Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

STRATEGI MANAJEMEN AGROEKOSISTEM KAWASAN PRODUKSI SAYURAN Bahan kajian MK. MSLPW smno.pta.fpub.mei2013.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "STRATEGI MANAJEMEN AGROEKOSISTEM KAWASAN PRODUKSI SAYURAN Bahan kajian MK. MSLPW smno.pta.fpub.mei2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 STRATEGI MANAJEMEN AGROEKOSISTEM KAWASAN PRODUKSI SAYURAN Bahan kajian MK. MSLPW smno.pta.fpub.mei2013

2 .STRATEGI MANAJEMEN Sumber: FERTILIZERS CROPPING PATTERNS CULTIVATIONS PESTS DISEASES WEEDS

3 CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND PRINCIPLES "Lahan adalah area tertentu di permukaan bumi, yang melingkupi semua atribut biosfir di atas dan di bawah permukaan, termasuk iklim di dekat permukaan, tanah dan bentuk lahan, hidrologi permukaan (termasuk danau dangkal, sungai, rawa-rawa), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater reserve, populasi tumbuhan dan binatang, pola permukiman dan sifat fisik akibat aktivitas manusia (terras, bangunan air dan drainage, jalan raya dan bangunan gedung, dll.).“ Sumber: FAO Land and Water Bulletin No

4 Fungsi-fungsi lahan: 1. Fungsi Produksi 2. Fungsi Lingkungan Biotik 3. Fungsi regulasi iklim 4.· hydrologic function 5.· storage function 6.· waste and pollution control function 7.· living space function 8.· archive or heritage function 9.· connective space function Sumber: FAO Land and Water Bulletin No

5 FUNGSI PRODUKSI Lahan merupakan basis bagi berbagai sistem penunjang kehidupan, melalui produksi biomasa yang menyediakan makanan, pakan- ternak, serat, bahan-bakar, bahan bangunan dan material biotik lainnya bagi manusia, secara langsung atau melalui budidaya ternak, termasuk akuakultur dan perikanan tangkap. Sumber: FAO Land and Water Bulletin No

6 FUNGSI LINGKUNGAN BIOTIK Lahan merupakan basis bagi buiodiversitas terrestris dengan menyediakan habitat biologis dan plasma nutfah bagi tanaman, binatang, dan mikroba yang hidup di atas dan di bawah permukaan. Sumber: FAO Land and Water Bulletin No

7 Lahan mempunyai Atribut, Karakteristik, Sifat & Ciri, dan Kualitas (atau Kondisi/Pembatas): 1.an attribute, or variable, is a neutral, over-arching term for a single or compound aspect of the land; 2.a characteristic is an attribute which is easily noticed and which serves as a distinguishing element for different types of land; it may or may not have a practical meaning (e.g., soil colour or texture, or height of forest cover are characteristics without giving direct information on land quality); 3.a property is an attribute that already gives a degree of information on the value of the land type; 4.a land quality (or limitation) is a complex attribute of land which acts in a manner distinct from the actions of other land qualities in its influence on the suitability of land for a specified kind of use. Sumber: FAO Land and Water Bulletin No

8 KUALITAS LAHAN & PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN 1.HASIL TANAMAN (a resultant of many qualities listed below). 2.KETERSEDIAAN LENGAS TANAH. 3.KETERSEDIAAN HARA. 4.KETERSEDIAAN OKSIGEN DI ZONE AKAR. 5.Adequacy of foothold for roots. 6.KONDISI PERKECAMBAHAN. 7.Workability of the land (ease of cultivation). 8.SALINITAS ATAU SODISITAS. 9.TOKSISITAS TANAH. 10.RESISTENSI TERHADAP EROSI TANAH. 11.Pests and diseases related to the land. 12.Flooding hazard (including frequency, periods of inundation). 13.REGIM SUHU. 14.RADIASI ENERGI DAN FOTOPERIODE. 15.Climatic hazards affecting plant growth (including wind, hail, frost). 16.Air humidity as affecting plant growth. 17.PERIODE KERING UNTUK PEMASAKAN/PEMATANGAN TANAMAN. Sumber: FAO Land and Water Bulletin No

9 Crop yields (a resultant of many qualities listed below). Sumber: Crop production provides the food for human beings, fodder for animals and fiber for cloths. Land is the natural resource which is unchanged & the burden of the population is tremendously increasing, thereby decrease the area per capita. Therefore it is necessary to increase the production per unit area on available land. This necessitates the close study of all the factors of crop production viz. 1.TANAH sebagai TEMPAT MENANAM TANAMAN 2.Air yang dibutuhkan dan digunakan oleh tanaman 3.Tanaman yg menghasilkan bahan-bahan pangan dan pakan 4.Ketrampilan pengelolaan (budidaya) oleh petani 5.Iklim di luar kendali manusia, tetapi mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman. 6.Karakter genetik tanaman yg menjadi kekayaan genetik dan dapat dieksploitasi untuk produksi tanaman.

