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Unit 3 Revision – A Tourist’s World

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1 Unit 3 Revision – A Tourist’s World
Tourism is by far and away the world’s biggest industry. There are few places that are untouched by tourism, from the wastes of Antarctica to the crowded streets of central London. Millions of people make a living from being involved in the tourist industry in some form or another. Key Term: A tourist is anyone who stays away from home for at least a night. Types of Tourism Causes of the Growth of Tourism Main Categories Types Leisure Holiday Sporting event Festival Pilgrimage Visiting friends and family Stay with friends Stay with relatives Business Business meetings Conference Exhibition Educational trip Medical treatment Economic People have more disposable income so money can be spent on luxuries including tourism. Much of this disposable income is being spent in LICs too so tourism is speeding up economic development Social Most workers in HICs work less than 40 hours a week and enjoy up to 6 weeks of paid annual leave a year. This extra time has given a massive boost to tourism Transport There has been a revolution in tourism transport! Journey times have been reduced and longer journeys have been made more comfortable. Jet aircraft, high speed rail links and cruiser coaches have all helped this Communication The mass media (TV and internet especially) have raised people’s awareness of faraway places and various activities that they may never have come across before e.g. antique collecting etc Political More countries are realising the benefit of being a tourist destination. Governments can make money from tourists visas and departure taxes

2 Potential Exam Questions
Study the graph below, it shows how tourism has grown since Describe the changes shown Use tourist data in your answer [3] _______________________________________________________________________________ Explain the social causes of the growth of tourism [4]

3 Potential Exam Questions
Holiday Attractions Like other forms of economic activity, tourism exploits resources. The resources, or attractions, are of two broad types – environmental and human Environmental Attractions: Climate – plenty of sunshine and warm temperatures or good snow conditions Wildlife – game animals (in safaris), birds and whales Scenery – attractive and spectacular e.g. mountainous Protected areas – like national parks and nature reserves Beaches – clean sand, safe swimming and good surf Human Attractions: Cultural heritage – museums, art galleries, temples, festivals, archaeological sites Accommodation – quality hotels, comfortable lodges, well-equipped chalets Local cuisine – special food, authentic restaurants Recreational facilities – golf courses, water parks, shopping centres Access – good transport connections, ease of local travel Personal security – low crime rate Potential Exam Questions Study the photo below, it shows part of the coast around Blackpool. Label one human and one environmental attraction that the area offers [2] Explain how a tourist destination can exploit it’s attractions so that it attracts tourists all year round. [3] _______________________________________________________________________________

4 Different Types of Holiday
Holidays may be distinguished in a variety of ways e.g. domestic and international tourism is the most fundamental way of categorising holidays. However, what we do on holiday is also an important method of categorising holidays. Also the location can be used to further categorise holidays. The main types are described below: Package Holidays These are perhaps the most prevalent type of holiday but they are becoming less popular. They consist of transport and accommodation that are sold together by a tour operator. They may also offer car rental and excursions whilst on holiday. The main international destinations for package holidays are the Spanish Costas, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, the Greek Islands and Cyprus (but there are many more!!). Their main appeal are: They are cheap Everything is organised for you There is plenty of entertainment and socialising They go to popular destinations Package holidays are an example of mass tourism. This means that it is highly commercialised and pays little regard to local communities. Cruises have been a development of mass tourism as have theme parks e.g. Disney World in Florida At the opposite end of the holiday market are alternative holidays. These are much smaller scale and about individuals. The holidays are often ‘do-it-yourself’. They include: Adventure Holidays - Bungee jumping, snorkelling, backpacking, scuba diving Wildlife Holidays - Bird-watching, whale-watching and safaris Education Holidays – learning to cook, wine tasting, pottery Shopping Holidays –in duty-free zones Self Catering Holidays – often in remote rural areas Community or Conservation Holidays – where tourists give their time, labour and expertise to help particular projects Another category – eco-tourism overlaps with many of these. The main features of ecotourism: It is based on natural resources, such as wildlife and wilderness It focuses on experiencing and learning about nature It does not consume non-renewable resources or damage the environment It is locally oriented – controlled by local people, employing local people, using local produce Its profits stay in the local community It is sustainable and it contributes to the conservation of areas

