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Effective reading strategies Claudine Provencher and Maria Bell with thanks to Helen Green.

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1 Effective reading strategies Claudine Provencher and Maria Bell with thanks to Helen Green

2 “Doing the reading takes too long. I can spend hours and hours on one single article... and even then, I still don't know if I understand it!”

3 “I know I should be noting and highlighting the important bits, but I don't know how to tell what is important.”

4 “I don't know what many of the words mean. I need to use my dictionary constantly.”

5 “The language is so fuzzy, specific, strange. It's not like ‘real’ English.”

6 “Often I have to read the same sentence three or four times before I get an idea of what it means.”

7 “Sometimes, I notice that I’ve been reading for five or ten minutes, and I have no idea what I just read.”

8 “When I sit in the library to do my reading for the week, I fall asleep.”

9 giant shop

10 empty basket

11 1.Know what you want from the text before you begin reading. 2.Reading as much as you can is not the point! 3.Share. 4.Manage your readings.

12 Academic reading is purposeful, selective, and active.

13 1. Know what you want from the reading before you turn the first page.

14 A specific formulation of the relevant bits of information that you want to find in the text. Reading goals

15 Lecture 5Identity, brand and reputation Aim: To provide students with an overview of the psychological concepts around branding, corporate identity and reputation. Learning outcomes: After attending this lecture, participating in the associated seminar and reading the appropriate references from the course guide, students should be able to:  Understand the significance of and relationships between brands, corporate identity and reputation  Identify and critically assess the economic, social and psychological forces that underpin the meaning and value of brands and branding. Outline: This lecture will examine representational practices and the construction of meaning as applied to specific aspects of corporate communications. In particular, it will contrast organisational identity, branding and reputation. To this end, it will introduce and critically discuss case studies and instruments of communication, branding practices, media effects and communication messages.

16 Lecture 5Identity, brand and reputation Aim: To provide students with an overview of the psychological concepts around branding, corporate identity and reputation. Learning outcomes: After attending this lecture, participating in the associated seminar and reading the appropriate references from the course guide, students should be able to:  Understand the significance of and relationships between brands, corporate identity and reputation  Identify and critically assess the economic, social and psychological forces that underpin the meaning and value of brands and branding. Outline: This lecture will examine representational practices and the construction of meaning as applied to specific aspects of corporate communications. In particular, it will contrast organisational identity, branding and reputation. To this end, it will introduce and critically discuss case studies and instruments of communication, branding practices, media effects and communication messages. ?

17 Some possible reading goals What are three key, defining features of a “brand”? and “corporate identity”? What exactly is “reputation” in terms of social psychology ? How are the 3 intertwined? How are they distinct? Give some examples of interaction of the 3.

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20 Some possible reading goals Is corporate reputation a foundation for PR? (or is something else?) How do reputation, identity, and image work together? Is corporate identity really the quintessence of an organisation? What’s more important: strong corporate culture or strong corporate identity? Why? What are three key, defining features of a “brand”? and “corporate identity”? What exactly is “reputation” in terms of social psychology? How are the 3 intertwined? How are they distinct? Give some examples of interaction of the 3.

21 1. Know what you want from the reading before you turn the first page. Have a clear idea of what information is important and relevant to your lecture / essay / dissertation, and make a list of exactly what you going to search for in your readings.

22 2. Reading as much as you can is not the point!

23 Fombrun, C. and Pan, M. (2006) ‘Corporate reputations in China: how do consumers feel about companies?’, Corporate Reputation Review, 9 (3): 165-170. ** Fombrun, C. (2005) ‘Building corporate reputation through CSR initiatives: evolving standards’, Corporate Reputation Review, 8 (1): 7-11. Gardberg, N.A. and Fombrun, C.J. (2002) ‘The global reputation quotient project: first steps towards a cross- nationally valid measure of corporate reputation’, Corporate Reputation Review, 4 (4): 303-307. Hall, S. (1993) ‘Encoding and decoding’, in S. During (ed.), The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge. Kitchen, P. (2004) ‘Corporate reputation’, in S. Oliver (ed.), A Handbook of Corporate Communications. London: Routledge. Kitchen, P. and Lawrence, A. (2003) ‘Corporate reputation: an eight-country analysis’, Corporate Reputation Review, 6 (2): 103-117. Jones, G.H., Jones, B.H. and Little, P. (2000) ‘Reputation as reservoir: buffering against loss in times of economic crisis’, Corporate Reputation Review, 3 (1): 21-29. Murray, K. and White, J., (2005) ‘CEOs’ views on reputation management’, Journal of Communication Management, 9 (3): 348-358. Readings: Balmer, J.M.T. and Stephen A. (eds) (2002) Revealing the Corporation: Perspectives on Identity, Image, Reputation and Corporate Branding. London: Routledge. (Especially Chapter 2 and Chapter 6) Blyth, J. (2001) ‘Creating shared meaning in marketing communications’, in D. Pickton, and A. Broderick (eds), Integrated Marketing Communications. Harlow: Prentice Hall. ** Cornelissen, J. (2008) Corporate Communications: A Guide to Theory and Practice. London: Sage. (Chapter on Corporate Identity, Corporate Image and Corporate Reputation) Davies, G., Chun, R., da Silva, R.V. and Roper, S. (2001) ‘The personification metaphor as a measurement approach to corporate reputation’, Corporate Reputation Review, 4 (2): 113-127. Eccles, R.G., Newquist, S.C. and Schatz, R. (2007) ‘Reputation and its risks’, Harvard Business Review, 85 (2): 104-114. Eco, U. (1976) A Theory of Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ** Fombrun, C. and Shanley, M. (1990) ‘What’s in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy’, Academy of Management Journal, 33 (2): 233-258.