10 . Sumber: PENGELOLAAN TANAH UNTUK PRODUKSI SAYURAN

11 Pengantar – Soil quality – Organic standards Olah Tanah & Kultivasi Hara dan Kesuburan Tanah BOT: Bahan Organik Tanah. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee PENGELOLAAN TANAH

12 Soil health and soil quality are key to sustainable agriculture "the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function …to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation“ Assessments focus on dynamic (management- affected) soil properties (Karlen et al., 1997; soilquality.org). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

13 SIFAT DAN PERILAKU TANAH Inherent vs. dynamic soil properties – Inherent: Change little with management (texture, clay mineralogy, drainage class, etc.) – Dynamic: Change over months and years in response to management (organic matter, structure, bulk density, water and nutrient holding capacity, etc.) Do the management practices improve, sustain, or degrade soil quality? What type of soil management is considered “sustainable” or “organic”?. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

14 KAIDAH ORGANIK 1.Does not define specific land practices 2.Identifies general soil management and environmental objectives 3.Producers and certifiers determine if practices meet these objectives 4.Also good general guidelines for “sustainable” soil management and improving soil quality, even if not organic (Bellows, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

15 1.“Select and implement tillage and cultivation practices that maintain or improve the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil and minimize erosion” 2.“Manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials” 3.“Manage plant and animal materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances”. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee KAIDAH ORGANIK

16 SIFAT & CIRI TANAH (a) “Select and implement tillage and cultivation practices that maintain or improve the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil and minimize erosion” Physical condition: bulk density, aggregate stability, available water capacity, infiltration rate, erodibility, etc. – Supports growth of plant roots – Allows for movement of nutrients, water, air, and soil organisms through soil – Promotes rainfall infiltration rather than runoff (Bellows, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

17 Chemical condition: fertility, pH, salinity, etc. – Nutrients sufficient but not in excess – Appropriate pH for crop growth – Heavy metals and other toxins do not inhibit plant growth or soil ecology – Relatively high levels of organic matter Biological condition: earthworms, soil arthropods, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, algae – Contribute to nutrient cycling, buffering, filtering – Improve soil structure, aggregation – Resistance to disease (Bellows, 2005; soilquality.org). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee SIFAT & CIRI TANAH

18 KECUKUPAN HARA TANAMAN Sumber:

19 KECUKUPAN HARA TANAMAN Sumber:

20 KECUKUPAN HARA TANAMAN The relationship between nutrient concentration in plants and yield (plant growth). Sumber:

21 KECUKUPAN HARA TANAMAN Sumber:

22 Sumber:

23 KECUKUPAN pH TANAMAN Sumber:

24 KECUKUPAN pH TANAH Sumber:

25 KECUKUPAN OLAH-TANAH Sumber: The benefits of tillage include: 1.Soil conditioning—the modification of soil structure to favor agronomic processes such as soil–seed contact, root proliferation, water infiltration, and soil warming; 2.Weed and pest suppression—direct termination or disruption of weed and pest life cycles; 3.Residue management—movement, orientation, or sizing of residues to minimize the negative effects of crop or cover crop residues and promote beneficial effects; 4.Incorporation and mixing—placement or redistribution of substances such as fertilizers, manures, seeds, and residues, sometimes from a less favorable location to a more favorable spatial distribution; 5.Segregation—consolidation of rocks, root clumps, soil crumb sizes, and so forth; 6.Land forming—changing the shape of the soil surface; the simplest variant is probably leveling; ridging, roughening and furrowing are also examples; and 7.Stimulation of nutrient release—achieved by aeration and mixing; note this can be a disbenefit when not synchronized with crop uptake.

26 KECUKUPAN OLAH-TANAH Sumber: More specific tillage objectives include seed bed formation, stale seed bed formation, compaction alleviation, fracturing of soil crusts, severing and/or dessication of weeds, maceration of biofumigant cover crops, stimulation of soil biology, and harvesting of root crops.