5 Potential Exam Questions
For each of these statements say which type of holiday it is describing [4] I have just finished my A Levels and plan to travel to Asia and Australia in my year out. I don’t have a lot of money but I will hopefully meet a lot of new people and have new experiences. _______________________________________________________________________________ Peter drove to Romania and helped to construct a new orphanage during his Easter holidays David and Elizabeth took a cruise and stay holiday to the Caribbean for their 40th Wedding Anniversary Tony is an adrenaline junkie and loves to try out lots of new experiences when he’s on holiday What are the differences between package holidays and backpacking holidays? [2] Study the photo of the beautiful island of Mauritius. Apart from a backpacking/adventure holiday. Describe one other type of holiday that could happen in this area [3]

6 Resort Development It is important to remember that even the most famous of tourist resorts had humble beginnings. Las Vegas began as a collection of small villages in the middle of the desert! This then raises some important and interesting questions: What was it that triggered their early growth as resorts? What has kept them growing and booming as resorts? Once a resort becomes well known, popular and prosperous, does it stay that way forever? The Butler model suggests that all resorts follow the same broad sequence of changes. It is made up of six stages in development and he called it a life cycle.

7 EXPLORATION A few hardy and adventurous people looking for something different in a holiday find a place that is special in terms of its culture, natural beauty, history or landscape.  There may be no tourist services available and local people will not be involved in  tourist money making activities. 2) INVOLVEMENT Local people start to notice that there are increasing numbers of people coming to their local area.  They start businesses to provide accommodation, food, guides, and transport. 3)  DEVELOPMENT Big companies start to see the emerging potential of the area as a tourist resort and therefore start to invest money in the region.  They build large hotel complexes and sell package holidays (a package might include travel, accommodation, food and excursions).  This makes the numbers of tourists swell dramatically and massively expands the number of job opportunities for people in the local region, in both tourist related jobs and in construction and services. 4) CONSOLIDATION The local economy is probably dominated by tourism at this stage, and many local people will make their money from this type of industry.  However, this can remove people from other industries such as farming and fishing and these industries can suffer as a result.  There will be continued building and expansion of the resort BUT some of the older buildings will start to become unattractive and a lower quality client base might result. 5) STAGNATION Competition from other resorts, rowdiness and a loss of the original features (e.g. if it had a great beach but that is now crowded and full of rubbish) can cause the resort to stop growing.  The number of people going levels off then starts to decline, threatening local businesses and services. 6) DECLINE OR REJUVENATION?  From the stagnation point onwards there are 2 basic possibilities:  Decline in various forms or rejuvenation (regrowth of the resort)  Decline can be slow or rapid, and regular visitors are replaced by people seeking a cheap break or day trippers.  Rejuvenation involves a cash injection from either a private company or the government, to create a new attraction within the original resort to boost its popularity - such as the Pleasure Beach at Blackpool. There are some important points to note about the Butler Model: It is a generalisation – there will be exceptions to the rule Individual resorts will move along the pathway at different speeds Some resorts may stay at a particular stage for a long time When a resort reaches the stagnation stage, what happens to it will depend in a number of players – planners, local government, investors and business people – and how ambitious and enterprising they are


9 Potential Exam Questions
Explain why the number of tourists increase between stages 4 and 5 of the Butler Model. [3] _______________________________________________________________________________ Outline the characteristics of the ‘development’ stage of the Butler Model/ In the box below sketch the outline of the Butler Model and label the different stages. [4]

10 The Effects of Tourism Growth
These effects are broadly categorised into economic, social and cultural and environmental. It is important to remember that the effects (impacts) can be positive and negative BUT it is often difficult to find some positives. Positive Negative Economic The multiplier effect Labour intensive and creates many jobs Has indirect impacts on primary and secondary industry The tourist staff, themselves, spend money in the local area Leakage of profits to HQ of tour operators This is money that could help economic development Tourism is reliant on external factors such as global economy Tourism is seasonal with massive unemployment out of season Many jobs are part-time and unskilled Social & Cultural Not many to identify… Revived local crafts such as rug making Performing arts and rituals are kept alive (even if just for tourist entertainment) Can provide better infrastructure for local people e.g. public transport More tourism=more problems Drinking too much, loud and offensive Ignoring local dress codes Encouraging crime Eroding local language by relying on English Offending due to poor behaviour in temples etc Segregation between tourists and locals leading to conflict Environmental Again very few… Alternative tourism allows people to learn about the environment Clearance of important habitats e.g. mangroves Overuse of water sources Pollution of seas, rivers and lakes Destruction of coral reefs by divers Disturbance of wildlife Air/noise pollution from traffic

