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Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards Nancy Butler Songer School of Education University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards Nancy Butler Songer School of Education University of Michigan, Ann Arbor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards Nancy Butler Songer School of Education University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

2 Overview 1.Summary of NRC Findings 2.One Example: A Set of Assessment Tasks Discussion and questions 3.Systems of Assessment, Options for Monitoring Functions Discussion and questions 2

3 3 MS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions Students who demonstrate understanding can: MS-PS1-d.Develop molecular models of reactants and products to support the explanation that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved in a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Models can include physical models and drawings that represent atoms rather than symbols. The focus is on law of conservation of matter.] [Assessment Boundary: The use of atomic masses is not required. Balancing symbolic equations (e.g. N2 + H2 -> NH3) is not required.] The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Science and Engineering PracticesDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to support explanations, describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.  Use and/or develop models to predict, describe, support explanation, and/or collect data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales. (MS-PS1-a), (MS-PS1-c), (MS-PS1-d) Connections to Nature of Science Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena  Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-d) PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-d), ( MS-PS1-e), (MS-PS1-f)  The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change. (MS-PS1-d) Energy and Matter  Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. (MS-PS1-d) Closer Look at a Performance Expectation Note: Performance expectations combine practices, core ideas, and crosscutting concepts into a single statement of what is to be assessed. They are not instructional strategies or objectives for a lesson.

4 4 MS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions Students who demonstrate understanding can: MS-PS1-d.Develop molecular models of reactants and products to support the explanation that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved in a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Models can include physical models and drawings that represent atoms rather than symbols. The focus is on law of conservation of matter.] [Assessment Boundary: The use of atomic masses is not required. Balancing symbolic equations (e.g. N2 + H2 -> NH3) is not required.] The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Science and Engineering PracticesDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to support explanations, describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.  Use and/or develop models to predict, describe, support explanation, and/or collect data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales. (MS-PS1-a), (MS-PS1-c), (MS-PS1-d) Connections to Nature of Science Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena  Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-d) PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-d), ( MS-PS1-e), (MS-PS1-f)  The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change. (MS-PS1-d) Energy and Matter  Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. (MS-PS1-d) Closer Look at a Performance Expectation Note: Performance expectations combine practices, core ideas, and crosscutting concepts into a single statement of what is to be assessed. They are not instructional strategies or objectives for a lesson.

5 5 MS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions Students who demonstrate understanding can: MS-PS1-d.Develop molecular models of reactants and products to support the explanation that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved in a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Models can include physical models and drawings that represent atoms rather than symbols. The focus is on law of conservation of matter.] [Assessment Boundary: The use of atomic masses is not required. Balancing symbolic equations (e.g. N2 + H2 -> NH3) is not required.] The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Science and Engineering PracticesDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to support explanations, describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.  Use and/or develop models to predict, describe, support explanation, and/or collect data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales. (MS-PS1-a), (MS-PS1-c), (MS-PS1-d) Connections to Nature of Science Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena  Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-d) PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-d), ( MS-PS1-e), (MS-PS1-f)  The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change. (MS-PS1-d) Energy and Matter  Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. (MS-PS1-d) Note: Performance expectations combine practices, core ideas, and crosscutting concepts into a single statement of what is to be assessed. They are not instructional strategies or objectives for a lesson. Closer Look at a Performance Expectation

6 6 MS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions Students who demonstrate understanding can: MS-PS1-d.Develop molecular models of reactants and products to support the explanation that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved in a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Models can include physical models and drawings that represent atoms rather than symbols. The focus is on law of conservation of matter.] [Assessment Boundary: The use of atomic masses is not required. Balancing symbolic equations (e.g. N2 + H2 -> NH3) is not required.] The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Science and Engineering PracticesDisciplinary Core IdeasCrosscutting Concepts Developing and Using Models Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to support explanations, describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.  Use and/or develop models to predict, describe, support explanation, and/or collect data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales. (MS-PS1-a), (MS-PS1-c), (MS-PS1-d) Connections to Nature of Science Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena  Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-d) PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-d), ( MS-PS1-e), (MS-PS1-f)  The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change. (MS-PS1-d) Energy and Matter  Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. (MS-PS1-d) Closer Look at a Performance Expectation Note: Performance expectations combine practices, core ideas, and crosscutting concepts into a single statement of what is to be assessed. They are not instructional strategies or objectives for a lesson.