27 KECUKUPAN OLAH-TANAH Sumber: Efek negatif pengolahan tanah : 1.Compaction of soil below the depth of tillage (formation of a tillage pan); 2.Crusting of soil when soil pulverization is followed by rain, stimulating weed seed germination and inhibiting crop emergence; 3.Increased susceptibility to water and wind erosion associated with residue removal and soil loosening; 4.Accelerated decomposition of organic matter, which is undesirable from a long-term perspective; 5.Cost of equipment purchase and operation; 6.Energy cost of tillage operations; 7.Labor and temporal obligations; and 8.Alteration of the soil foodweb, shifting populations away from larger, longer-lived organisms to smaller, shorter-lived organisms.

28 EFEK PENGOLAHAN TANAH Olah tanah tradisional – Disrupts soil aggregates – Disrupts soil organisms – Makes soil less resistant to: Compaction Erosion Breakdown of organic matter (Bellows, 2005; ok.gov). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

29 Olah-Tanah & Kultivasi yg Sustainable 1.Meminimumkan pemadatan 2.Minimizes loss of aggregates 3.Promotes infiltration 4.Protects soil from wind/water erosion 5.Minimizes disruption of beneficial soil organisms 6.Tutpan muka tanah dengan biomasa residu (seresah) (Bellows, 2005; ipm.iastate.edu; newdeal.feri.org). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

30 Minimize tillage – Undercutter or roll-chopper – Mulch tillage or add mulches No-till Disk plant or Chisel plant Ridge tillage Strip tillage – Chisel/sweep plows vs. moldboard and disk plows Maintain residues (>30%) and increase surface roughness (Bellows, 2005; fao.org; photo: Les Everett, UMN). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Olah-Tanah & Kultivasi yg Sustainable

31 Numerous benefits of conservation tillage or no-till over conventional tillage systems With proper management, organic systems can exceed no-till in terms of C storage and increased soil organic matter – Banyak tanaman penutup tanah, pupuk hijau – Kompos, pupuk kandang – Sedikit pupuk N anorganik – Sedikit herbicides/pestisida (Teasdale, 2007). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Tanpa Olah Tanah vs. Organik

32 Look for opportunities to integrate perennial crops into organic rotations – Eliminate tillage for a few years – Perennial hay or pasture crops Utilize mechanically-killed cover crop residues for weed suppression Continuous no-till probably not feasible in organic vegetable production at this time (Teasdale, 2007; forages.tennessee.edu). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

33 Olah Tanah vs Manajemen Gulma Don’t allow tillage/cultivation to replace herbicides as the “big hammer” in organic production “many little hammers” – Crop rotation – Optimizing crop growth – Cover cropping – Intercropping/relay cropping – Mulching – Mowing – Grazing (Liebman and Gallant, 1997; Comis, 2007; Schonbeck, 2010). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

34 HARA DAN KESUBURAN TANAH 1.“Manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials” 2.Stipulates reliance on biological processes 3.Permits low-solubility, mined substances (e.g. rock phosphate, greensand) 4.Crop nutrients must be at least in part provided through management practices and organic residues. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

35 SIKLUS Nitrogen (msu.edu)

36 POTENTIAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN EARTHWORMS & MICROORGANISMS IN VERMICOMPOSTS Earthworms BOT: Bahan Organik Tanah Microorganisms Plant Disease and Nematode Suppression Other Plant-Growth Influencing Substances Humic materials Free Enzymes Allelopathic agents Phytohormone-like Plant Growth Regulators Auxins, Cytokinins, Gibberellins Mineralization Plant-Available Mineral Nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Micronutrients

37 Tidak ada fiksasi nitrogen secara industri Bertumpu pada fiksasi N oleh legume – Pupuk hijau – Rabuk kandang dari ternak yg mengkonsumsi hijauan legume Daur ulang hara dalam biomasa tanaman, kompos, pupuk kandang, seresah biomasa lainnya Siklus Nitrogen dalam Sistem Organik

38 Management of pathways in N cycle – Reduce leaching, runoff, gaseous losses – Maintain awareness of patterns of mineralization and immobilization Residue incorporation/tillage Cover crops/catch crops Crop rotation Fallow periods Cash crop N demand and uptake. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Siklus Nitrogen dalam Sistem Organik

39 TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH. Sumber: Additional benefits of cover crops in annual production systems include decreasing soil erosion, sequestering excess soil nitrogen, replenishing soil organic matter reserves, suppressing weeds and nematodes, increasing the size and activity of the soil micro-flora, as well as enhancing microbial populations antagonistic to pathogenic organisms quality.

