Presentation on theme: "Standards SSUSH 9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, courses, and consequences of the Civil War. a)Explain."— Presentation transcript:
Standards SSUSH 9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, courses, and consequences of the Civil War. a)Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott decision, and John Brown’s Raid. b)Describe President Abraham Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address and the Gettysburg Address and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus. c)Describe the roles of Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Jefferson Davis. d)Explain the importance of the Fort Sumter, Battle of Antietam, Battle of Vicksburg, Battle of Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these battles. e)Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. f)Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output.
Kansas Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Stephen Douglas of Illinois proposes that the 36’30’ line from the Missouri Compromise be given a different meaning. The Act divided the western territory in two: Kansas and Nebraska. Both territories would use popular sovereignty to determine whether or not they would allow slavery. People were not happy with this. It was a major step toward war.
“Bleeding Kansas” (Three Events) Event #1 “The Sack of Lawrence” – Anti-slavery settlers lived in Lawrence, Kansas. – A bunch of pro-slavery “border ruffians” attacked the town, and a small scale civil war pursued.
“Bleeding Kansas” (Three Events) Event #2: The Pottawattamie Massacre – Radical (crazy) abolitionist John Brown believed he was called by God to end slavery. – After hearing news of Lawrence, Brown and some followers brutally murdered 3 men and 2 boys who supported slavery. – This was done at the Pottawattamie Creek in Kansas.
“Bleeding Kansas” (Three Events) Event #3: The Caning of Charles Sumner – Charles Sumner was an abolitionist senator. – While he was giving a speech, he offended Andrew Butler, a southern Senator. – Preston Brooks, Butler’s cousin, came to visit Charles Sumner in his office and took out his cane and beat him. – Sumner did not die, but suffered traumatic wounds.
Popular Sovereignty Idea that people in a territory can decide for themselves whether to be a slave state or a free state Kansas Nebraska Act – failed attempt to implement idea Stephen Douglas – promoted idea to solve problem of extending slavery into the territories
Dred Scott Decision One of the worst, if not worst decision of the Supreme Court Dred Scott was a slave who was encouraged to sue his master for his freedom. He did this because his master took him into free territory and lived there for a while. Many people believed that this should have made Dred Scott free. However, the Supreme Court (Roger Taney) ruled that a slave belongs to his master no matter where they move. Also Slaves HAVE NO RIGHTS THAT A WHITE MAN SHOULD RESPECT This outraged those who did not want slavery to exist in their states and who had voted against it.
John Brown Martyr or Murderer depending upon perspective Attempted to start slave rebellion in Virginia “white” Nat Turner
Ulysses S. Grant Greatest General for the Union/North Victory in Vicksburg cut Confederacy in two Victory over Lee ends the Civil War His policy of “unconditional surrender” earned him the nickname – US Grant
Robert E. Lee Greatest General of the Confederacy/South His military genius and strategies provided the South a chance for victory Without Lee, South would not have likely kept fighting for so long Was offered by Lincoln opportunity to lead Union Army His decision to fight for his “country – Virginia” # 1 Reason South had chance to win Civil War
William Tecumseh Sherman Most hated General in Atlanta “March to the Sea” destroyed South’s will and capacity to continue the Civil War Grant’s “right hand” man
Unusable railroad junction (Atlanta)
Atlanta after Sherman’s March to the Sea
Atlanta after being burned
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Brilliant Confederate General – Determination and Courage in battles helped earn him the nickname “Stonewall” His use of Calvary forces helped Lee keep superior Union forces from victory Lee’s “right hand” man
Fort Sumter Fort Sumter: started the Civil War South fired first shot on Fort Sumter – responsible for starting Civil War Charlestown, South Carolina-center of Secession sentiment since the Nullification Crisis
Battle of Antietam Antietam: single bloodiest day of battle in US history First time South invades the North – if South won battle, most likely outcome – North would have given up Because of Northern victory -Lincoln decides to write the Emancipation Proclamation Because of Northern victory – British alliance with South was stopped.
Siege of Vicksburg Vicksburg, Mississippi – Southern control of Vicksburg meant Southern control of Mississippi River Grant’s victory split the Confederacy in two; took over the Mississippi River Grant’s victory convinced Lincoln that Grant is the only General capable of defeating Robert E. Lee
Battle of Gettysburg A turning point of the Civil War Last attempt by South to invade North and end the Civil War with a Southern victory If South won, most likely would have won the Civil War.
Battle for Atlanta General Sherman conquer and destroyed Atlanta – cut rail lines that inhibited Southern transportation From Atlanta Sherman begins his “March to the Sea” to Savannah – Death/Destruction
Jefferson Davis Confederate States of America – first and only president Could not preserve the Confederacy from overwhelming Union Forces Could not match Lincoln’s strategic and political skills
Abraham Lincoln Considered by many historians as America’s Greatest President Expanded power of the President more than any other president in history
Habeas Corpus A term that refers to a person’s right to be released from jail, if he/she was placed in jail illegally Lincoln suspended this right during the Civil War The suspension meant Lincoln put people in prison without following legal procedures
Emancipation Proclamation Issued by President Lincoln, after the Battle of Antietam Freed slaves only in the Confederacy Changed the nature of the war from a fight to preserve the Union to a fight for the freedom of slaves Inspired former slaves and free blacks to join in the Union Army
Gettysburg Address Considered by many historians as the greatest speech in American history Lincoln’s speech explained the Civil War in terms of a fight for differing versions of Freedom, “new birth of freedom” Espoused ideas of human equality Goal of Speech to inspire the Union to continue the fight for freedom
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Named Civil War as a punishment from God for the sin of slavery Offered a vision of “Reconstruction” designed to heal the wounds of the Civil War