Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Civil War. Themes: Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp. 184-185) The Issue of Slavery; 1860 Election (pp. 186-187) Secession; Republic."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 The Civil War
Themes: Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp. 184-185) The Issue of Slavery; 1860 Election (pp. 186-187) Secession; Republic of Louisiana; Preparing for War (pp. 188-191) The Civil War Begins (pp. 192-196) The Capture of New Orleans; “Beast” Butler (pp. 196-199)
Themes: The Battle of Baton Rouge; The Vicksburg Campaign (pp. 200-203) The Capture of Port Hudson (pp. 204-205) African Americans and the Civil War (pp. 206-208) The Home Front (pp. 208-209) The Red River Campaign (pp. 210-213) The End of the Civil War; Effects of the War (p. 214) Review (p. 215)
Causes of the Civil War video qz.
I. The Issue of Slavery ●The North and South had different political, economic, and social goals. ●The southern economy depended on slave labor to raise cotton and sugarcane. ●The northern economy depended on wage labor (paid workers) to run small family farms, private businesses, and industry. GLEs: 65, 67, 68, 73, 77, 79, 80
A. Politics ●Northerners grew concerned about the number of representatives each state had in the House of Representatives. ●Southern states were allowed to count 3/5th of their slaves as part of their population
B. Economics ●Should slavery be allowed in the western territories? ●Southerners saw great economic opportunities in the West. ●Northerners feared small farmers who settled in the West would not be able to compete with the large plantations and their many slaves.
C. States’ Rights ●Most southerners never owned slaves. ●Southerners did not like the central government interference in each state’s right to control laws related to property ownership, society, and its future.
D. Abolition ●People began to question the morality of human bondage. ●Groups formed for the express purpose of ending slavery. ●They wanted to ABOLISH slavery.
II. The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln: ●did not get a single vote in Louisiana. ●did not appear on the election ballot. ●was not trusted to leave slavery alone. ●promised not to outlaw slavery in the South. ●said he would prevent slavery from spreading to the West. ●was hated by southerners, who did not believe his claims
Which U.S. president never received a single vote in Louisiana? Why? Abraham Lincoln; Louisiana and the other Deep south states refused to print his name on the ballot.
III. Secession ●Southerners believed secession was the only way they could protect their rights. ●Secession was a political process through which a state declared independence and left the Union. ●Southern states began seceding shortly after Lincoln was elected. GLEs: 65, 66, 67, 70, 73, 76, 79
A. Governor Thomas O. Moore Used the militia to seize two federal forts on the Mississippi River without consulting the state legislature. Called a Secession Convention in Baton Rouge.
B. Louisiana Secedes 1.Although the vote was not unanimous, Louisiana became the 6th state to leave the Union. 2.Northern LA delegates, who owned very few slaves, voted not to secede. 3.Several South LA delegates had valuable trading ties to the North. 4.Some South LA delegates did not want to secede because it would cause economic problems. 5.The delegates voted 113-17 for secession.
List 2 reasons why Louisiana’s decision to secede was not unanimous. Some thought it was unconstitutional; some sugar planters enjoyed federal protection from foreign competition through federal tariffs; others had few slaves.
IV. The Republic of Louisiana The Flag of the Louisiana Republic
A. LA Seceded! ●Louisiana declared itself an independent nation: The Republic of Louisiana. ●Thomas O. Moore was president.
B. The Confederate States of America ●Louisiana’s independent nation status lasted about six weeks. ●Louisiana joined with other southern states to form a new nation, the Confederate States of America (CSA). ●Jefferson Davis, a Mississippi politician, became president of the CSA.
How long did Louisiana remain an independent nation? 6 weeks
The Nation Divides
V. Preparing for War P.G.T Beauregard and Braxton Bragg were two full generals from Louisiana who served the Confederacy. Judah P. Benjamin served in Jefferson Davis’s cabinet as attorney general, as secretary of war, and as secretary of state. John Slidell became a Confederate diplomat. More than 24,000 blacks from LA served in the Union Army. Several white Union infantry regiments came out of New Orleans and fought for the Union. William T. Sherman left the state and became a major general in the Union army.