40 TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH. Sumber: Vegetable growers can also put cover crops in after vegetable establishment. The cover crops will help minimize compaction as well as add valuable nitrogen into the soil.

41 TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH. Sumber: Planting windows for Brassica cover crops in commercial vegetable production systems

42 Siklus Nitrogen dalam Sistem Organik Complex interaction of processes controls N availability from organic sources Estimate N availability from organic inputs, cover crops – Test N content of inputs – Online calculators can help determine N availability (OSU organic fertilizer and cover crop tool) – Realize that N will continue to be released in subsequent years from past inputs. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

43 Phosphorus Many agricultural soils have ample P due to history of manure and fertilizer application – Imbalance when manures applied to meet N needs – Availability of P may be limited due to soil minerals, pH Solutions: – P solubilizing cover crops (e.g. buckwheat) – Increase organic matter – Encourage mychorrizal fungi. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

44 K, S, Mg, Ca, micronutrients 1.Uji Tanah secara reguler 2.Balance exports/imports 3.Many manures & composts contain ample K, S, Mg & micronutrients, but other sources are available to organic producers 4.Over-application is also not sustainable. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

45 Reduksionis vs. Sistemik – Goal is not to replace synthetic conventional input with organic input – How do the diversity of organisms within the soil and the diversity of plants in the cropping system interact and affect soil fertility? – What inputs must be returned to the soil or imported to maintain and improve fertility and supply crop needs (composts, manures, minerals, etc.)?. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee HARA DAN KESUBURAN TANAH

46 Tanaman Penutup Tanah Legume untuk membangun kesuburan tanah – Generally fix 50 to 200 lbs N acre -1 – Incorporate perennials when possible – Length of legume in rotation is reduced in systems which are not integrated with livestock ($) Serapan hara – Prevents losses via leaching, runoff – Nutrients potentially available to subsequent crop (Davies and Lennartsson, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

47 Mengisi periode lahan bero – Cool-season fallow: Legumes: hairy vetch, crimson clover Non-legumes: cereal rye, triticale, annual ryegrass, other small grains, brassicas – Warm-season fallow: Legumes: cowpeas, soybeans, sunn hemp Non-legumes: sorghum-sudangrass, pearl millet, buckwheat. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Tanaman Penutup Tanah

48 Ketersediaan N untuk tanaman berikutnya - beragam – 10% to more than 50% – Mineralization controlled by interaction of factors: Environment (temperature, moisture, soil properties) Management (incorporation, mowing, etc.) Tissue quality (C:N ratio, carbohydrates, lignin) (Seiter and Horwath, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Tanaman Penutup Tanah

49 1.Incorporate perennials when possible 2.Include diversity of crops 3.Rotate among crop “families” 4.Include high residue crops 5.Immediately follow fertility-building phases with heaviest feeding crops 6.Consider building rotations around cover crops (Davies and Lennartsson, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Rotasi Tanaman

50 PERGILIRAN TANAMAN. Sumber: system/#sthash.c6J9pkpK.NuBsNWS4.dpbs Garden Crop Rotation - A Simple System.

51 PERGILIRAN TANAMAN. Sumber: Crop Rotation - the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons - is important for a number of reasons. 1.Prevents soil depletion 2.Maintains and improves soil fertility 3.Reduces soil erosion 4.Controls insect/mite pests. Crop rotation as a means to control to insect pests is most effective when the pests are present before the crop is planted have no wide range of host crops; attack only annual/biennial crops; and do not have the ability to fly from one field to another. 5.Reduces reliance on synthetic chemicals 6.Reduces the pests’ build-up 7.Prevents diseases 8.Helps control weeds.

52 KALENDER PERTANAMAN. Sumber:

53 KALENDER PRODUKSI TANAMAN. Sumber:

54 Material Tumbuhan dan Hewan Permitted materials – Composts of animal manures, plant residues, or other organic “wastes” – Raw manures – Other materials: fish meal, blood meal, soybean meal, etc. Test manures and composts to determine application rates – N,P,K & other nutrients can vary significantly Build fertility on-farm, using imported composts and manures to supplement. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

55 KOMPOS Stable, humus-like material produced from aerobic decomposition of organic wastes – Minimizes pathogens – Made from plant and animal materials – Homogeneous with initial residues indistinguishable upon completion No application restrictions if produced to NOP standards (or if containing no manures). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

56 Initial C:N ratio between 25:1 and 40:1 At least 60 days 131°F to 170°F – Duration of 3 days – Materials mixed to ensure all materials reach this temperature Keep records! (NOSB Compost Task Force, 2002). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee STANDAR KOMPOS