11 Case Study: Impacts of Tourism in Khumbu, Nepal
This area of Nepal reaches up to the summit of Mt Everest. Every year, well over 100,000 tourists visit this part of Nepal which is one of the world’s poorest countries. Traditionally the people were subsistence farmers but they now provide most of the Sherpas who carry the packs and guide trekking and mountaineering expeditions Even alternative tourism that is usually considered to be better has it’s negative sides! If we look at a completely different example – Ibiza – it is clear to see the impacts that tourism has had on its reputation as the ‘Gomorrah of the Med’ (a reference to the town which, in the Bible story, was destroyed by fire from heaven because of the wickedness of its inhabitants). This is despite the fact that Ibiza has many beautiful areas that are World Heritage Sites. However, these are largely unknown due to its party island reputation. Positive Negative Economic Some men have set up small businesses that organise expeditions Sherpa wages are good. They earn enough to rebuild their houses Basic food prices are being pushed up by tourists Social & Cultural Schools have been built and education improved The role and importance of women is improving Young men have left their villages to become guides There is not enough male labour to work on farms. Women are taking over the work Tourists bring in western foods, diet and health have improved Many teenagers drop out of school early to take jobs Traditional garments are no longer made Families are breaking up Environmental Electricity is now supplied by mini hydro scheme Fuel wood is becoming scarce so forests are being cleared

12 Eco-Tourism The Eco-Tourist’s Questionnaire
Before booking your holiday, ask yourself the following questions: What is the environmental impact of tourism on the country I want to visit? Have people been forcibly resettled to make way for tourist development? By travelling to this country, am I supporting a repressive regime? Are my needs as a tourist increasing the demand for goods and services supplied by HICs? Is my presence as a tourist likely to have an adverse effect on local society and culture? Some of the main characteristics of eco-tourism were highlighted previously but we can add more: Involves areas that are in some way ‘special’ or ‘precious’ because of their scenery, wildlife, remoteness or culture Aims to educate people and increase their understanding and appreciation Minimises the impact on and damage to, the environment and local community Maximises local involvement, local control and local benefits As people become more aware of the impacts of tourism, the tourism marketplace is becoming more and more ‘green’. Tourists are beginning to translate their concern for the environment into appropriate tourist destinations and actions Finally it is worth looking at those people that are supporting eco-tourism. A recent survey showed: Nearly 50% were retired or working part-time Nearly 70% were married or living with a partner There were slightly more male eco-tourists than female Just over 20% had university degrees 67% wanted the chance to walk in renowned cultural/ecological/heritage sites The top destinations were Australia (39%), Canada (25%) and New Zealand (22%) LICs have much to offer eco-tourists but are being outshined by HICs

13 Eco-Tourism Case Study: Footsteps, The Gambia
‘Footsteps’ is an ecotourism destination in The Gambia. It is built in the style of a traditional African village compound, with nine accommodation huts. It is located close to the village of Gunjur and is open all year round. Most of the tourists come from the UK. Environmental sustainability -electricity from wind and sun -its own vegetable garden reducing transport of products -composting toilets -hot water in showers only lasts 5 mins conserving water -solar powered pump to fill water tanks -water used by guests and hotel is collected and used for irrigation for fruit and gardens -swimming pool water is filtered through reed beds Social Sustainability -guests can watch local women tie dye material and see how a Jembe drum is made and buy these products -the lodge informs guests about local markets so they can buy straight from the local people themselves ensuring all money remains in the pockets of local people -company employs all their staff from local village not HICs - empolyees are paid for the whole year -Local Gambians receive job training and opportunities for promotion in Footsteps or the wider tourism industry -Employees get medical and dental care Economic Sustainability -leakages reduced through use of local employees, local craftsmen, local building materials -purchase of local foods for visitors -employees paid all year