Louisiana Confederate Flag 1861 USA flag 1861
The Confederate Battle Flag
**Pierre Gustave Toutant (P.G.T) Beauregard (Read more about it on page 191)
VI. The Civil War Begins The Confederacy quickly seized all federal property within its borders. Troops commanded by LA General Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter in South Carolina and took control of the facility after a 33-hour siege. Lincoln declared the South in rebellion and called for 75,000 volunteers to crush it. Lincoln’s request compelled 4 more states into secession. GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 68, 75, 81
A. Signing Up 1.A company was a group of about 100 men from the same town or neighborhood. 2.Brothers, cousins, neighbors, and friends served in the same company 3.Many men from the same family or area could be killed in just one battle
B. Free Men of Color 1.Offered services to the Confederacy 2.Many were slave owners themselves and wanted to protect their assets 3.If they didn’t offer some type of help, their neighbors might become suspicious that they were actually for the North. 4.Confederacy did not want African Americans fighting for them and refused their help
Why did the Confederates refuse the services of free men of color at the beginning of the Civil War? They didn’t want to recognize African Americans as soldiers.
C. Training 1.Largest training camp was Camp Moore in St. Helena Parish http://www.civilwaralbum.com/louisiana/camp moore.htm St. Helena Parish
A Soldiers Life
Edwin F. Jemison
**A Romantic War? (Read more about it on page 193)
D. The Louisiana Tigers Many gave LA a bad name because of their savage dress and rude conduct The Zouave company called the Tiger Rifles from New Orleans were one of the worst groups They were important to the Battles of Bull Run and were admired soldiers despite their conduct
Harpers Weekly Newsprint These Southern bravoes, who call themselves "Tigers," and "Lions," and "Grave-diggers," and "Yankee-slayers;" who carry black flags, and refuse quarter to unarmed men; who dig up the corpses of our dead soldiers, and send their bones home to their lady loves as trophies— these creatures, who are a speaking illustration of the brutalizing effect of the institutions among which they have been reared, and whose savage instincts would appall the most ferocious native of Dahomey or Patagonia— Harpers Weekly June 7, 1862 http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/ civil-war/1862/june/louisiana-tigers.htm
**Zouave Companies (Read more about it on page 194) Mostly French-speaking Catholic Creoles along with other immigrants who spoke various foreign languages They dressed in colorful uniforms and used French drill commands The Tiger Rifles were excellent fighters, but wild and unsavory characters who brawled, stole, drank, and generally misbehaved. http://www.coppenszouaves.com/index.shtml
E. The Anaconda Plan Lincoln initiated the Plan The U.S. Navy was to prevent trade by blocking the Confederate coastline The next step was to gain control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy General-in-Chief Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan was a strategy to blockade the South by sea, and gain control of the Mississippi River. This would split the South, and eventually deprive it economically.
Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan drawing
What was the Anaconda Plan, and what were its two main objectives? A plan initiated by Abraham Lincoln that sought to prevent trade by blocking the Confederate coastline and taking control of the Mississippi River.