57 KUALITAS KOMPOS Source of organic matter (40 to 60%) Source of N (C:N ration of 10 to 15:1) Neutral pH Low soluble salts No phytotoxicity Sedikit benih (biji) gulma yg hidup (Cooperband, 2002). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

58 BOT – BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH “Manage plant and animal materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances” Overwhelming impact on most soil properties Typically 1 to 6% in agricultural soils Living organisms, fresh residues, & well- decomposed residues (Magdoff and van Es, 2009). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

59 Fungsi utama BOT – Improves water holding capacity – Increases nutrient holding capacity – Increases tilth and aggregation – Increases biological activity and diversity – Buffers pH changes Goal: supply crops with needed nutrients while building soil organic matter (Magdoff and Weil, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee BOT – BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH

60 Biomass (living organisms) Passive organic matter (½ life: centuries) Active organic matter (½ life: months to years) (adapted from Magdoff and Weil, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee BOT – BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH

61 BOT: Aktif atau Labil Materials of recent origin High nutrient/energy value Non-aggregate protected Most important to: – Soil aggregation – Micronutrient chelation – Nutrient mineralization Efficient cycling of N,P, & S – Plant growth-regulating substances Most sensitive to management changes (Magdoff and Weil, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

62 BOT: Pasif atau Recalcitrant 1.Physically protected or stable due to biochemical properties or mineral association 2.Humic substances, aliphatic molecules, lignins, etc. 3.Responsible for much of CEC 1.Greater % in coarse-textured soils 4.Nutrients in organic-mineral complexes 5.Key role in water holding capacity, bulk density, etc. (Magdoff and Weil, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

63 Management BOT (www.climatescience.gov)

64 Effectively use crop residues and add new residues (cover crops, local residues) Use varied residues to maintain diverse population of soil organisms Balance farm exports and inputs of nutrients so as not to build excessive nutrients Use practices that do not accelerate decomposition or erosion – Excessive tillage – Excessive N fertilization – Lack of cover – Removal of residues (Magdoff and van Es, 2009). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Management BOT

65 Balance decomposition of residues and accumulation of humus (i.e. “steady burn”) – C:N ratio of residues >30 (immobilization of N) <30 (mineralization of N) – Incorporate high residue crops in rotation (e.g. grains) 10 to 20% of biomass converted to stable humus Mix small grains with legumes – Root biomass plays an important role (perennials and biennials) Slower decomposition, more stable organic matter Well-distributed without mechanical incorporation (Magdoff and van Es, 2009). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Management BOT

66 Kontaminasi Tanaman, Tanah atau Air Use soil tests to prevent over-application of nutrients Use cover/catch crops to prevent nutrient leaching and runoff during fallow periods Follow NOP regulations regarding application of raw manures to crops intended for human consumption – 90 days for grain/orchard crops – 120 days for vegetable/small fruits. Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee

67 Arsenic – Raw or composted broiler litter economical source of fertility – Often contains arsenic (~35 ppm) – Can accumulate in soils with long-term, repeated applications – Problematic on soils with heavy application of litter in the past or fields with a history arsenic pesticide applications – No arsenic in manures from layer operations or organic poultry production Copper (Bellows, 2005). Sumber: David Butler, Ph.D. Assistant Professor. Organic/Sustainable & Alternative Crop Production; Plant Sciences Department, The University of Tennessee Kontaminasi Tanaman, Tanah atau Air

68 KESIMPULAN Bahan Organik Tanah – Key component of sustainable soil management – Increased SOM benefits conventional and organic producers Manajemen organik dapat mengubah kualitas dan perilaku tanah – Biomasa mikroba tanah – Pengendalian gangguan penyakit – Siklus hara lebih efisien Peluang-peluanag bagi olah tanah minimum dan kultivasi rotasi organik

69 Mengisi periode bera dnegan tanaman penutup tanah – Membangun kesuburan N tanah – Meningkatkan BOT – Mengendalikan gulma dan penyakit – Mencegah kehilangan hara Monitor soils and amendments through regular testing with state labs On-farm and local sources of fertility likely to be most economical and sustainable KESIMPULAN

70 . ….. Seterusnya bgm BMP sustainable farming? ……


Download ppt "STRATEGI MANAJEMEN AGROEKOSISTEM KAWASAN PRODUKSI SAYURAN Bahan kajian MK. MSLPW smno.pta.fpub.mei2013."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google