14 Mastering the 6 markers The last question of ‘A Tourist’s World’ also contains 4 marks for Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG), making this a VERY important question to get right. Using Edexcel’s ResultsPlus service, it is clear that these questions are where people are losing the most marks. We are going to look at some examples and look at how to answer them fully. 1. Choose a study you have made of a holiday resort in the European Union. Use the Butler model of resort development to explain how the resort has developed. (6) Chosen study ________________________________

15 Choose an eco-tourist destination you have studied.
Explain how eco-tourism can benefit the local community at this destination. [6] Chosen destination Explain the positive impacts (effects) of tourism Use examples from different countries in your answer

16 Model Answers/Exam Reports
Choose a study you have made of a holiday resort in the European Union. Use the Butler model of resort development to explain how the resort has Developed. Most candidates used Blackpool or Benidorm for their chosen study. The former was usually better answered as it contained more specifics, although many responses leapt from development to rejuvenation leaving vast chunks out. Benidorm answers were often far too generalised. Candidates generally linked stages of development quite well to the Butler Model. Many candidates failed to achieve a level 3 because answers were purely descriptive of the development of a particular and lacked any explanation. Both explanation and specifics are required for level 3 - an example of a full mark answer is shown in Example 11. A small minority of candidates misread the question and chose a case study outside the EU. Blackpool has moved through all stages of the Butler Model’ .In the late 1800s people began visiting the area for short holidays to get away from city life (Exploration). As more tourists visited the town more and more facilities were built, especially after World War 2. This included new hotels, guest houses, piers and even theme parks/fun fairs (Involvement and Development). In the 1970s and 1980s the numbers of tourist visitors remained high but growth began to slow down (Consolidation/Stagnation). More and more people were going abroad to Europe e.g. Spain as package holidays became cheaper and more available. Blackpool eventually lost its appeal with tourists and became very run down with a bad reputation for stag parties and hen nights (Decline). Recently Blackpool placed a bid for a new supercasino but failed. Nowadays the local council are trying to rebrand the area and more upmarket restaurants such as champagne and oyster bars have opened up (Rejuvenation).

17 Choose an eco-tourist destination you have studied.
Explain how eco-tourism can benefit the local community at this destination. [6] Chosen destination Well received by the majority of candidates. The Gambia proved to be the most successful case study, with candidates writing confidently about specifics, backed up with explanation. Weaker answers focused too much on general ideas about the characteristics of eco-tourism. They did not concentrate enough on the benefits to the local community. ‘Footsteps’ is an ecotourism destination in The Gambia. It is built in the style of a traditional African village compound, with nine accommodation huts. It is located close to the village of Gunjur and is open all year round. Guests can watch local women tie dye material and see how a Jembe drum is made and buy these products, this helps to provide an income and employment for the local community. In addition the lodge informs guests about local markets so they can buy straight from the local people themselves ensuring all money remains in the pockets of local people The company employs all their staff from local village not HICs meaning that none of the profits are ‘leaked’ out of the local area and employees are paid for the whole year whereas normal tourism work is usually seasonal. Employees get medical and dental care provided for them which is something they can not always afford. This improves the health of the local community as a whole.

18 Explain the positive impacts (effects) of tourism
Use examples from different countries in your answer [6] Many candidates scored three or four marks due to limited explanation or because they made generic rather than specific statements for their chosen resort. Weaker answers talked about Ayia Napa, Machu Picchu and Zanzibar but without specific locational information or depth of explanation. Answers where Malham was the main case study were often quite good, with many achieving Level 3 for the quality of explanation. Most candidates identified the importance of job and wealth creation as positive impacts of tourism. Most candidates earned two SPaG marks, but there were some who used specialist terminology such as the ‘multiplier effect’. It was disappointing to note how many candidates did not use capital letters for the names of places and countries. Tourism brings a large amount of money into an area because tourists usually have a large amount of disposable income. There are lots of job opportunities which help to support the local economy. In Malham, many farmers have diversified and opened up their fields for tourists to be used as car parks and campsites. This brings in extra money for the farmers and helps to improve their way of life and supplement their income. Benidorm has had a huge number of tourists (peaking at 12 million in 1977).This has brought lots of money for the government which have been invested into improving local schools and hospitals. When tourism began in Benidorm it created a multiplier effect with more and more businesses opening up. On the Inca Trail and in Khumbu porters and Sherpas have gained extra rights and higher wages as their jobs in tourism are seen as being so important for it to continue.

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