VII. The Capture of New Orleans A large Union fleet arrived in the Gulf of Mexico Commanded by Captain David Farragut Forts Jackson and St. Philip were the only two forts preventing Farragut from sailing up the river to New Orleans Union ships headed upstream and were spotted by the Confederacy The battle started Several Confederate ships had been destroyed All but 3 of Farragut’s ships had passed the forts GLEs: 65, 66, 67, 68, 72, 76, 77, 78
A. Chaos in New Orleans to prevent the Yankees from capturing valuable supplies, the Confederates set fire to ships, docks, cotton bales, and warehouse along the riverfront Canal Street was awash in sticky pungent molasses that had been dumped in the gutter Drunken men placed cocked pistols against sailors’ head and threatened to pull the trigger
B. The U.S. Flag Flies over New Orleans New Orleans Mayor John T. Monroe refused to surrender officially Confederate General Mansfield Lovell agreed to withdraw soldiers from the city Union sailors raised the U.S. flag over the mint building Forts Jackson and St. Philip surrendered to Union forces General Benjamin F. Butler—and thousands of Union reinforcements— arrived in New Orleans
C. Taking Baton Rouge the navy captured Baton Rouge and forced Governor Moore and the state government to flee Capital moved to Opelousas and then to Shreveport
VIII. Benjamin F. “Beast Butler” Butler became military governor of New Orleans Large arrogant man who became hated He arrested William Mumford for removing the US flag from the mint building and ripping it into pieces Mumford was hanged
General Benjamin Butler General
**Raging Bull (Read more about it on page 198)
A. “Spoons” Butler was accused of corruption Accused of stealing people’s silverware nickname “Spoons” Butler He put people in jail if they spoke out against the Union He confiscated the property of Confederate supporters and censored or closed newspapers that were pro-Confederate
What two nicknames were earned by General Benjamin Butler? “Beast” and “Spoons”
B. Butler’s Woman’s Order Most hated for how he treated women Women cursed and spat at Yankees They filled sidewalks, forcing soldiers to walk in the mud They emptied chamber pots onto the heads of soldiers from windows above They applauded loudly when the casket of a fallen Union solder passed by Butler issued Order No. 28—Women’s Order If a women insulted a soldier, she would no longer be treated as a lady He became the “Beast”
C. Butler Leaves He gave people food He put people to work cleaning up the city to make it healthier Ships were quarantined to curb yellow fever He transformed New Orleans into one of the cleanest cities in the country The people still despised him Lincoln removed him and replaced him with General Nathaniel P. Banks
Political Cartoon About Butler
IX. Battle of Baton Rouge Farragut was furious that Confederates hid in the town’s buildings and fired at Union soldiers. He bombed Baton Rouge, destroying much of the city General Thomas Williams then landed 2,600 soldiers, occupied the city, and successfully defeated Confederates who tried to recapture Baton Rouge The Union soldiers looted, burned, and destroyed even more of the former capital GLEs: 65, 66, 77, 78
**Burning Baton Rouge (Read more about it on page 200)
Burning Capitol in Baton Rouge
X. The Vicksburg Campaign of 1863 As long as Confederate forces held the river between Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the eastern and western Confederacy remained connected and troops and supplies could be shifted across the river.
The Vicksburg Campaign
Vicksburg National Military Park http://www.nps.gov/vick/planyourvisit/direc tions.htmhttp://www.nps.gov/vick/planyourvisit/direc tions.htm
A. General Grant Arrives Vicksburg was defended by 30,000 soldiers under the command of Confederate General John C. Pemberton Its position on high bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River offered great protection General Grant came down the river with a huge army and dozens of ships
B. Grant’s Canal was supposed to give the Mississippi River a new channel that would bypass Vicksburg Other canals would allow Grant’s army to move through inland rivers and eventually to the Mississippi None of the canals worked as planned Thick cypress swamps blocked some, while others were left dry when floodwaters receded
C. More Canals Union army built canals hoping to make its way to the Red River None of the canals worked and many died digging them
D. Grant Changes Strategies He marched his men south and ordered ships to sail past the deadly Vicksburg bluffs Admiral Porter was able to sail past and ferry Grant’s army across
Union Attack at Night in Vicksburg
E. Grant defeated the Confederates After 47 days, the Rebels ran out of food and surrendered on July 4, 1863 and refused to celebrate Independence Day for 82 years.
What happened on July 4 th, 1863, that affected Vicksburg for the next 82 years? Vicksburg, Mississippi was captured by Union troops, and the people were so humiliated they refused to celebrate Independence Day for the next 82 years.
