Union forces landed in Texas on June 18, 1865, and told slaves living there they were free. It became a holiday from that day forward.
126 XVI. The Effects of War Solider were ill or disabled at the war’s end The death toll among LA citizens was tremendousHomes, communities, farms, and businesses were destroyedPersonal possessions were damaged or takenFields were untended and overgrownLivestock had been taken or killedRailroads and levees were destroyedThe state was in economic ruin