7 NRC Committee’s Charge: Recommendations on Developing Assessments for NGSS Identify strategies for developing assessments that validly measure student proficiency in science. Review recent and ongoing assessment work to identify both available assessment techniques and systems and needed research and development for assessing NGSS. Make recommendations for state and national policymakers, research organizations, assessment developers, and study sponsors about steps needed to develop valid, reliable and fair assessments for the Framework’s vision of science education. 7

8 Committee Members James W. Pellegrino, University of Illinois at Chicago (co-chair) Mark R. Wilson, University of California, Berkeley (co-chair) Peter McLaren, Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Knut Neumann, Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Kathleen Scalise, University of Oregon Richard Lehrer, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University William Penuel, University of Colorado at Boulder Brian Reiser, Northwestern University Nancy Butler Songer, University of Michigan Richard M. Amasino, University of Wisconsin, Madison (life sciences) Helen R. Quinn, Stanford University (physics) Roberta Tanner, Loveland High School, CO (engineering) Edward Haertel, Stanford University Joan Herman, CRESST, UCLA Scott F. Marion, National Center for the Improvement of Education Assessment Jerome M. Shaw, University of California, Santa Cruz Catherine J. Welch, University of Iowa 8

9 9

10 Some Main Messages 1.New types of assessment are needed that are well designed to address NGSS learning goals 2.State monitoring assessments must move beyond traditional forms; they will NOT suffice. 10

11 New Types = Assessment Grounded in NGSS Expectations Tasks should ask students to apply practices in the context of disciplinary core ideas and crosscutting concepts Need well-designed, multi-component tasks that use a variety of response formats: – Selected-response questions – short and extended constructed response questions – performance tasks – classroom discourse 11

12 Multicomponent Tasks To adequately cover the three dimensions, assessment tasks will need to contain multiple components (e.g., a cluster or set of interrelated questions). Specific questions may focus on individual practices, core ideas, or crosscutting concepts, but, together, the components need to support inferences about students’ three-dimensional science learning as described in a given performance expectation.

13 Fifth Grade Activity Cluster: Biodiversity in the Schoolyard Zone Set of three tasks that ask 5 th grade students to determine which zone of their schoolyard contains the greatest biodiversity Tasks require students to demonstrate knowledge of: – Disciplinary Core Idea -- biodiversity – Crosscutting Concept -- patterns – Practices – planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, and constructing explanations. 13

14 Collect data on the number of animals (abundance) and the number of different species (richness) in schoolyard zones. The students are broken into three teams, and each team is assigned a zone in the schoolyard. The students are instructed to go outside and spend 40 minutes observing and recording all of the animals and signs of animals seen in their assigned zone. The students record their information, which is uploaded to a spreadsheet containing all the students’ combined data. Purpose: Teachers can look at the data provided by individual groups or from the whole class to gauge how well students can perform the scientific practices of planning and carrying out investigations, and collecting and recording data. Example: Task 1 14

15 Task 1: Collect data on biodiversity of the schoolyard 15

16 Example (cont.): Task 2 Create bar graphs that illustrate patterns in data on abundance and richness from each of the schoolyard zones. Students are instructed to make two bar charts – one illustrating the abundance of species in the three zones, and another illustrating the richness of species in the zones – and to label the charts’ axes. Purpose: This task allows the teacher to gauge students’ ability to construct and interpret graphs from data -- an important element of the scientific practice “analyzing and interpreting data.” 16

17 Task 2: Create graphs of schoolyard biodiversity data 17

18 Example (cont.): Task 3 Construct an explanation to support your answer to the question, “Which zone of the schoolyard has the greatest biodiversity?” Previously, students learned that an area is considered biodiverse if it has both a high animal abundance and high species richness. In the instruction for this task, each student is prompted to make a claim, give his or her reasoning, and identify two pieces of evidence that support the claim. Purpose: This task allows the teacher to see how well students understand the core idea of biodiversity and whether they can recognize data that reflects its hallmarks (high animal abundance and high species richness). It also reveals how well they can carry out the scientific practice of constructing explanations. This task could also be used as part of a “summative” end-of-unit assessment. 18