F. Destruction in the Northeast Grant’s stay destroyed the entire region Lake Providence was flooded Yankee soldiers often robbed, looted, and burned the homes of planters and slaves Invaders burned the town of Richmond Firefights broke out
The Siege of Vicksburg Mississippi July 4, 1863
**General Richard Taylor (Read more about it on page 203)
General Richard Taylor
Directions for Map: number all locations. Maps on pages 22, 30 and 351 are helpful Draw MS River and number with a # 13 for number 8 name the state in which it can be found. # 12 is located near Tallulah, La in Madison Parish # 15 is in MS ( use atlas) Page 202 is helpful for locating specifics for 4,5,6
XI. The Capture of Port Hudson Union General Nathaniel P. Banks prepared to move against Port Hudson He was a Massachusetts political but much more of a gentleman GLEs: 65, 70, 77
A. The Bayou Teche Campaign General Richard Taylor commanded a 5,000-man Confederate army in the Bayou Teche region he engaged Taylor in small battles Banks succeeded in clearing the Bayou Cost him 500 casualties and Taylor escaped Much of the region was destroyed
Location of Port Hudson Port Hudson Attack on Port Hudson
B. Attack on Port Hudson Banks led his 30,000 men to Port Hudson It was defended by 7,500 Confederates under General Franklin Gardner Port Hudson was surrounded Confederates were well protected by forts and trenches and maintained their position
Union General Nathaniel P. Banks 1 st eliminates Bayou Teche Rebel Army 2 nd surrounded Port Hudson and overtook this location in early July First part of Anaconda Plan complete Port Hudson Bayou Teche Confederate General Franklin Gardner Confederate General Richard Taylor
Port Hudson National Military Park Port Hudson was the site of the longest siege in American history, lasting 48 days, when 7,500 Confederates resisted some 40,000 Union soldiers for almost two months during 1863. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/louisia na/por.htmhttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/louisia na/por.htm
Which two cities along the Mississippi River became the scenes of long seiges? Vicksburg, Mississippi and Port Hudson, Louisiana
**General Franklin Gardner (Read more about it on page 204)
General Franklin Gardner
C. Surrender the Confederates were starving to death They then learned Vicksburg had surrendered It was pointless to fight any longer, Gardner surrendered on July 9 Banks lost about 10,000 Union troops to battle and disease 1,000 Confederates were killed and 6,500 were captured the Union had accomplished the first part of the Anaconda Plan
XII. African Americans and the Civil War At first neither the North or South wanted African Americans fighting Leaders thought blacks were intellectually inferior Confederacy could not used slaves as soldiers because it was one of the things they were fighting for Union became desperate for soldiers so Congress authorized the recruitment of African Americans GLEs: 65, 73, 75, 77, 81
Initially, neither the Union nor the Confederacy allowed African American soldiers to enlist. After a year of fighting, one side changed its mind. Which side, and why? The Union army began accepting African American soldiers first because they were desperate for soldiers.
A. The Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 stated that all slaves held in Rebel- controlled territories were free More symbolic than effective Encouraged slaves to escape to Union-controlled regions
B. The Louisiana Native Guards Free men of color began offering their military services to the Union Butler recruited the first African Americans accepted into the Union army, the Louisiana Native Guards Many of the officers were black
1st Louisiana Native Guard
C. Discrimination in the Ranks They suffered great discrimination White soldiers refused to obey orders Suffered from harassment General Banks was planning a large attack against the Rebels, and he needed every man available He put Native Guards into the line and told them to attack First use of black troops in combat on a regimental level
Black Union soldier
D. Milliken’s Bend African American soldiers involved 900 of these soldiers were stationed at Milliken’s Bend General Richard Taylor led 1,200 Texas Confederates in an attack on Milliken’s Bend Many of the black soldiers did not even know how to load and fire their riffles White troops broke and ran, leaving the African Brigade to face the Rebels alone Hand-to-hand combat erupted African Brigade finally won the battle
African Americans in the Civil War for the Union side. 1st few Battles fought in Louisiana: Port Hudson, Louisiana Native Guard Port Hudson Milliken’s Bend, African Brigade Port Hudson Milliken’s Bend
E. Black Soldiers and Officers More and more African Americans were used in combat as the war progressed 180,000 blacks had served in the Union army 24,000 were Louisianians
XIII. The Home Front GLEs: 65, 73
A. The Conscription Act Forced men between the ages of 17 and 50 to fight for the Confederacy Wealthy men were exempt or could pay someone to serve in their place. This placed a tremendous burden on the wives, children, and servants left behind to operate farms and businesses
B. Other Confederate Acts The Tax-in-Kind Act forced farmers to give a percentage of their produce and meat to government agents to help the war effort Sometimes the agents took more than was required or legal Some agents didn’t pay for what they took This made survival even harder for citizens, many of whom lost their enthusiasm for the war Led to many deserting the army
What were the Tax In Kind Act and Impressment Acts? The Tax In Kind Act forced farmers to give a percentage of their produce and meat to the government. The Impressment Act allowed Confederate government agents to seize goods needed by the army.
