Presentation on theme: "Educational Policy/ Revision 1. Summary of Institutional Racism’ and Sociological views of differential attainment and race 2. A brief history of UK Educational."— Presentation transcript:
Educational Policy/ Revision 1. Summary of Institutional Racism’ and Sociological views of differential attainment and race 2. A brief history of UK Educational Policy ! Handout and discussion/notes 3. Coffee break 4. Criticisms of Changes to Educational policy PP Slide Mini Lecture 5. Identifying Social Policy and Political/Sociological ideology: Worksheet with jumbled statements to match! 6. Think Tank Social Policy Project Activity! (Revision exercise on education and for the essay)
A History of UK Educational Policy 1870 The Education Act requires the establishment of non-denominational elementary schools - for children aged five to 13 - nationwide. Schools can charge pupils no more than nine pence a week. 1880 Attendance is made compulsory until the age of 10. 1891 Elementary education effectively becomes free. 1918 Leaving age is raised to 14. 1944 Butler's Education Act seeks to encourage the "spiritual, mental and physical" well-being of the community. It creates the "tripartite", hierarchical system of grammar, technical and secondary modern schools. Selection is decided by an exam taken at the age of 11. Meanwhile, the school leaving age is raised to 15. 1951 General Certificate of Education (GCE) O- levels and A-levels are introduced, replacing the School Certificate and the Higher School Certificate. These were primarily grammar school exams. Some education authorities established their own leaving examinations for youngsters not taking GCEs. 1964 Harold Wilson's newly-elected Labour government promises to set up comprehensive schools, combining pupils of all ability levels. 1965 The Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) is introduced for secondary modern pupils, to cater for those not sitting O-levels. 1973 School leaving age raised to 16. In 1976 another Wilson administrations compels all local authorities to introduce these. But this legislation is repealed by the Tories in 1979. 1988 The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) replaces O-levels and CSEs. The National Curriculum, stipulating subjects to be studied until the age of 16, is also introduced. 1994 An A* grade is added to GCSEs to differentiate between top and lower A grades. 1995 The government introduces National Curriculum Tests, often called Sats, for all children aged seven, 11 and 14 ( tests for seven year olds were first tried in 1991). 1996 General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) are offered as a more work-based alternative for non-academic students. 1997 The National Literacy Strategy, aimed at raising standards to those of the UK's main competitors, is introduced for primary schools in England. 2000 Advanced Subsidiary (AS-level) exams are brought in for 17 year olds. These are qualifications in their own right but also a halfway stage in the A-level course, unlike the Advanced Supplementary exams they replace. Plans are also revealed to replace the lower tiers of GNVQ with vocational GCSEs, with the stated aim of putting academic and vocational education on a par. 2002 Several hundred A-level papers are regraded amid fears the reforms have been rushed through. 2004 Mike Tomlinson, the former inspector of schools in England, proposes replacing GCSEs, A-levels and the "soup" of vocational qualifications with a four-part diploma for 14 to 19 year olds. It calls for "core skills", such as numeracy and literacy, to be compulsory before pupils can qualify. The plans would alter the English education system more radically than any others since 1944. However, Mr Tomlinson says the changes will be "evolutionary, not revolutionary", taking around 10 years to implement.
Key Stages of Policy Change and Critiques 1944 Butler Act –Education for all (Classical Conservative) Created the Tripartite System: Grammar Schools- For academic Secondary Modern Schools –For those who failed 11 plus exams. Technical schools: for technically minded Was highly criticised for: Grammar School not offering places to children from working class children Did not meet the needs/abilities of all children Halsey found by the 1950’s/60s evidence became clear that this was not producing equal opportunities for ‘all children’ and that the system reinforced class divisions and inequality
1964 Onwards: Comprehensive Education (Labour/Social Democratic) Tripartite system heavily criticised: labour reformed education. Non Selective Schools: all children attend within a catchment/No choice. It was argued this would reduce the gap between classes and reduce educational poverty. Why? * Middle class and working class children would mix together and share skills and help increase standards for all Those not skilled at exams would not be penalised by 11 plus Would not penalise ‘late developers’
Did Comprehensive Education work? A H Heath (1987) argued that comprehensive education failed to close the gap between middle and working class Outside factors counteracted comprehensive education* A McPherson & J Willms (1988) refuted Heaths research and found that there were improvements in attainment across all social groups between 1976 -1984.
A return to Selection? Mixed Education 1988- Present (New Right) 1988 Education Act re establishes selective schools or ‘Grant Maintained Schools’. Principle of 11 plus re established Schools have to perform to receive funding from private sector Education standardised (national curriculum and teacher training) Children have to compete with tests and performance tables Ofsted Created (Education Inspectorate) Drive for ‘Vocationalism’* Debate that Britain lacked skilled workforce for practical jobs. Vocational qualifications introduced and YTS schemes
Criticisms of New Right and Vocationalism Same criticisms as those of Tripartite: A return to class divisions between working and middle class (large evidence for this). Children who don’t have examination skills, or haven’t developed at 11 will miss out on ‘selective schools’ Recent evidence argues that these policies have created ‘postcode lotteries’ opportunities depending on where you live. Robert Moore (1987) argues Vocationalism is an economic tool to reduce costs for employers and not about improving the opportunities for students.
1997-2010 (New Labour) New Right reforms maintained ( Selective education) Attempts to address poverty (Educational Action Zones, Sure Start, EMA) Attempts to reform failing schools (Academies) 2010- Present (Conservative Coalition) More Selective Policies introduced- return to tripartite? Poverty Reduction Initiatives cut Private educational reforms to Further and Higher Education
Think Tank Policy Challenge! In a team or pairs: You work for a leading Educational policy Research Organisation and have been assigned by the government to research and then recommend changes to education. You have been asked to investigate the following ‘issues’ and then, explain why they have developed and your solutions! Create a booklet or posters with reasons for and policy changes for: Gap between middle and working class children’s attainment in Gcses, a levels and SATS Gap between ethnic groups in subject attainment and university entrance Cultural habits of children who ‘fail’ at school (ie: language, values, hobbies, etc) Regional Divide in Education between North/South and poorer inner city areas Practices of teachers and schools in the classroom and in inner school policies in ‘failing schools’