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Educational Policy/ Revision 1. Summary of Institutional Racism’ and Sociological views of differential attainment and race 2. A brief history of UK Educational.

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Presentation on theme: "Educational Policy/ Revision 1. Summary of Institutional Racism’ and Sociological views of differential attainment and race 2. A brief history of UK Educational."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educational Policy/ Revision 1. Summary of Institutional Racism’ and Sociological views of differential attainment and race 2. A brief history of UK Educational Policy ! Handout and discussion/notes 3. Coffee break 4. Criticisms of Changes to Educational policy PP Slide Mini Lecture 5. Identifying Social Policy and Political/Sociological ideology: Worksheet with jumbled statements to match! 6. Think Tank Social Policy Project Activity! (Revision exercise on education and for the essay)

2 A History of UK Educational Policy  1870 The Education Act requires the establishment of non-denominational elementary schools - for children aged five to 13 - nationwide.  Schools can charge pupils no more than nine pence a week.  1880 Attendance is made compulsory until the age of 10.  1891 Elementary education effectively becomes free.  1918 Leaving age is raised to 14.  1944 Butler's Education Act seeks to encourage the "spiritual, mental and physical" well-being of the community.  It creates the "tripartite", hierarchical system of grammar, technical and secondary modern schools.  Selection is decided by an exam taken at the age of 11. Meanwhile, the school leaving age is raised to 15.  1951 General Certificate of Education (GCE) O- levels and A-levels are introduced, replacing the School Certificate and the Higher School Certificate.  These were primarily grammar school exams. Some education authorities established their own leaving examinations for youngsters not taking GCEs.  1964 Harold Wilson's newly-elected Labour government promises to set up comprehensive schools, combining pupils of all ability levels.  1965 The Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) is introduced for secondary modern pupils, to cater for those not sitting O-levels.  1973 School leaving age raised to 16.  In 1976 another Wilson administrations compels all local authorities to introduce these. But this legislation is repealed by the Tories in 1979.  1988 The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) replaces O-levels and CSEs.  The National Curriculum, stipulating subjects to be studied until the age of 16, is also introduced.  1994 An A* grade is added to GCSEs to differentiate between top and lower A grades.  1995 The government introduces National Curriculum Tests, often called Sats, for all children aged seven, 11 and 14 ( tests for seven year olds were first tried in 1991).  1996 General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) are offered as a more work-based alternative for non-academic students.  1997 The National Literacy Strategy, aimed at raising standards to those of the UK's main competitors, is introduced for primary schools in England.  2000 Advanced Subsidiary (AS-level) exams are brought in for 17 year olds. These are qualifications in their own right but also a halfway stage in the A-level course, unlike the Advanced Supplementary exams they replace.  Plans are also revealed to replace the lower tiers of GNVQ with vocational GCSEs, with the stated aim of putting academic and vocational education on a par.  2002 Several hundred A-level papers are regraded amid fears the reforms have been rushed through.  2004 Mike Tomlinson, the former inspector of schools in England, proposes replacing GCSEs, A-levels and the "soup" of vocational qualifications with a four-part diploma for 14 to 19 year olds.  It calls for "core skills", such as numeracy and literacy, to be compulsory before pupils can qualify.  The plans would alter the English education system more radically than any others since 1944.  However, Mr Tomlinson says the changes will be "evolutionary, not revolutionary", taking around 10 years to implement.

3 Key Stages of Policy Change and Critiques  1944 Butler Act –Education for all (Classical Conservative)  Created the Tripartite System:  Grammar Schools- For academic  Secondary Modern Schools –For those who failed 11 plus exams.  Technical schools: for technically minded  Was highly criticised for:  Grammar School not offering places to children from working class children  Did not meet the needs/abilities of all children  Halsey found by the 1950’s/60s evidence became clear that this was not producing equal opportunities for ‘all children’ and that the system reinforced class divisions and inequality

4 1964 Onwards: Comprehensive Education (Labour/Social Democratic)  Tripartite system heavily criticised: labour reformed education.  Non Selective Schools: all children attend within a catchment/No choice.  It was argued this would reduce the gap between classes and reduce educational poverty.  Why? *  Middle class and working class children would mix together and share skills and help increase standards for all  Those not skilled at exams would not be penalised by 11 plus  Would not penalise ‘late developers’

5 Did Comprehensive Education work?  A H Heath (1987) argued that comprehensive education failed to close the gap between middle and working class  Outside factors counteracted comprehensive education*  A McPherson & J Willms (1988) refuted Heaths research and found that there were improvements in attainment across all social groups between 1976 -1984.

6 A return to Selection? Mixed Education 1988- Present (New Right)  1988 Education Act re establishes selective schools or ‘Grant Maintained Schools’.  Principle of 11 plus re established  Schools have to perform to receive funding from private sector  Education standardised (national curriculum and teacher training)  Children have to compete with tests and performance tables  Ofsted Created (Education Inspectorate)  Drive for ‘Vocationalism’*  Debate that Britain lacked skilled workforce for practical jobs. Vocational qualifications introduced and YTS schemes

7 Criticisms of New Right and Vocationalism  Same criticisms as those of Tripartite: A return to class divisions between working and middle class (large evidence for this).  Children who don’t have examination skills, or haven’t developed at 11 will miss out on ‘selective schools’  Recent evidence argues that these policies have created ‘postcode lotteries’ opportunities depending on where you live.  Robert Moore (1987) argues Vocationalism is an economic tool to reduce costs for employers and not about improving the opportunities for students.

8 1997-2010 (New Labour)  New Right reforms maintained ( Selective education)  Attempts to address poverty (Educational Action Zones, Sure Start, EMA)  Attempts to reform failing schools (Academies)  2010- Present (Conservative Coalition)  More Selective Policies introduced- return to tripartite?  Poverty Reduction Initiatives cut  Private educational reforms to Further and Higher Education

9 Think Tank Policy Challenge!  In a team or pairs:  You work for a leading Educational policy Research Organisation and have been assigned by the government to research and then recommend changes to education.  You have been asked to investigate the following ‘issues’ and then, explain why they have developed and your solutions!  Create a booklet or posters with reasons for and policy changes for:  Gap between middle and working class children’s attainment in Gcses, a levels and SATS  Gap between ethnic groups in subject attainment and university entrance  Cultural habits of children who ‘fail’ at school (ie: language, values, hobbies, etc)  Regional Divide in Education between North/South and poorer inner city areas  Practices of teachers and schools in the classroom and in inner school policies in ‘failing schools’

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