24 Fombrun, C. and Pan, M. (2006) ‘Corporate reputations in China: how do consumers feel about companies?’, Corporate Reputation Review, 9 (3): 165-170. ** Fombrun, C. (2005) ‘Building corporate reputation through CSR initiatives: evolving standards’, Corporate Reputation Review, 8 (1): 7-11. Gardberg, N.A. and Fombrun, C.J. (2002) ‘The global reputation quotient project: first steps towards a cross- nationally valid measure of corporate reputation’, Corporate Reputation Review, 4 (4): 303-307. Hall, S. (1993) ‘Encoding and decoding’, in S. During (ed.), The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge. Kitchen, P. (2004) ‘Corporate reputation’, in S. Oliver (ed.), A Handbook of Corporate Communications. London: Routledge. Kitchen, P. and Lawrence, A. (2003) ‘Corporate reputation: an eight-country analysis’, Corporate Reputation Review, 6 (2): 103-117. Jones, G.H., Jones, B.H. and Little, P. (2000) ‘Reputation as reservoir: buffering against loss in times of economic crisis’, Corporate Reputation Review, 3 (1): 21-29. Murray, K. and White, J., (2005) ‘CEOs’ views on reputation management’, Journal of Communication Management, 9 (3): 348-358. Readings: Balmer, J.M.T. and Stephen A. (eds) (2002) Revealing the Corporation: Perspectives on Identity, Image, Reputation and Corporate Branding. London: Routledge. (Especially Chapter 2 and Chapter 6) Blyth, J. (2001) ‘Creating shared meaning in marketing communications’, in D. Pickton, and A. Broderick (eds), Integrated Marketing Communications. Harlow: Prentice Hall. ** Cornelissen, J. (2008) Corporate Communications: A Guide to Theory and Practice. London: Sage. (Chapter on Corporate Identity, Corporate Image and Corporate Reputation) Davies, G., Chun, R., da Silva, R.V. and Roper, S. (2001) ‘The personification metaphor as a measurement approach to corporate reputation’, Corporate Reputation Review, 4 (2): 113-127. Eccles, R.G., Newquist, S.C. and Schatz, R. (2007) ‘Reputation and its risks’, Harvard Business Review, 85 (2): 104-114. Eco, U. (1976) A Theory of Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ** Fombrun, C. and Shanley, M. (1990) ‘What’s in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy’, Academy of Management Journal, 33 (2): 233-258.

25 Searching Summon to locate readings

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28 2. Reading as much as you can is not the point! Make strategic choices about which readings you will explore. There is no need to read everything on your reading list.

29 Exploratory reading

30  Get acquainted with the type and structure of the text.  Detect the author's approach.  Investigate the author's conclusions.  Summarise.

31 Exploratory reading  abstract, conclusion, introduction  headings, subheadings  preface, foreword, inside flap, reviews, table of contents, précis  titles of tables, graphs, figures  first sentence of every paragraph “The butler did it.”

32 Dedicated reading

33  explore the text first  prioritise the various parts of the text  then, (and only then) begin to ‘read’

34 Dedicated reading generates  exploration summary,  the “answers” to your reading goals,  notes on the priority sections,  new questions that arose,  your reflections on the text.

35 What is the bottom line of the author’s argument? How effectively are the author’s ideas evidenced? What would I like to ask the author? What are the limitations or flaws in the evidence? What examples would prove the contrary? Can the theory be disproved or is it too general? Is this convincing? Why / why not? What are the implications? What are the alternatives?

36 Which bits of the author’s argument do I want to use/ reflect on in my essay? How does this fit in with my own theory/beliefs? How does it fit with the opposite theory/beliefs? How does it fit with other relevant theory/beliefs I've come across? Is my own theory/belief still valid? If so, why? Am I surprised? If so, why? Do I agree? If so, why?

37 2. Reading as much as you can is not the point! Explore some / several readings. Read, in more depth, the critical few that seem likely to help you meet your reading goals.

38 3. Share your reading with others.

39 Why not try to formulate reading goals together, select readings in a group and share your notes, teach someone what you learned from a reading, discuss your reading with your classmates, or a teacher?

40 4. Manage your readings.

41 Managing information Get organised early on! Choose your tool – many options:  EndNote / EndNote Web  Zotero / Mendeley – free to set up personal accounts  References in word / paper format?  References in an email folder  Delicious / Diigo - social bookmarking tools Your Academic Support Librarian can assist Library.Enquiries@lse.ac.uk

42 giant shop 1.Know what you want from the text before you begin reading. 2.Reading everything is not the point! 3.Share. 4.Manage your readings.

43 Other resources Learning World, Moodle (Library Companion to Students) Teaching and Learning Centre  one to one study advice, Royal Literary Fund Fellow  studentsupport@lse.ac.uk studentsupport@lse.ac.uk Language Centre  languages@lse.ac.uk languages@lse.ac.uk Student Counselling Service  student.counselling@lse.ac.uk student.counselling@lse.ac.uk Dyslexia/disability assessment and support  disability-dyslexia@lse.ac.uk disability-dyslexia@lse.ac.uk Levin, P. (2004) Write great essays! Reading and essay writing for undergraduates and taught postgraduates


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