19 Task 3: Use their data as evidence for explanations of which schoolyard area has the greatest biodiversity 19

20 Discussion and Questions

21 Some Main Messages 1.New types of assessment are needed, well designed to address NGSS learning goals 2.State monitoring assessments must move beyond traditional forms; they will NOT suffice. 3.NGSS assessment should start with the needs of classroom teaching and learning 4.States must create coherent systems of assessment to support both classroom learning and policy/monitoring functions. 21

22 A System of Assessment A range of assessments are needed that answer different questions (tied to needs of different stakeholders) and that provide complementary results: – Assessments designed to support classroom instruction; – Assessments designed to monitor science learning; and – A series of indicators to monitor that the students are provided with adequate opportunity to learn science in the ways laid out in the framework and NGSS.

23 Giving Precedence to Classroom Assessment

24 Assessments for Monitoring It is not feasible to cover the full breadth and depth of the NGSS performance expectations for a given grade level with a single external (large-scale) assessment. The types of assessment tasks that are needed take time to administer, and several will be required in order to adequately sample the set of performance expectations for a given grade level. Some practices, such as demonstrating proficiency in carrying out an investigation, will be difficult to assess using conventional formats of on-demand external assessments.

25 Assessments for Monitoring On demand assessments –Developed by the state –Administered at a time mandated by the state Classroom embedded assessments –Developed by the state or district, –Administered at a time determined by the district/school that fits the instructional sequence in the classroom

26 On-Demand Assessment Options Mixed item formats with written responses – Such as AP Biology Mixed item formats with performance tasks – might involve both group and independent activities (NECAP example) – might involve some hands-on tasks, such as having students perform tasks at stations (NY example) Use matrix sampling, depending on the intended use and the need to report scores for individuals versus for groups.

27 Options for Classroom-Embedded Assessments: Rich and Deep – Replacement units (curriculum materials + assessments) developed outside of the classroom (by state or district) – Item banks of NGSS-aligned tasks, developed outside of the classroom, from which schools and/or teachers select – Portfolio collections of classroom work samples, with tasks specified by state or district 27

28 Options for Classroom-Embedded Assessments (cont.) Teachers receive training in how to administer them Scoring can be done by teachers (trained to score them) or sent to the district/state for central scoring Moderation and quality control procedures can enhance the comparability of these assessments so they could support the desired inferences/comparisons needed for a monitoring purpose. 28

29 Opportunity to Learn Indicators Essential for documenting practices Potential data sources – Inspections of school science programs – Surveys of students and teachers – Monitoring of teacher professional development programs – Documentation of curriculum assignments and student work. Key means for monitoring equity

30 Implementation Begin with classroom assessment design Include professional development as integral part of implementation States should develop and implement new assessment systems gradually and establish carefully considered priorities

31 Systems for Monitoring Student Learning: RECAP Not an assessment: Systems of Assessment Can’t cover the full breadth and depth of the NGSS performance expectations with a single, external (large-scale) assessment. Suitable assessment tasks take time to administer, and several will be required to adequately sample NGSS performance expectations. Some practices, e.g., carrying out an investigation, are difficult to assess using conventional formats of external, on-demand assessments.

32 Some Main Messages 1.New types of assessment are needed, well designed to address NGSS learning goals 2.State monitoring assessments must move beyond traditional forms; they will NOT suffice. 3.NGSS assessment should start with the needs of classroom teaching and learning 4.States must create coherent systems of assessment to support both classroom learning and policy/monitoring functions. 32

33 Some Main Messages (cont.) 5.Implementation should be gradual, systematic, and carefully prioritized and must attend to equity 6.Professional development and adequate support for teachers will be critical 7.Research is needed 33

34 For Further Information For pre-publication version of NRC Assessment for Next Generation Science Standards, see: nextgenscience.org nsta.org/ngss Nancy Songer

35 Ideally, all tasks can be coded for evidence of DCIs, practices and blended knowledge 4 Possible Points : (1) Claim, (1) Reasoning (2) Evidence Correct Responses Claim: Zone C has the greatest biodiversity in the schoolyard. Reasoning and Evidence Full credit for definition plus 2 evidence: R: High biodiversity includes both high species abundance (number of animals) and high species richness (number of different kinds of animals). E: The richness graph and table show that Zone C has the highest richness (13). E: The abundance graph shows Zone C has high abundance. 35


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