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“How to Rip a Country Apart”

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1 “How to Rip a Country Apart”
From Steve Sheinkin’s Two Miserable Presidents

2 Step 1: Plant Cotton Eli Whitney, 1791 Cotton gin
Cotton production rises—huge profits “Cotton is King” Good for Southern plantation owners and Northern factory owners Bad for slaves Slaves jumped from 1 million to 4 million from 1820 to 1860

3 Step 2: Grow Apart Slavery rising in the South, dying in the North
Early 1800s, Market Revolution led to huge changes in North while South unchanged Moving to cities Working in factories Tariffs=North loved, South hated

4 Step 3: Keep Your Balance
1819: 22 states total; 11 slave, 11 free What to do with land west of Mississippi? Slave states or free states? Missouri Compromise: 1820 Missouri joined as slave state Maine as free state Line from southern Missouri border west North=Free, South=Slave

5 Step 4: Fight Slavery Frederick Douglass Runaway slave
Stole “free papers”: ID proving African American was not a slave Escaped to Maryland Became active abolitionist: a movement to end slavery in the United States

6 Step 5: Build a Railroad Underground Railroad: secret system of routes out of the South to help people escape slavery Houses where slaves could hide called “stations” “Conductors” helped people to Canada where slavery illegal Harriet Tubman Most famous conductor Escaped slavery—wanted to go back for her family Carried out at least 13 rescue missions Led about 300 people to freedom Angered South: slaves are property being stolen by Northerners

7 Step 6: Get More Land Manifest Destiny/Waves of Expansion 1845-1853
Now15 free states; 15 slave states 1848—Gold discovered in California; wanted to make it a state quick! California wanted to be a free state—would upset balance permanently Talk of Disunion began

8 Step 7: Try to Compromise
John C. Calhoun Union saved only if North Stopped helping escaped slaves Stopped the abolitionist movement Promise to keep balance between free and slave William Seward Slavery will end whether Calhoun likes it or not Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay’s idea California admitted as free state Congress pass the Fugitive Slave Act Make it easier for slave-owners to capture runaway slaves Proposed by Daniel Webster, passed Congress

9 Step 8: Chase Fugitives Fugitive Slave Act
Any African American suspected of being a fugitive slave could be captured and brought before a judge Accused had no right to testify; no right to trial by jury Judge simply decided if he or she was a runaway Got $5 for freeing the person; $10 for sending to slavery Angered Northerners as a cruel and unjust law

10 Step 9: Write Books Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Tried to show horrors of slavery Forced parents to imagine the torment of losing their child to a slave trader. Inspired new hatred of slavery in the North Southern writers fired back Slaves were well treated and happy Much better off than factory workers in the North

11 Step 10: Divide Nebraska Stephen Douglas wanted to divide Nebraska Territory into smaller states Problem: all land was north of Missouri Compromise line Proposal: Replace Missouri Compromise with Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854) Divide in two: Nebraska in North; Kansas in South Popular sovereignty: let the people in the territories decide if slave or free state Passed Congress Abraham Lincoln (Douglas’ rival) Does a white man have the right to vote on whether he can own a black man? Is that self-government?

12 Step 11: Race to Kansas Supporters and opponents of slavery flood into Kansas Beginning of 1856—two governments Initial vote on slavery won, but due to thousands of Missouri residents voting illegally “Free-Soilers” held their own election and chose their own government By May, fighting broke out in Lawrence 800 pro-slavery men chased out Free-Soilers Northern papers talked of slaughter, though no one was killed Infuriated Northerners

13 Step 12: Insult Senators Senator Charles Sumner
Gave “Crime Against Kansas” speech Slammed the pro-slavery army, senators who supported Kansas-Nebraska Act, and personally attacked Andrew Butler Accused Butler of loving slavery and making fun of the fact that he spit and stammered when he talked Low blow: Butler had actually suffered from a stroke that left him partially paralyzed

14 Step 13: Hit Him Again! Preston Brooks, cousin of Senator Butler
Beat Sumner over the head with a cane for “libel” against Butler and South Carolina Became a hero to Southerners Sent him canes with sayings like, “Hit Him Again!” Southern reaction stunned Northerners Mirrored the growing conflict between the North and the South Like the attack on Sumner, “the conflict between the North and the South was bitter, personal, and a little bit bloody.”

15 Other items of note: “Bleeding Kansas” May 24, 1856
John Brown led the attack Began as a retaliation against attack on Free-Soilers Led to fighting between both sides that killed 200 men Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave whose master lived with him on free soil for several years Sued for his freedom Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that Scott was still a slave Did not have rights of citizen so could not bring case before court Ruled that slavery allowed in the territories because Congress cannot ban it—Southerners can take their property (slaves) anywhere

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