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{ Slavery & Plantation Life. Svea Conrad. New idea of democracy reinforced sense of equality to those who belonged to the political nation & deepened.

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Presentation on theme: "{ Slavery & Plantation Life. Svea Conrad. New idea of democracy reinforced sense of equality to those who belonged to the political nation & deepened."— Presentation transcript:

1 { Slavery & Plantation Life. Svea Conrad

2 New idea of democracy reinforced sense of equality to those who belonged to the political nation & deepened the divide form to those who did not. Blacks were considered a group apart, not dehumanized. Resumption of trade w/ Europe after war of 1812 created huge overseas markets for American grain and cotton. Early industrial rev. centered on factories using cotton a raw material manufactured cloth- cotton became the most important commodity in international trade. Reasons for expansion of Slavery:

3 1860, 1/3 of the nation’s cotton crop was grown west of the Mississippi. Division between slave and free societies– North and South. (Southern planters Who Dominated slavery also had huge influence nationally. South also fed the North, it’s slave grown cotton, a source of wealth to slave-owners, provided material for the North’s textile industry. Cotton from the south provided ¾ of cotton supply. Cotton trade financed industrial development & improvement in the North because its profits funded these growth. Northern ships carried cotton to Europe, N. factories turned cotton into cloth. South and North… Agriculture vs. Industry. One feeds the other. How and why practice of slavery varied from region to region:

4 Rural vs. Urban dichotomy: Most Southern cities were located on the periphery & served mainly as centers for gathering and shipping cotton, they were not booming technological city centers. The South itself was very rural, white farmers lived outside the plantations in Hilly areas.

5 The slogan for plantation life was labor “from sunup to first dark”, work occupied most to all of the slave’s time 125 Slaves on a plantation, for example, included a butler, two waitresses, a nurse, a dairy maid, a gardener, ten carpenters and two shoemakers. Other plantations. Also had engineers, blacksmiths, and weavers, also, domestic workers like cooks and coachmen. Slaves cut wood for fuel of steamboats, worked in iron and coal mines, manned docks and southern seaports, laid railroad track. Local authorities were the ones that commandeered the work  bridges, roads federal gov. also implemented slaves to build forts & other public buildings. Banks in S. financed plantations. Small farmers manned slave patrol, keeping lookout for runaways. Large plantation owners ran the business. How Plantations were organized and work divided:

6 Additional plantation work facets: Plough, oxen and mules. Both men and women performed this labor. (Here Read highlighted) Plowing. Planting and then picking “Driver” follows slaves on horseback with a whip.

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8 Difference between Amer. Slavery and other slave systems in the Western Hemisphere: Unlike planters of the West Indies, many of whom resided in Great Britain, Southern slave-holders lived on their plantations, thus had year- round contact w/ their slaves.

9 The Pro- Slavery Arguments: 1.The idea that blacks were inferior to whites. 2.Slavery was seen as essential to human progress. Slavery integral to social order. 3.Without slavery, planters would be unable to cultivate the arts, sciences & other “civilized” pursuits. 4. Slavery for Blacks was the “surest guarantee to perfect equality” among whites, b/c it liberated them from low, “dirty” jobs like factory and domestic labor. 5. Slavery made white planters independent they claimed. And independence Was necessary for citizenship. 6. Biblical argument. 7. “If we concede an inch, concession would follow concession… until our ranks Would be so broken… that effectual resistance would be impossible” (John C. Calhoun) 8. Said that abolition and the union could not coexist. 9. Slavery maintained existing race relations,( keeping the voices of the revolting quiet). 10. Slavery kept blacks “civilized” and so improved, not only physically, but morally and intellectually, by enslaving them, their civility was ensured.

10 Impact of Slavery on Social/ Economic structure of South. Slavery in S. limited growth of industry, discouraged immigrants, inhibited technological progress. Slavery had economic centrality. South was self-sufficient, therefore did not provide market-manufactured goods Like the N… Economy was more internal it seems. Economic and social power lay in the hands of the planters  they dominated political parties and controlled fertile land. Had the highest incomes. Investment in slaves, investment in railroads and canals. “Plantation mistresses” exuded the highest lore. They supervised plantations while Husbands were gone, cared for sick. Role of women.

11 Social & Economic.. Cont. Planter’s values glorified hierarchical agrarian societies b/c slave- holding men assumed power over everything. “Paternalism” became even more ingrained after closing of transatlantic slave trade in 1807, because now slaves were not as easily “replaceable” owners had to invest in the well being of their “property”. More profitable for slave owner to keep workers in bondage that to use free labor. Southern planters were glad to see that the escalation of battles over slavery guaranteed them Andrew Jackson’s support, who, himself was a southern slave Owner. (Fear of revolt, and horror at sharing society with blacks).

12 Sources: Clark, Hewitt, Brown, Jaffee. “Who Built America” Third edition. Sweet, John W. “Bodies Politic”. The John’s Hopkins University Press Metzler, Milton. “The Black America”. Foner, Eric. “Give Me Liberty an American History”. Norton & Company, NY.


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