C. Jayhawkers included deserters from both armies robbed and plundered blacks and whites alike and were often a greater threat to civilians than Yankees Active around Catahoula Lake and in Union, Winn, and Jackson Parishes The Confederate army had to send soldiers to drive them out
XIV. The Red River Campaign of 1864 GLEs: 65, 72, 77, 78
A. The Objectives To capture as much Confederate cotton as possible To capture Shreveport where the Trans-Mississippi Department was housed and they produced war- related goods, including iron-clad gunboats and submarines To invade Texas because it supplied Confederacy with men, horses, and food.
General Edmund Kirby Smith
Admiral David Porter
B. The Strategy Two parts Part 1: General Banks was to make the major thrust up the Red River Part 2: A second Union army was to leave Little Rock, Arkansas, and move south toward Shreveport
C. It Begins In March, Banks sent 20,000 men up Bayou Teche Union Admiral David Porter left Vicksburg with large fleet of ships and 10,000 soldiers Porter reached Alexandria before Banks Union sailors stripped the countryside of cotton
Fort De Russy
D. The Battle of Mansfield Confederate General Taylor launched attack just outside Mansfield One of the largest Civil War battles west of the Mississippi River One of the last Confederate victories in the war It saved Shreveport
General Banks’ Army on the Way to Natchitoches
Battles of the Red River Campaign
E. The Battle of Pleasant Hill General Banks retreated back to Pleasant Hill but was attacked again Battle occurred in thick woods as the Rebels tried time and time to break through Banks’s defenses the Yankees won the battle
F. Union Troops Retreat Admiral Porter reached the mouth of Loggy Bayou and found the river blocked by a steamboat the Rebels had sunk in the channel Large letters on the side of the ship was a Rebel invitation for the Yankees to attend a dance in Shreveport—if they could get there Porter was forced to retreat and began burning and looting Bank’s men set fire to Natchitoches, but Confederates rushed in to save the city
G. Bailey’s Dam Union forces reached Alexandria, but Porter’s ships could not get across the rapids because of low water he prepared to destroy the fleet rather then leave it for the Rebels Union officer Joseph Bailey believed he could dam the Red River and rescue the stranded ships He built a series of wing dams, dams that did not completely close off the river
Dam on the Red River
H. Burning Alexandria Bank’s army left Alexandria, soldiers burned the city to the ground Single greatest act of destruction of the war in La. 22 city blocks destroyed
I. The Campaign Fails It was a complete disaster because none of the goals were achieved Numerous ships were lost and thousands of soldiers were dead, wounded, or captured. It was the most destructive campaign of the entire war It furthered the hardships and suffering of the people in LA
Which military campaign was the last major operation in Louisiana during the Civil War? The Red River Campaign
XV. The End of the Civil War in Louisiana Red River Campaign was the last major military operation in La. During the Civil War 1865, the Confederacy was on its last legs April, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army in Virginia at Appomattox Courthouse GLEs: 65, 73, 77
**Juneteenth (Read more about it on page 214)
Describe how the African American celebration of Juneteenth first began. Union forces landed in Texas on June 18, 1865, and told slaves living there they were free. It became a holiday from that day forward.
Ending the War
XVI. The Effects of War Solider were ill or disabled at the war’s end The death toll among LA citizens was tremendous Homes, communities, farms, and businesses were destroyed Personal possessions were damaged or taken Fields were untended and overgrown Livestock had been taken or killed Railroads and levees were destroyed The state was in economic ruin