Presentation on theme: "The Confederate Wars of the 1640s. The Founding of the Confederation The Confederation was founded in June 1642 after the outbreak of violence in Ulster:"— Presentation transcript:
The Confederate Wars of the 1640s
The Founding of the Confederation The Confederation was founded in June 1642 after the outbreak of violence in Ulster: First meeting held in October 1642 Aim: To secure religious freedom and reverse the decline of Catholic influence in Irish politics. Where: Kilkenny Town
The Course of the Confederate Wars The Confederates acted like an independent government eg. Collecting taxes But: They always professed loyalty to Charles I. For most of the 1640s the Confederates controlled vast areas of land in Ireland, apart from Dublin, Cork and East Ulster.
Key Figures in Ireland during the 1640s James Tuchet, Earl of Castlehaven, member of Confederate Supreme Council James Butler, first Duke of Ormond, leading Irish Royalist. Rinuccini, papal nuncio, sent to Kilkenny by the Pope. Ordered to secure full Catholic toleration.
Fighting the Confederate Wars Owen Roe O’Neill, a commander in the Spanish army, returns to Ireland in July 1642. Thomas Preston arrives in September of the same year. However the Confederates are torn by division throughout the 1640s. Three parties form in the Confederate Assembly. 1. A radical party who want full Catholic toleration. 2.A moderate party who want some religious and political concessions. 3.Finally, as the war raged, a party who simply wanted peace. Thomas Preston Owen Roe O’Neill The leading Confederate Commanders
Negotiating with Charles I A main theme during the war was negotiation: Because Charles was desperate for military aid from the Confederates. And the Confederate hoped from concessions from this Catholic sympathizer. BUT: Charles pre-occupied with events in Scotland and England. So he appointed two people to negotiate with them. The earl of Glamorgan and the earl of Ormond.
Problems with Negotiation Glamorgan and Ormond had different ideas about what to offer the Confederation. Ormond refused full Catholic toleration. However, the king later secretly sent Glamorgan over to negotiate further when he needed more troops. Glamorgan promised full Catholic toleration and Irish parliamentary independence from England So Ormond had him arrested. The earl of Glamorgan, Edward Somerset
The End of the Confederation The Confederates could not raise enough money to continue the war effort. By the end of 1648 they were bankrupt They could not agree on a political strategy that would end the war. They were divided by the promises of Catholic toleration given by Charles I through Glamorgan and then taken away by Ormond. By 1649, The English Civil War was over and Cromwell arrived to defeat all Royalists left in Ireland.
Key Events in the Confederate Wars The first Confederate Assembly met in the Autumn of 1642. Charles I was keen to use Irish Catholics in his Royalist armies and therefore an agreement (the Cessation of Arms) was made in September 1643. The Confederate control over areas of land in Ireland continued. For example in March 1645, Preston seized Dungannon Fort. There was a lot negotiation and re-negotiation during these years as the King sent advisers (Ormond first then Glamorgan) to talk with the Confederation. These advisors had different ideas about what terms should be agreed with the Confederate. However, after the Confederates defeated the Scots at the Battle of Benburb on 5 th June 1646 they were in a much stronger bargaining position.
Key Events in the Confederate Wars However, negotiations did not go as planned as one of the king’s advisors, Ormond refused to offer open toleration for Catholics. Soon however, the military situation got a lot worse. A parliamentary commander, Jones defeated Thomas Preston at Dungan’s Hill. In November 1647, Confederates at Cork where routed out and practically expelled from Munster. On 11 th September 1649, Drogheda was captured by Oliver Cromwell. He had arrived to crush any remaining Royalist support in Ireland. The Civil War in England was over by this stage and the King had lost. By June 1651, the last Royalist Stronghold in Ireland, Limerick fell to the Cromwellians.