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“How to Rip a Country Apart” From Steve Sheinkin’s Two Miserable Presidents.

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Presentation on theme: "“How to Rip a Country Apart” From Steve Sheinkin’s Two Miserable Presidents."— Presentation transcript:

1 “How to Rip a Country Apart” From Steve Sheinkin’s Two Miserable Presidents

2 Step 1: Plant Cotton  Eli Whitney, 1791 Cotton gin  Cotton production rises—huge profits  “Cotton is King”  Good for Southern plantation owners and Northern factory owners  Bad for slaves  Slaves jumped from 1 million to 4 million from 1820 to 1860

3 Step 2: Grow Apart  Slavery rising in the South, dying in the North  Early 1800s, Market Revolution led to huge changes in North while South unchanged  Moving to cities  Working in factories  Tariffs=North loved, South hated

4 Step 3: Keep Your Balance  1819: 22 states total; 11 slave, 11 free  What to do with land west of Mississippi? Slave states or free states?  Missouri Compromise: 1820  Missouri joined as slave state  Maine as free state  Line from southern Missouri border west  North=Free, South=Slave

5 Step 4: Fight Slavery  Frederick Douglass  Runaway slave  Stole “free papers”: ID proving African American was not a slave  Escaped to Maryland  Became active abolitionist: a movement to end slavery in the United States

6 Step 5: Build a Railroad  Underground Railroad: secret system of routes out of the South to help people escape slavery  Houses where slaves could hide called “stations”  “Conductors” helped people to Canada where slavery illegal  Harriet Tubman  Most famous conductor  Escaped slavery—wanted to go back for her family  Carried out at least 13 rescue missions  Led about 300 people to freedom  Angered South: slaves are property being stolen by Northerners

7 Step 6: Get More Land  Manifest Destiny/Waves of Expansion 1845-1853  Now15 free states; 15 slave states  1848—Gold discovered in California; wanted to make it a state quick!  California wanted to be a free state—would upset balance permanently  Talk of Disunion began

8 Step 7: Try to Compromise  John C. Calhoun  Union saved only if North  Stopped helping escaped slaves  Stopped the abolitionist movement  Promise to keep balance between free and slave  William Seward  Slavery will end whether Calhoun likes it or not  Compromise of 1850  Henry Clay’s idea  California admitted as free state  Congress pass the Fugitive Slave Act  Make it easier for slave-owners to capture runaway slaves  Proposed by Daniel Webster, passed Congress

9 Step 8: Chase Fugitives  Fugitive Slave Act  Any African American suspected of being a fugitive slave could be captured and brought before a judge  Accused had no right to testify; no right to trial by jury  Judge simply decided if he or she was a runaway  Got $5 for freeing the person; $10 for sending to slavery  Angered Northerners as a cruel and unjust law

10 Step 9: Write Books  Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe  Tried to show horrors of slavery  Forced parents to imagine the torment of losing their child to a slave trader.  Inspired new hatred of slavery in the North  Southern writers fired back  Slaves were well treated and happy  Much better off than factory workers in the North

11 Step 10: Divide Nebraska  Stephen Douglas wanted to divide Nebraska Territory into smaller states  Problem: all land was north of Missouri Compromise line  Proposal: Replace Missouri Compromise with Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854)  Divide in two: Nebraska in North; Kansas in South  Popular sovereignty: let the people in the territories decide if slave or free state  Passed Congress  Abraham Lincoln (Douglas’ rival)  Does a white man have the right to vote on whether he can own a black man? Is that self-government?

12 Step 11: Race to Kansas  Supporters and opponents of slavery flood into Kansas  Beginning of 1856—two governments  Initial vote on slavery won, but due to thousands of Missouri residents voting illegally  “Free-Soilers” held their own election and chose their own government  By May, fighting broke out in Lawrence  800 pro-slavery men chased out Free-Soilers  Northern papers talked of slaughter, though no one was killed  Infuriated Northerners

13 Step 12: Insult Senators  Senator Charles Sumner  Gave “Crime Against Kansas” speech  Slammed the pro-slavery army, senators who supported Kansas-Nebraska Act, and personally attacked Andrew Butler  Accused Butler of loving slavery and making fun of the fact that he spit and stammered when he talked  Low blow: Butler had actually suffered from a stroke that left him partially paralyzed

14 Step 13: Hit Him Again!  Preston Brooks, cousin of Senator Butler  Beat Sumner over the head with a cane for “libel” against Butler and South Carolina  Became a hero to Southerners  Sent him canes with sayings like, “Hit Him Again!”  Southern reaction stunned Northerners  Mirrored the growing conflict between the North and the South  Like the attack on Sumner, “the conflict between the North and the South was bitter, personal, and a little bit bloody.”

15 Other items of note:  “Bleeding Kansas” May 24, 1856  John Brown led the attack  Began as a retaliation against attack on Free-Soilers  Led to fighting between both sides that killed 200 men  Dred Scott Decision  Dred Scott was a slave whose master lived with him on free soil for several years  Sued for his freedom  Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that Scott was still a slave  Did not have rights of citizen so could not bring case before court  Ruled that slavery allowed in the territories because Congress cannot ban it—Southerners can take their property (slaves) anywhere

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